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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 17 Issue 06 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    The Time Course of Verbal Emotional Prosody Processing
    JIANG Ai-Shi;CHEN Xu-Hai;YANG Yu-Fang
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1109-1115.  
    Abstract   PDF (396KB) ( 982 )
    The literatures concerning the time course of emotional prosody processing were reviewed in the current paper. With the event related potential techniques, a plethora of studies made some explorations concerning the time course of emotional prosody processing, either in word or sentence context, and found that both prosodic and semantic emotional information can be processing automatically and mediated by factors such as gender or attention. Moreover, the semantic emotion processing can constrain the prosodic emotion processing in sentence context, and the interaction between the two channels of emotions exists. Further exploration of the interaction between emotional prosody and other sources of emotional information processing is still in need in the future research.
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    Representation of Compound Words in Lexical Access for Speech Production
    FANG Jie;LI Xiao-Jian
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1116-1123.  
    Abstract   PDF (400KB) ( 908 )
    In the studies of speech production, there are different views, whole-word representation or decomposed-morphological representation, of compounds in lexical access. By either word frequency effect or morpheme frequency effect, findings from Dutch studies suggest the Discrete Stage Theory and its decomposed-morphological representation hypothesis, while findings from Chinese and English studies suggest the Independent Network Model and its whole-word representation hypothesis. The article further suggests, upon literature reviewing, that lexical representation might be conceptually different from mental lexicon. Language difference, processing paradigms, and modalities all likely contribute to the difference of the representation of compound words.
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    The Directions of Separation and Integration in the Research of Situation Models
    WU Li-Mei;MO Lei
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1124-1132.  
    Abstract   PDF (334KB) ( 800 )
    The studies on situation models in language comprehension and memory has been towards two issues, one was the separation of situation models and textbase, the other was the integration of multi-dimension of situation models. Recently, researchers investigated further the essential of situation models based on the existing results. In the possible future research of situation models, significant progress would be made in the scientific understanding of what were situation models and how situation models were processed with the development of paradigms.
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    The Multisensory Integration of Emotional Information
    ZHANG Liang;SUN Xiang-Hong;ZHANG Kan
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1133-1138.  
    Abstract   PDF (297KB) ( 1080 )
    In the natural environment, human receive emotional information through multiple sensory modals. The Multisensory Integration (MSI) is the foundation of emotion processing. Plenty of behavioral, electrophysiological and neuroimaging researches show that the multisensory integration of emotional information is automatically and integrates in the early stage of processing. The STG, MTG, parahippocampal gyrus and thalamus are involved in the integration of emotion processing. Each emotion uses a separate network and shares a common network. The process is also affected by the task and the attention. Further researches in this field can focus on the neural mechanism by standardizing and comparing researches, widening specific populations. The attention and the related cognitive processing also play key roles in the multisensory integration of emotion information.
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    The Association of Object and Position in Higher Level Visual Representation
    JIN Li-Fen; LIU Chang
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1139-1145.  
    Abstract   PDF (933KB) ( 855 )
    In this review, the association of object and position in higher level visual representation is summarized in two aspects: (i) the effect of object information on position memory and (ii) object-position binding. In the former, the object information affects general position memory and its bias (e.g., position estimation biases toward region centers or the object’s functional part). In the latter, previous studies have indicated the existence of object-position binding, which can’t be separated from objects in the background, and its formation is affected by the spatial relationships among objects in this background. Future research seems to pay close attention to other evidences of the object information that affects position memory and the existence or not of object-position binding in the background-binding-change condition, to investigate the effect of position information on object memory.
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    Review on Visual Masking
    CHEN Bin;GAO Chuang;WANG Jian-Zhong
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1146-1155.  
    Abstract   PDF (533KB) ( 1022 )
    At the most general level, visual masking refers to a reduction in the visibility of an object caused by the appearance of a second object near in space or time. Most of recent studies have focused on the subjects such as features, objects and scene appearances, attentional control mechanisms, and phenomenal awareness. In this paper, we review the classic concepts and methods, and phenomenology of visual masking. Also, recent relevant findings in psychophysics and electrophysiology are reviewed. And then, we outline and evaluate four kinds of important: the perceptual retouch, the dual-channel, the boundary contour system, and the object-substitution. In the end, some difficulties are involved for discussion: the researches in the influence of different stimuli and tasks, the limitation of neuroscience methods, and difficulties of complexity of simulation models. In addition, three hopeful subjects of future development are outlined:neural correlates of conscious and unconscious vision, functional perspective and the model’s evolution.
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    The Repetitive Stimulation Effect on Time Estimation
    LIU Chun-Xiang;HUANG Xi-Ting
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1156-1161.  
    Abstract   PDF (309KB) ( 770 )
    Treisman and his colleagues found that subjective judgment of duration was affected by repetitive stimulation and consequently result in distortion firstly. In their view, there were two effects in the repetitive stimulation of time estimation. The attention is concentrate on the generating mechanism, theoretical model and the influencing factors of the repetitive stimulation effect. Some problems in the future researches are proposed.
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    The Organization and Retrieval of Action Knowledge and Its Impacts on Cognition
    ZHANG En-Tao;ZHANG Ji-Jia
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1162-1169.  
    Abstract   PDF (344KB) ( 735 )
    A lot of oversea study argued that action knowledge can reactive to affect cognition. This paper reviewed the development of studies on organization and retrieval of action knowledge and its impacts on recognition of object and word,space perception, memory, attention. In the future, we can explore different kinds of action knowledge impact cognition, cognitive mechanism of action verb in different language.
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    Effector’s Roles Playing in the Motor Sequence Learning
    LIU Han-Hui;YAO Mei-Lin
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1170-1176.  
    Abstract   PDF (344KB) ( 675 )
    Motor sequence learning, which mostly involves effector, is one of the most important components of Motor skill learning. There were two hypotheses about the role that the effector played in the motor sequence learning. One was the effector-dependent, i.e., motor sequence learning was related to the specific effector and could not transfer from one effector to the other. Learners established connections among muscles or reactions during the learning. The other was the effector-independent, i.e., such sequence learning did not dependent on the specific effector and could transfer from one effector to the others. Learners established connections among the abstract stimuli representations in the process. The effector’s roles played in the motor sequence learning were varied with the different stages of practice, the consciousness status and some other conditions.
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    The Neural Mechanisms of Face Recognition in Autism Spectrum Disorders
    WANG Li-Juan;LUO Hong-Ge;YAO Xue
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1177-1184.  
    Abstract   PDF (357KB) ( 1505 )
    Autism Spectrum Disorders(ASD) refers to a spectrum of psychological conditions characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication as well as severely restricted interests and highly repetitive stereotyped behavior. It includes Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Regarding event-related potentials and functional magnetic resonance imaging technology as cues, this review discussed the neural mechanisms of face recognition in ASD patients via analyzing the abnormal changes of brain in the processing of face recognition. Researches showed that face recognition disability of ASD patients is mainly related to the abnormality of ERPs components such as N170, P400, N300 and Nc as well as lower activation of the fusiform face area and amygdala. Therefore, it is argued that the disorder of face recognition in ASD patients maybe result from the interaction of abnormal brain regions, which is impacted on the extent of the damage and the number of abnormal brain regions.
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    Electrophysiological Measures of Repetition Effects in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Paradigm and Implication
    ZHOU Ting;LI Juan
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1185-1190.  
    Abstract   PDF (317KB) ( 756 )
    The congruity-plus-repetition paradigm is an exceeding paradigm from the traditional repetition paradigm, through adding semantic context in the beginning of each trial to control the interference between the early (N400) and late (P600) components. There are prominent advantages with this paradigm to be used in the filed of event-related potential (ERP) studies in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as it facilitated the performance of MCI by implicit nature of task while could explore both implicit and explicit memory components. The leading conclusions are that P600 repetition effect is impaired markedly in MCI, and N400 repetition effect is abnormal in MCI to some extent. Furthermore, the combination of these two effects deserves further consideration as a biomarker for monitoring the progressing from normal memory aging to MCI and to dementia, and paradigms yielding more than one cognitive process – related ERP effects need to be developed in this field.
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    Working Memory Mechanisms in the Deaf Population
    CHEN Ke-Ping;JIN Zhi-Cheng;CHEN Qi
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1191-1196.  
    Abstract   PDF (313KB) ( 968 )
    Deaf individuals use sign language to communicate in daily life because of their hearing deficits, which provides us a special opportunity to explore the structure and function of the working memory system. Previous evidence suggests that the deaf population develops a sign-based rehearsal loop which is comparative in many respects to the phonological loop in the hearing population. Besides, the phonological loop can be accessed by the deaf population through oral training, suggesting that the deaf individuals can use speech-based coding to a certain extend. Hearing speakers and deaf sign language users have comparable working memory resources during language use. But the resources will be restricted by the visual modality. More and more evidence provided supports to the compensatory theory, i.e., the use of sign language improves spatial abilities of the deaf.
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    Research Paradigms and Cognitive Function of Saccadic Eye Movements
    CHEN Qing-Rong;TAN Ding-Liang;DENG Zhu;ZHOU Lin;ZHANG Xiao-Li
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1197-1210.  
    Abstract   PDF (581KB) ( 1067 )
    The saccadic eye movement system provides an important instrument to explore the cognitive control of behavior. Some studies found that many cognitive processes influenced saccade parameters. This paper introduced and reviewed the experimental paradigm and cognitive function of saccadic eye movement following four aspects. Firstly, cognitive factors in visually guided saccades include gap/overlap effects, effects of cueing, effects of distractors and learning. Secondly, cognitive factors in predictive saccades contain the theory of a neural clock, visual working memory, and instruction. Thirdly, cognitive factors in memory guided saccades include effects of distractors, inhibitory effect of spatial working memory, attention and so on. Fourthly, cognitive factors in antisaccades include inhibition of antisaccade, competitive integration of two saccadic decision signals, working memory capacity, attention, error monitoring, learning effects, and the effects of incentive. Finally, it put forward to a direction for future research and some questions that need to be resolved.
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    Application of Error-Related Negativity (ERN) in Psychopathological Research
    ZHANG Hua;LIU Chun-Lei;WANG Yi-Feng;ZHANG Qing-Lin
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1211-1219.  
    Abstract   PDF (331KB) ( 873 )
    The ERN is a negative deflection in the event-related potentials that peak approximately 50 ms after the commission of an error; it’s located around anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The ERN in classical paradigms of error processing research may reflect error detecting, conflict monitoring, reinforcement learning, or motivational/affective functions of ACC. A Lot of researches suggests that increased and decreased error-related brain activities are associated with the internalizing and externalizing dimensions of psychopathology, respectively. There are many issues worthy of further exploration in terms of the endophenotype construct of internalizing and externalizing disorders.
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    Roles of Adrenergic Receptors of Prefrontal Cortex in Working Memory
    XU Hui;QU Chun-Huan; YU Ping; YIN Wen-Juan; YU Ping
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1220-1227.  
    Abstract   PDF (388KB) ( 727 )
    Norepinephrinegic innervations in the prefrontal cortex mainly come from locus coeruleus at the brain stem. There are various types of adrenoceptors in the prefrontal cortex. The activations of post-synaptic α2 and β2 adrenoceptors improve the working memory, whereas the activation of α1 and β1 receptors impairs the performance of tasks that require working memory. The modulation of different types of adrenoceptors on the working memory is achieved by activating different signaling pathways. Some results coming from human subjects are not consistent with those from animals. A good understanding of the effects of various types of adrenoceptors on working memory will be a new direction in developing medicines for the treatment of dysfunction of prefrontal cortex.
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    The Roles of Grid Cells in Spatial Memory
    YU Ping; XU Hui; YIN Wen-Juan; WEI Shu-Guang; YU Ping
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1228-1233.  
    Abstract   PDF (656KB) ( 896 )
    Grid cells were found in the medial entorhinal cortex with significant space-discharge characteristics and grid firing fields. Recent studies on grid cells’ function have brought a new vision for understanding the mechanism of spatial memory. This work basically focused on the discovery, neuroanatomical relationship and discharge characteristics of grid cells. A comparative analysis of place cells was performed with reference to the spatial encoding mechanism of grid cells according to the self-motion information and at the same time its role as path integrator in spatial memory was also discussed.
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    Two Preferences in the Newborns’ Face Recognition
    ZHAO Yu-Jing;WANG Shen-Lian; DING Jia-Yong
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1234-1241.  
    Abstract   PDF (423KB) ( 1003 )
    Face preference and attractiveness preference are two important preference phenomena in the newborns’ face recognition. Face preference means that newborns prefer face stimuli when presented face and nonface stimuli. Attractiveness preference means that newborns prefer attractive face when presented face stimuli. This paper introduces the overview of newborns’ face preference and attractiveness preference from behavior research and cause analysis, holds that to some extent, subject, object, and environment all contribute to newborns’ face recognition, and points out that future researches should go further at subjects, experimental materials and so on.
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    Review of Foreign Studies on Children Language Sample Analysis
    GAI Xiao-Song; YANG Wei; TAI Yu
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1242-1249.  
    Abstract   PDF (421KB) ( 926 )
    Language sample analysis (LSA) is a wide-used and effective method to assess the development of expressive language ability of children, this paper introduces and summarizes the development of LSA abroad, including the basic procedure of LSA; the eliciting method and measuring indices of language sample. Besides, also refers to some domestic effort related with LSA. Further study in chinese could take advandage of macro-analysis techniques in foreign researches, but should product the indicators of micro-analysis for Chinese children based on the characteristic of Chinese.
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    The Role of Emotion in Moral Judgment: Evidence from Cognitive Neuroscience
    XIE Xi-Yao; LUO Yue-Jia
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1250-1256.  
    Abstract   PDF (463KB) ( 1606 )
    The relationship between emotion and cognition in moral judgment is an important cognitive neuroscience research topic. This paper analyzed and integrated recent theories and empirical results about the effect of emotion on moral judgment, and introduced this effect from three aspects: accumulating evidence from behavior researches points to extraneous emotion can infect moral judgment, the association between emotional dysfunction and impairment in moral judgment, and the brain activation patterns in moral dilemmas in many neuroscientific studies. We focused on the neural mechanism underlying the effect of emotion on moral judgment, the interaction of the emotional processing and cognitive processing in moral judgment and the neural nature of this interaction. All the literatures in this article indicated the necessary role of emotion in moral judgment, revealed moral judgment resulted from the synergy of emotional processing and cognitive processing, and on the basis of all the evidence we proposed some new directions of the future research in this field.
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    A Review of the Research on Goal Contagion
    WANG Ai-Juan; WANG Ling
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1257-1263.  
    Abstract   PDF (408KB) ( 873 )
    Goal contagion is a newly proposed concept in the field of motivation. It occurs when an individual spontaneously, unconsciously infer and pursue the goal behind other individual’s behavior (Aarts, 2004). Goal contagion is not only different from behavior imitation in the activated objects and the extent of complexity, but also different from observational learning in the conscious level. Goal contagion is influenced by many factors, including the accessibility of the goal and the valence of the goal. In goal contagion researches, goal is usually activated by the words relevant to goal or the stories containing social information. As the complement of conscious goal pursuit, the researches about goal contagion are helpful to understand people’s behavior further. Based on the review of the relevant researches of goal contagion, the future research prospect is suggested, for example, the influence of observer’s personality, the familiarity to goal, and the number of models upon goal contagion.
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    New Development in the Domain of Motivation: Regulatory Focus Theory
    YAO Qi; YUE Guo-An
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1264-1273.  
    Abstract   PDF (483KB) ( 1738 )
    Beyond the hedonic principle, Regulatory Focus Theory (Higgins, 1997) distinguished two kinds of regulatory systems-promotion focus and prevention focus, and explained how people approached the desired end-states and avoided undesired end-states. Promotion and prevention focus induced independent motivational outcomes, and differed in the types of needs serviced, the presentations for the goals, and outcome and emotional sensitivity. This paper reviewed previous literatures from four aspects: traits of promotion/prevention focus, the measurement for regulatory focus, the impact of regulatory focus on basic psychological processes and social life. The issues deserved further research were also outlined, such as developing more scientific measuring tools for regulatory focus, the relationship between regulatory focus and personality variables, and regulatory focus with temporary dynamics.
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    The Role of Epigenetic Regulation in How Early Life Experience Influences Adult Behaviors
    LI Ting; ZHU Xiong-Zhao
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1274-1280.  
    Abstract   PDF (381KB) ( 874 )
    Behaviors of human and animals in adulthood is influenced greatly by the experience of its early life in childhood, however, it is still unclear of the molecular mechanisms. Recent researches showed that epigenetic alternation of individuals in its early life contribute to the behavior change of grownup. Epigenetics involves in the heritable but reversible regulation of various gene expression through DNA methylation and chromatin modification without sequence alternation. This article briefly introduced the epigenetic mechanisms which contibuted to gene regulation and behavior change of adult individuals caused by early life experience.
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    Research of Personality Psychology Bibliometric Analysis Based on the Database of SCI in the Recent Ten Years
    WAN Xiao-Xia
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1281-1286.  
    Abstract   PDF (365KB) ( 1187 )
    Based on the research articles of personality psychology retrieved from the database of SCI, the bibliometric analysis was conducted in specified aspects including amount of articles, countries, authors, subjects, journals and citations. The results showed that: personality psychology research had entered a rapid development stage in the last decade. With the increasing numbers of research papers, however, there was a quantity in disproportion with the quality since a relatively few personality psychology research articles were found in the academic journals with high impact factors. Compared with the international advanced level, the research level of personality psychology in China had a great gap to fill up. In addition, as a challenging topic, the research on relationship between personality and neuroscience also had important clinical value.
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    A Review of Research about Self-affirmation
    SHI Wei;LIU Jie
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1287-1294.  
    Abstract   PDF (449KB) ( 1532 )
    The researches of Self-affirmation were reviewed in this article. Self-affirmation is a method for maintaining or restoring one’s global positive self-integrity from threats, which require affirming some important aspects of the self that is unrelated to the threaten domain. It can be done by accomplishing a value scale, describing an important value, engaging in activities that remind them of “who they are”. The participants who affirmed were more openness and objective to the threaten self-identity or group-identity information, promoting personal well-being. These effects may be the result of central route processing on the persuasive information. There is ample opportunity to develop the effect of self-affirmation in the domain of the most important value had been threatened, the interaction of multiple mechanisms for self-affirmation, the differences between self-affirmation and group-affirmation, and the cross-cultural differences in the effect of self- or group-affirmation.
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    On Several Categories of Methods for Identifying Resilient Individuals
    XI Ju-Zhe; ZUO Zhi-Hong
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1295-1301.  
    Abstract   PDF (376KB) ( 1363 )
    One of the most important methodological issues in the domain of resilience is how to identify resilient individuals. Although there have been many methods of screening resilient persons since its inchoation, the inquiry of resilience still faces technological difficulties in what to be followed or on which to be based. In this article the authors try to categorize the methods for identifying resilient individuals used in literature of resilience into five groups, namely simple qualitative technique, brief quantitative technique, age-based developmental task technique, converging technique and psychological scaling technique. For each kind of methods, the technical definition, operationalizing tenors and strength and weakness of function are clearly delineated. After briefly comparing all kinds of methods, the authors discussed the issue of trade-off between power and efficiency in identifying resilient individuals.
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    A Brief Introduction of Authenticity Research in Psychology
    LIU Qun-Ying; ZHANG Jin-Fu; CHEN Jia
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1302-1308.  
    Abstract   PDF (336KB) ( 1015 )
    Authenticity refers to the extent to which people are just themselves. Authenticity is closely related to the self and is one of the important factors influencing individual mental health. The article summed up the authenticity researches on the conception, the structure, measurements and research focuses. Pointed out that several issues should be further studied, namely the authenticity structure, effect variables and its influence mechanism on individual mental health.
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    Self-Forgiveness: Concept, Measurement, and Relationships to Other Variables
    YU Feng;GUO Yong-Yu
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1309-1315.  
    Abstract   PDF (325KB) ( 1341 )
    Self-forgiveness is a suite of internal positive motivational changes that occurs when a person himself is transgressor. There are some debates about the focus, mechanisms, essence and values of self-forgiveness which are self or other person, granting forgiveness or seeking forgiveness, trait or situation, positive or negative. Distinctions can be drawn between self-forgiveness and interpersonal forgiveness, such as their focus, consequences, and other influencing factors. There are three tools for the measurement of self-forgiveness, which are Forgive of Self Scale, Heartland Forgiveness Scale and State Self-Forgiveness Scale. The researches of self-forgiveness indicated that self-forgiveness is related to psychological health, but the relationship between self-forgiveness and personality traits is not clear. The definition, research methods and research scope of self-forgiveness must be considered in future researches.
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    The Negative Outcome of Psychotherapy
    QIN Min; ZHENG Yong
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1316-1326.  
    Abstract   PDF (435KB) ( 1916 )
    Psychotherapy negative outcome is defined as the process of worsening in psychotherapy, and implies an impairment of vigor, resilience, or usefulness from a previously higher state of functioning. The constitutions of negative outcome varied much and the identification should be carried carefully. Patient, therapist, and therapy variables are examined, and tentative conclusions are drawn from the existing data. Patients who are diagnosed personality disorders, have severe interpersonal difficulties, are judged more severe, have unrealistic expectation about psychotherapy, and who are poorly motivated, have been found at risk for negative outcome. On the part of therapist, lack of empathy, negative countertransference, underestimation of the severity of the patient’s problems, and poor technique all have been associated with negative outcome. Potentially harmful therapies are thought to produce higher rates of negative outcome than others. The approaches that may help prevent or decrease the incidence of negative outcome in psychotherapy include supervision of therapists and therapies before a treatment and client-focused research in treatment. Issues in research are discussed, including negative outcome measurement, unit of investigation and the ethical dilemmas. The future research directions should include full presentation of research data, obtaining the actual incidence by RCTs, learning risk factors by an interactional model, and studying mediators to discover the mechanisms.
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    Evidence-Based Practice and Outcome-Informed Care in Psychotherapy
    YIN Ke-Li; QIN Min; HUANG Xi-Ting
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1327-1335.  
    Abstract   PDF (407KB) ( 869 )
    Evidence-Based Practice and outcome-informed care are currently two types of psychotherapy models complementing each other which are obviously different in the theoretical assumptions, access to sources of evidence, as well as in operational processes. Evidence-based practice was promoted as a movement of psychology in US, indicating an important innovation in current psychotherapy. However, as there are a lot of difficulties and challenges to implement the evidence-based practice of psychology, outcome-informed care emerged as an effectively complementary way. In view of the relatively low professional level of psychotherapy in China, it would be beneficial to study the concepts and methods of the psychotherapies abroad for its future development in China.
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    A Review of Studies of Power from the Perspective of Social Cognition
    WEI Qing-Wang; YU Guo-Liang
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1336-1343.  
    Abstract   PDF (327KB) ( 1467 )
    Power is an old phenomenon for human, but is a new research topic for social psychologist. Recently, many intriguing studies of power from the perspective of social cognition have been proposed by social psychologist. The theories and studies showed that power consciously or unconsciously influence the social cognition, emotion and social behavior of people regardless of whether it was assigned or primed. Power had not only corrupting effects but also neutral and positive consequences. The article analyzed the trends of the power research, such as paying more attention to social cognition, fundamental cognition and brain mechanism of power than before.
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    The Positive Role of Ethnic Identity in Intergroup Attitude
    ZHANG Ying-Rui; XU Hai-Bo; YANG Yi
    . 2009, 17 (06): 1344-1348.  
    Abstract   PDF (269KB) ( 1068 )
    As the development of social identity theory, social psychologists have focused on the relationship between ethnic identity and inter-group attitude. Social identity theory suggested that group identity was the basis of inter-group attitudes, ethnic identity was too strong to lead to negative intergroup attitudes. A developmental perspective offered a model of positive role of Ethnic identity on intergroup attitudes. The recent studies have provided evidence that a well-developed ethnic identity is associated with positive intergroup attitudes.
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