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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    15 January 2010, Volume 18 Issue 01 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Spatial Frames of Reference in Temporal Metaphors
    YANG Xiao-Hong; ZHANG Zhi-Jie
    2010, 18 (01):  1-9. 
    Abstract ( 1120 )   PDF (312KB) ( 1369 )  
    Time is often understood in terms of space. Researcher on temporal metaphors in English have traditionally focused on two distinct ego-centered Metaphors, the Time - Moving and Ego – Moving metaphors. Those two metaphors both map future events in front of the observer and past events behind the observer. Recent findings of conceptual analysis have suggested that there are still other kinds of spatial frames of reference in temporal thinking: The empirical evidences support the psychological reality of the Time-RP metaphor. Three-part spatial model (absolute, intrinsic, relative) can be extended to temporal metaphor is at least theoretically plausible. After reviewing the related finding of spatial frames of reference in temporal thinking, the implications for further research are discussed at the end of this paper.
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    Influencing Factors and the Mechanism of Time-based Prospective Memory
    DONG Su-Fang; HUANG Xi-Ting
    2010, 18 (01):  10-18. 
    Abstract ( 1113 )   PDF (358KB) ( 1417 )  
    Time-based Prospective Memory is the task of remembering to do something at some point in the future or after a specified time interval. Compared with the event-based Prospective Memory, time-based Prospective Memory needs more self-initiated and controlled attentional resources, and is influenced by the importance of the Prospective Memory task, age, the character of ongoing task, and time interval et al. Time-based Prospective is associated with the frontal lobe. Test-Wait-Test-Exit Model, and Attentional-Gate Model serve as the theoretical explanations for time-based Prospective Memory. However, its influencing factors as well as the mechanism, in particular the mechanism of neural research still needs further study.
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    Neural Correlates of Aesthetics
    WANG Nai-Yi; LUO Yue-Jia; DONG Qi
    2010, 18 (01):  19-27. 
    Abstract ( 1205 )   PDF (455KB) ( 1406 )  
    Aesthetics is a high-level function that is unique to human beings. This article introduced cognitive and neuro-anatomical models for aesthetic processing, as well as relevant experimental paradigms. Different stimulus materials and experimental tasks were evaluated. It reviewed main progresses in recent brain imaging studies. ERP and MEG studies evidenced that aesthetics involves distinct processing stages taking place at different time epochs. An early frontocentral negativity and a late posterior positivity are ERP correlates of aesthetic judgment. fMRI studies revealed that main neural substrates of aesthetics include caudate nucleus, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. It proposed that future research should distinguish between neural mechanisms of different aspects of aesthetics, include more types of stimulus materials, and further explore influences of complex factors on neural correlates of aesthetics, such as the cultural factor.
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    Analysis on Cognitive Function of Recognition Potential
    ZHANG Ye; ZHANG Qing-Lin
    2010, 18 (01):  28-33. 
    Abstract ( 1012 )   PDF (333KB) ( 941 )  
    Recognition potential is an electrical response of the brain peaking around 200 to 250ms after stimulus onset and obtained when subjects view recognizable stimuli (e.g. words, pictures). The study of the RP is still under theoretical discussion. There are two views of the RP on what cognitive process it reflects. One view held the processing of visual information; the alternative one emphasized semantic or conceptual process. However, they have not reached an agreement yet. Recently, in order to compensate for the inadequacies of two views, researchers proposed that RP might reflect a processing of categorical features, which theoretically meets cognitive economy rules and has its own advantages. However, new hypotheses need to be further investigated. Great efforts should be made to RP research in terms of varies of materials, combination with other methods, learning mechanism of categorical feature processing.
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    Anchoring Effects: Types, Influential Factors and Intervention Measures
    LI Bin; XU Fu-Ming; WANG Wei; DENG Zi-Juan; ZHANG Jun-Wei
    2010, 18 (01):  34-45. 
    Abstract ( 1240 )   PDF (444KB) ( 1401 )  
    Anchoring effects refers to a phenomenon that an irrelative anchor biases a subsequent numerical judgment under uncertain circumstances. The influencing factors and intervention measures vary considerably according to different types of anchoring effects. For example, traditional anchoring effect is affected by the characteristics of anchor information, ability variables, emotional factors and individual differences. The basic anchoring effect is affected by expertise and time pressure. The self-generated anchoring effect is affected by motivation variables, cognitive factors and internal beliefs. Future studies could focus on exploring cognitive processing mechanism, the process of analogical reasoning and DDS system in order to help reduce the anchoring bias.
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    Assessment and Promotion of School Readiness of Children
    YU Tao, TAI Yu; GAI Xiao-Song
    2010, 18 (01):  46-54. 
    Abstract ( 1143 )   PDF (407KB) ( 1291 )  
    School readiness is the key characteristics needed by pre-school children to benefit from the coming formal education. Four aspects of school readiness were introduced from current researches: (1) Conceptualization of children’s school readiness. (2) Development on assessment tools of school readiness. (3) Influential factors of children’ s school readiness. (4) Intervention approaches of school readiness. Further study should includes: the assessment system should keep up with theoretical development; influencing factors of the school readiness should be examined through the longitudinal study; the relationship between intervention effect and intervention costs should been examined; other than macro-analysis based on 5-domain model, micro-analysis for special component should be emphasized.
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    The “Cool” and “Hot” Executive Functions of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    ZHANG Wei; XU Jing-Min; SONG Hong-Yan
    2010, 18 (01):  55-64. 
    Abstract ( 1280 )   PDF (418KB) ( 1573 )  
    In recent 30 years, continued attention has been paid to the "cool" areas of executive function (“cool”EF) of the cognitive deficit mechanisms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In order to reveal the mechanisms of EF deficits of ADHD more comprehensively, this article reconsiders EF in light of distinctions between "hot" and "cool" executive function. It takes a brief review of the diagnosis, physiological basis and several theoretical models of ADHD, and focuses on the differences in the performance of ADHD children from the aspects of the classic "cool" and "hot" executive function tasks. It is found that ADHD children are not laggard in all types of "hot" EF tasks. The involving of “hot” EF promotes the performance in the “cool” EF task of ADHD, which depends on the involvement of emotion and motivation bringing a negative or a positive impact on different task scenarios. Likewise, the article compares and analyzes several theoretical explanations related to the “hot” EF of ADHD.
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    Research on Whole Number Bias in Fractional Cognition: The Theoretical and Methodological Advances
    LIU Chun-Hui; XIN Zi-Qiang
    2010, 18 (01):  65-74. 
    Abstract ( 952 )   PDF (359KB) ( 948 )  
    When using fraction knowledge, children often use previously formed single-unit counting scheme to interpret the fractions. This phenomenon named as “whole number bias” is ubiquitous in fractional cognition. Researchers have explained its genesis from the point of innate and acquired, basing on the hypothesis of innate constraint, undifferentiated amount, and learning account. Most studies used pencil-and-paper test and verbal report to investigate the whole number bias. However, in recent studies mental number line hypothesis appeared as a useful instrument to study adult’s whole number bias. In this area, there are four chief prospects for the future research: clarifying the concept, exploring the origin of bias, extending the research methods and strengthening interventional research.
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    The Models and Influencing Factors of Visualization Representations for Algebra Story Problems
    LAI Ying-Hui, CHEN Ying-He
    2010, 18 (01):  75-83. 
    Abstract ( 1057 )   PDF (471KB) ( 831 )  
    Visualization representations played an important role in the course of algebra story problems solving. There were primarily four visualization representation theories: visual-logic two dimensional theories, interpret-transform model, imagery representation theory and schema-picture representation theory, all of which were of its own unique methodological values. The visualization representations were affected by stimulating factors: the degree of visualization, cognitive loading as well as cognitive factors: self-efficacy. Finally, based on recent researches, the paper pointed out the advancement and the trends of development of theory, methods and influential factors in this area.
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    Collaborative Creativity: A New Realm of Creativity Research
    WANG Ya-Nan; ZHANG Jing-Huan
    2010, 18 (01):  84-90. 
    Abstract ( 1178 )   PDF (328KB) ( 1602 )  
    In the study of creativity, rather than an individual trait, greater importance has gradually been attached to a social collaborative result, which results from individuals working together on a task in a complex social system. This article firstly made a brief introduction about the concept of collaborative creativity and its characteristics, then summarized the main research work in the field: individual/group identity, individual/group motivation (connective motivation), the individual/contextual factors that helpful to collaborative creativity; finally put forward the problems to be settled in the future. It was suggested that a systematic theory on collaborative creativity should be constructed and an assessing system be developed on the basis of the process from which creative outcomes occurred and the mechanism of creative production, also supportive technique and context for collaborative creativity should be studied further.
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    A Brief Review of the Knobe Effect
    DU Xiao-Xiao; ZHENG Quan-Quan
    2010, 18 (01):  91-96. 
    Abstract ( 1337 )   PDF (253KB) ( 1372 )  
    The Knobe effect is the phenomenon that the moral evaluations of the side-effect influence people’s judgment of intentionality. When the side-effect is morally good, people tend to judge the agent bring about it unintentionally. However, when the side-effect is morally bad, people tend to judge the agent as intentionally. Knobe ascribes the effect to moral considerations, while the other researchers explain the effect in terms of psychological biases, language pragmatics or the cost and profit trade-off between main aim and the side-effect. This paper proposes that the judgment basically is an attribution process and the Knobe effect shows the effects of moral judgments on mind theory. The possible mechanism under it is the autonomous and unconscious processes—— people can process all the information quickly and roughly, and the results play a role in the rational processes after.
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    Research on Terror Management: New development, Criticism and Controversy
    LIU Ya-Nan; XU Yan; YU Sheng-Kai
    2010, 18 (01):  97-105. 
    Abstract ( 1279 )   PDF (398KB) ( 1871 )  
    Terror management theory regards worldview, self-esteem and close relationship as the basic three defensive mechanisms of terror management. The author introduces some researches on these mechanisms first and then reviews several new interpretations on mortality salience effect from perspective of cognitive closure, meaning pursuit, offensive defense, coalitional and control motivation. After that, the author presents his own idea, which differentiates terror management strategy into two categories: approach and avoidance. The approach strategy aims to control the uncertain death and transcendent the inevitable demise, the avoidance strategy indicates that individuals react to the potential reminder of death negatively. Meanwhile, the author points that TMT probably misinterprets the function of the cultural worldview. Additionally, some recommendations on terror management research in china are proposed.
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    On Theory of Fear of Evaluation and Its Relative Research
    LIU Yang; ZHANG Da-Jun
    2010, 18 (01):  106-113. 
    Abstract ( 1196 )   PDF (338KB) ( 1712 )  
    Cognitive-behavioral models of social anxiety propose that fear of negative evaluation is the core feature of social anxiety. However, Weeks and Heimberg propose that fear of evaluation is the core feature of social anxiety, whether it is negative or positive. It has been 40 years since fear of negative evaluation was proposed by Watson and Friend, and there are many relative researches during these years, including measurement tools, heredity traits, attention deviation and its application in some areas such as studying, while research on fear of positive evaluation just begins. And measurement tools, cognitive features, clinical interventions on fear of evaluation and research in China are all the new research directions in the future.
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    Posttraumatic Growth: Conception, Influential Factors and Relationships with Mental Health
    TU Yang-Jun; GUO Yong-Yu
    2010, 18 (01):  114-122. 
    Abstract ( 1340 )   PDF (351KB) ( 1854 )  
    The term posttraumatic growth (PTG) refers to positive psychological change experienced as a result of the struggle with highly challenging life circumstances. Many factors, including demographics, characteristics of event, personality, cognition, social support, coping strategy, etc. will exert influences on PTG. Four possible explanations can be used to make clear the disagreements of relationship between PTG and psychological health. Future studies should pay more attention to the differences between PTG and some related concepts, try to find more new methods and new evidences to validate its effectiveness.
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    Mechanism, Negative Effect and Interventions of HIV Stigma
    LIU Ying; SHI Kan
    2010, 18 (01):  123-131. 
    Abstract ( 1023 )   PDF (391KB) ( 1218 )  
    HIV related Stigma was reviewed from attribution theory, social cultural framework, and cultural moral conception. HIV stigma included the enacted stigma, felt stigma and the self stigma, which all brought physical and psychological distress to people living with HIV/AIDS. Several interventions including contact hypothesis, information diffusion as well as cognitive behavioral therapy worked together to reduce HIV stigma. Future research is suggested to focus on social cultural and moral viewpoint, and with more quantitative and cross-cultural investigation.
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    Circumplex Model: An Approach to Integrate Personality Research
    HUANG Fei; LI Yui-Hui; ZHANG Jian-Xin; ZHU Hao-Liang
    2010, 18 (01):  132-143. 
    Abstract ( 1161 )   PDF (590KB) ( 1130 )  
    Circumplex model (CM) is an approach to mathematically and configurationally represent a set of variables that have systemized and circular ordered correlation pattern, including affects and personality traits. As an important complementarity of factor model, CM can direct research design, form testable hypothesis, guide data analysis, and examine other constructs as a nomological net. The robust theoretical backgrounds and précised mathematical properties of CM engender it to be a useful tool in personality and social psychology. Interpersonal circumplex model (ICM), the application of CM to the interpersonal domain, an alternative approach beyond factor model of personality, has particular power to investigate the interpersonal traits, test interpersonal related psychological construct, and describe and predict interpersonal behaviors. In this article, the multiple theoretical and practical backgrounds of ICM are first briefly introduced; the mathematical features and multiple confirmation methods of ICM are presented, and then followed by empirical illustration of Chinese translation of Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scale. Finally, the implications of CM to understand traditional culture and direct indigenous personality and social research are discussed.
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    Competency-based Training Models
    SONG Guo-Xue
    2010, 18 (01):  144-150. 
    Abstract ( 1027 )   PDF (370KB) ( 1304 )  
    There exist different competency-based training models which focus on “the fact of being competent” or/and “the process of becoming competent”. So, the models can be divided into three types, such as process-oriented, outcome-oriented and comprehensive-oriented. But different models own the same features, for example, the first one is “the standard of competent” which means the same foundation; the second one is “the process of becoming competent”; and the last one is the goal, i.e. “the fact of being competent”. In the future, the study on instructional design, status of trainees, roles’ balance and technological factors should be layed emphasis on.
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    The Psychological Mechanism of Counterproductive Work Behavior in the Workplace
    LIN Ling; TANG Han-Ying; MA Hong-Yu
    2010, 18 (01):  151-161. 
    Abstract ( 1362 )   PDF (443KB) ( 1558 )  
    Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) is an intentional behavior of the organization members, hurts colleagues or organizations’ legitimate interests. This research takes a more comprehensive review of the newly research evolvement on the conception, classification and theory explanation of Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) in the Workplace. Based on studying those existing theory and empirical research, we bring forward the mechanism model of how Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) takes effect (cause, mediator & moderator), which follows the logic of “environmental stimulate → cognitive processing →negative emotion reaction → Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB)”. “Cognitive processing” and “negative emotion reaction” are two key points on the mechanism model, concretely representing individual’s attribution process and negative emotion reaction under the environmental stressor. Based on this model, we integrate newly empirical research about Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB), carry through pertinence evaluation and provide useful expectation for future research.
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    Measurement, Antecedents and Models of Entrepreneurial Intentions
    JIAN Dan-Dan; DUAN Jin-Yun; ZHU Yue-Long
    2010, 18 (01):  162-169. 
    Abstract ( 1267 )   PDF (376KB) ( 1592 )  
    Entrepreneurial intention refers to entrepreneurs’ states of mind that direct attention, experience, and action toward a business concept, which set the form and direction of organizations at their inception. Entrepreneurial intention is the best predictor of entrepreneurial behaviors. Demographic variables、personality and environment factors can affect entrepreneurial intention. Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Model of the Entrepreneurial Event (SEE) provide theoretical frameworks of entrepreneurial intention. Entrepreneurial intent can be used as not just a dependent variable, but also as an independent variable or a control variable.
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    Debating on the Usability of Personality Inventory Used in Personnel Selection
    LI Yong-Rui
    2010, 18 (01):  170-176. 
    Abstract ( 1318 )   PDF (356KB) ( 1298 )  
    Personality inventory predicts the candidate’s job performance through the score obtained by a series of questions intentionally designed. Due to the limitation of the conceptualization of job performance and its criterion, and the conceptually logic base of inventory, there has been debating for its effectiveness. Being knowledgeable about the validation literature, the article put forward the future research direction should: (1) define job performance and its criterion from the four dimensions of balance score card; (2) track and obtain the validity-criterion of job performance through the in-beddly longitudinal mode.
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    The Research on Restorative Environments: Theories、Methods and Advances
    SU Qian; XIN Zi-Qiang
    2010, 18 (01):  177-184. 
    Abstract ( 1165 )   PDF (325KB) ( 1148 )  
    Restorative environment is one recent focus of environmental psychology. According to restorative effects, attention restorative and psycho-evolutionary theory think restorative environment refers to the environments that help people overcome mental fatigue and negative emotion brought by stress. Varied types of results, which comprise restorative effect, restoration influencing factor, relation between restoration and preference, eye movement features in fascination as well as clinical effects, have already been obtained. Future studies should strive to forward theory and research design, validity verification of scales and the application of study results.
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    An Inquiry into the Reasons Mainstream Psychology Has Oriented Itself as a Natural Science
    GAO Zhi-Peng
    2010, 18 (01):  185-191. 
    Abstract ( 1146 )   PDF (345KB) ( 996 )  
    Mainstream psychology, characterized as constructivism, behaviourism, and cognitive psychology through history, has adopted the principles and methodologies of natural science, trying to adapt itself as one of the natural sciences. Although this orientation helped psychology become independent and developed, it also brought problems impeding further progress of psychology. This article, concerning the future development of psychology, inquires the reasons why mainstream psychology has oriented itself as a natural science, which include: the historical influences the natural science had on psychology, the mature methodology and preponderant zeitgeist that natural science enjoyed when modern psychology appeared, the practical advantages that natural science has to perfect itself, the promotion given to natural science by social development, the psychology of the psychologists, and the complicated nature of psychology’s subject, six reasons in total. The aim of this article is to remind psychologists’ awareness of the historical and social context in which psychology develops and being influenced, as well as of the responsibility psychologists undertake for the well being of psychology as a discipline, and of the whole society.
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    Reviewers list
    2010, 18 (01):  192-192. 
    Abstract ( 805 )   PDF (481KB) ( 1021 )  
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