ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    2010, Volume 18 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    The Strategy Selection in Mental Arithmetic
    CHEN Ya-Lin; LIU Chang; CHEN Du-Juan
    2010, 18 (2):  193-199. 
    Abstract ( 922 )   PDF (629KB) ( 1129 )  
    Behavioral and cognitive neuroscience researches on mental arithmetic, show the difference in selection of strategies in problem size effect, split effect, and parity effect. They help us understand the process of human cognition. Future researches should pay more attention to the precision of experimental design in the domain of mental arithmetic.
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    The Status and Prospect in Research on Working Memory of Objects
    LIU Fei; WANG En-Guo
    2010, 18 (2):  200-209. 
    Abstract ( 981 )   PDF (644KB) ( 1718 )  
    A lot of researches had explored the specialities of the objects working memory from the angles of behavior and cognitive neuroscience psychology. At the behavior level, reviewing the paradigm used in the research on storage formation, capacity, feature binding and retention in visual working memory, three theoretical hypotheses (viz. strong-object hypothesis feature and binding with the same storage mechanism hypothesis and dual-storage mechanism hypothesis) were introduced. At the cognitive neuroscience psychology level, reviewing the function of temporal, parietal and occipital in the visual working memory, discovering the important role of Prefrontal and parietal lobe in the feature binding. Issues for further research were discussed and suggestions were also made.
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    Content-based Working Memory-driven Visual Attention
    PAN Yi
    2010, 18 (2):  210-219. 
    Abstract ( 1237 )   PDF (640KB) ( 2283 )  
    Since there are usually much more stimuli in the scene than limited capacity visual system can process at any moment, visual attention selects only a minority of them for further processing. Working memory (WM) may be crucial to resolve the competition for selection amongst different stimuli in the visual field. Top-down feedback from the representation held in WM will bias attention in favor of the matching objects. The present paper systematically reviews existing literature on top-down guidance of visual attention from WM. In contrast to the consensus that target template held in WM can voluntarily guide the deployment of spatial attention, there has been recent controversy as to whether WM contents can also guide attention automatically. The automaticity of attentional capture by WM contents is discussed, and a novel notion that content-based WM-driven capture of visual attention is conditionally automatic is proposed.
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    Mental Processing Models and Neural Mechanisms for Response Inhibition
    WANG Yan; CAI Hou-De
    2010, 18 (2):  220-229. 
    Abstract ( 1110 )   PDF (690KB) ( 2628 )  
    Response inhibition refers to the ability to suppress responses that are no longer required or inappropriate. It is also considered to be a key component of processing for executive control. Two models are proposed to explain the mental processing mechanisms for response inhibition, one is called the race-horse model which assumes that response and inhibition was independent of each other, and the other is the interactive horse-race mode which hypothesizes that response and inhibition were interactive. In recent years, neural mechanisms of response inhibition studies have shown that the hyperdirect pathway and the indirect pathway in front-basal ganglia system could be jointly responsible for suppressing advantage responses, and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), supplementary motor area/pre-supplementary motor area (SMA/ pre-SMA) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) might be the key brain areas for inhibition control. Moreover, there has been a closely association between response inhibition and response selection, working memory, and attention, as the brain activated by them are not only overlapped but also differentiated each other. In addition, the activation in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex could reflect the processing of attention and working memory associated with response inhibition. Further research is required to combine various techniques, such as brain damage, functional neural imaging and TMS, to clarify the interaction mechanisms of the above mentioned brain regions in response inhibition.
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    The Three-level Research of Bayesian Reasoning
    SHI Zi-Fu; WANG Xiang-Xiang; CHEN Jiao; ZHANG Qing-Lin
    2010, 18 (2):  230-236. 
    Abstract ( 993 )   PDF (641KB) ( 2121 )  
    On the viewpoint of longitudinal development, recent years’ research on Bayesian reasoning has been gradually converted from valuing reasoning materials and despising reasoners (performance-boosting benefits of the natural frequency presentation and the diagram, contents of material, ecological validity) to valuing reasoners (knowledge background, subject relevancy, etc) and the reasoning process, and then to integrating reasoning materials, reasoners and the reasoning process. On the viewpoint of crosswise development, every longitudinal stage also included a crosswise development inside, and the multidimensional structure of the study has been shaped. At last, we proposed our future directions, namely introducing new methods to research Bayesian reasoning, exploring new reasoner’s factors which may affect Bayesian reasoning and assuming the integrated trend.
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    Are Deductions Built Upon Rules or Models?——Evidences from Data on Spatial Reasoning
    ZHANG Xiao-Jiang; LIU Chang; LIU Ying-Jie
    2010, 18 (2):  237-243. 
    Abstract ( 960 )   PDF (639KB) ( 1055 )  
    Studies on spatial reasoning can promote the understanding of its processing mechanism and the testing of the theories of reasoning. Results of behavioral studies have indicated that many factors affect the processing of reasoning. These factors include numbers of mental model, the order of premise terms, and so on. Outcomes of behavioral researches have proved the validity of the mental model theory. Brain-imaging studies show that spatial reasoning problems elicit occipital–parietal–frontal network. The parietal cortex is possibly specific to spatial reasoning. Results of brain-imaging studies also agree with the mental model theory. The studies in the future should integrate the three theories of reasoning, strengthen studies of other deductions, and combine EEG or ERP with brain-imaging techniques, so that we can understand much more about the mechanism of spatial reasoning.
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    The Role of Labels in Children’s Inductive Reasoning
    HU Cheng; LIU Zhi-Ya; CHEN Lin; MO Lei
    2010, 18 (2):  244-252. 
    Abstract ( 1005 )   PDF (745KB) ( 1308 )  
    There are mainly two traditional types of theories in inductive reasoning — similarity-based induction and category-based induction. The effect of category, especially the labels, has been gradually discovered in inductive reasoning during the two theories’ argument, but currently, there is a lack of systematicness in analyzing of different labels. Hence this article puts emphasis on the two major labels—linguistic labels and category labels, and then attempts to define their roles and relations, clarify the confusions from this perspective. Simultaneously, the author proposes the children’s cognitive models in inductive reasoning based on associations between the labels study and children’s language acquisition. In the end, the article asserts that the mechanism, technique, and the profound internal relationships should be concerned in future researches.
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    A Summary of Daily Hassles Research
    LU Xiao-Ning; HUANG Xi-Ting
    2010, 18 (2):  253-261. 
    Abstract ( 1219 )   PDF (636KB) ( 2537 )  
    Daily hassles are common daily stressor and also an important aspect in stress research. The methods of scale, interview and diary analysis are used to measure daily hassles. Daily hassles are mainly influenced by personality, gender, age and the features of an event. Most researches agree that daily hassles influence health through the negative emotions which they bring about. There are generality model and integrated specificity model to explain the mechanisms of daily hassles on health. The generality model proposes that stressors have a uniform effect on health. While the integrated specificity model suggests that specific stressors can shape the specific nature of an integrated psychobiological response. Besides exploring the mechanisms, structures and measures of daily hassles, future research should especially investigate how to prevent and mediate daily hassles.
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    Evolutionary Psychology Theoretical Models of Homosexuality
    LIN Zhen-Lin; WANG Guo-Fang
    2010, 18 (2):  262-270. 
    Abstract ( 1590 )   PDF (671KB) ( 4145 )  
    There are many theoretical models, postulated by evolutionary psychologists, for explaining the evolution mechanism of homosexuality; including heterozygote superiority, fertile females, hypervariability, kin selection, group-selection, alliance formation and parental manipulation. In the present review, these theoretical models were systematically introduced, and comparised with each other. These evolutionary psychological theories were also comparised with that of other schools for revealing a more convincible model. The future research should be focused on the sex differences, the exact location of the gene affecting the sexual orientation, and so on.
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    Endophenotype of Depression: Anhedonia and Its Measurements
    LIU Wen-Hua; CHAN Raymond C. K.; HUANG Min-Er
    2010, 18 (2):  271-281. 
    Abstract ( 1455 )   PDF (658KB) ( 2964 )  
    Anhedonia is defined as the diminished capacity to experience pleasure, which is widely recognized to occur in depression, and is a prominent feature that is involved in several types of psychiatric disorders and maladaptive behaviors. Although anhedonia is regarded as an important symptom in psychopathology, it has received relatively little attention. To better understand the role of anhedonia in depression, this paper reviews the relationship between depression and anhedonia, and the neural substrates of anhedonia linked to a dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system. It also highlights two facets of hedonic capacity (anticipatory and consummatory pleasure) and addresses some measurement issues of anhedonia. Further research is needed to be conducted in the near future to explore whether anhedonia might be the most possible endophenotype of depression and the role in development of depression.
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    Mechanism of Affective and Cognitive-Control Brain Regions in Depression
    LIAO Cheng-Ju; FENG Zheng-Zhi
    2010, 18 (2):  282-287. 
    Abstract ( 1185 )   PDF (654KB) ( 3128 )  
    Depression is characterized by a negativity bias which is a stable factor of it. The bias reflects enhanced bottom-up responses to affective stimuli, linked to deficits in amygdala and fusiform gyrus function. Alternatively, the bias also reflects impaired top-down cognitive control, linked to deficits in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate function. A new hypothesis that the occurrence of depression is caused by interaction of increased activity in affective brain regions and deficits in cognitive-control brain regions was brought forward. To prove the hypothesis, there are still some important questions to be answered, which might be the direction of future studies.
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    Review on the Researches of Cognitive Disorder in Autism
    DUAN Lei; MO Shu-Liang
    2010, 18 (2):  288-296. 
    Abstract ( 1163 )   PDF (650KB) ( 1899 )  
    Theory of Executive Dysfunction, Weak Central Coherence theory and Theory of Mind, were three important theories which interpreted cognitive disorders of Autism. In this paper, by reviewing several previous studies, we explored the emergence, development and the trends of the three kinds of theories. These theories illustrated the mechanisms of cognitive disorders of Autism from different aspects. It required further study about how to reveal synthetically the cognitive and pathological mechanism of autism. Meanwhile, the interaction of different cognitive factors and ecological validity of research may be further issues to be considered.
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    “Broken Mirror” Theory of Autism
    WANG Yin; CHEN Wei
    2010, 18 (2):  297-305. 
    Abstract ( 1188 )   PDF (659KB) ( 1542 )  
    Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impaired social interaction and communication. Until now, how autism occurs is not well understood. “Broken Mirror” Theory is a new theory in the psychological field of autism research, which can explain many clinical symptoms of autism and represents a unified mechanism for them. This paper first reviews the origin and development of the theory, then points out that the deficiency of action recognition, motion mimicry, Tom, empathy and language in autistic people could be explained by the dysfunction of mirror neuron system. Finally, we suggest that both the study of voluntary emulation and automatic mimicry as well as the modulation of mirror neuron system in other brain regions are necessary in the future.
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    Cognitive-Behavioral Psychopathology of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    ZHANG Zhong-Liang; ZHANG Zhong-Ming; LI Hong
    2010, 18 (2):  306-313. 
    Abstract ( 1310 )   PDF (649KB) ( 2702 )  
    In-depth researches on the psychopathology of Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been made in the cognitive-behavioral domain. Cognitive behavioral theory of OCD suggests that dysfunctional beliefs, coping strategies and neutralization are key factors in the escalation and persistence of OCD. The security motivation model consider OCD to stem from an inability to generate a signal that would terminate the security-related behaviors. Based on this model, a recent research indicates that OCD patients use more subjective stopping criteria when making a decision to stop a compulsion. Such criteria causes difficulty in the decision making, therefore the compulsion is prolonged. This paper integrates recent researches in the cognitive-behavioral domain, and claims that approach–avoidance conflict, which is salient in some OCD patients, might be another important factor giving rise to OCD.
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    Expressive Writing and Its Role to Improve Physical and Mental Health
    WANG Yong; WANG Zhen-Hong
    2010, 18 (2):  314-321. 
    Abstract ( 1049 )   PDF (663KB) ( 1794 )  
    As a kind of psychological intervention,expressive writing is used to disclose and express one’s deepest thoughts and feelings about the most significant experience through writing. Expressive writing operates easily and improves physical and mental health significantly. Its effects are affected by the object’s mental characteristics, involvement level, writing topic and other factors. Exposure, habituation, attention shifting and congnitive restructuring may be the mechanism.
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    The Application of Case Formulation in Psychological Clinic
    HU Yan-Ping; CUI Li-Xia
    2010, 18 (2):  322-330. 
    Abstract ( 1064 )   PDF (713KB) ( 2337 )  
    With the development of psychological therapy, case formulation as an important part of the psychotherapy has gradually become the clinical focus. The presented case formulation, which is based on certain psychotherapy theory, makes clinical assumption about the aetiological and maintaining factors, and provides blueprint to the establishment of treatment plans. According to the clinical researches of western countries, case formulation is effective in promoting the therapist and client’s understandings toward the symptom and improving the therapeutic effect. The case formulation is based on the cognitive and behavior therapy, and then used to illustrate the application of case formulation in clinical treatment of anxiety and depression.
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    Competencies of Mental Health Service Providers
    ZHANG Ai-Lian; HUANG Xi-Ting
    2010, 18 (2):  331-338. 
    Abstract ( 868 )   PDF (629KB) ( 1318 )  
    Studies on competencies of mental health service providers concern what kind of people are qualified to act as practitioners in mental health. This article reviews recent studies in this field involving core competencies and specialty competencies, assessing competence and competencies, competency models and their development, and discipline-specific competencies. These studies will be critical in guiding efforts to reform education, training, employment and administration for the diverse groups that comprise the mental health workforce. The authors point out the limitations of relevant research which seldom focus on assessing the identified competencies among students and practitioners in the field of mental health service.
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    Adaptive Performance: A Domain Remains to be Further Studied
    WU Xin-Hui; YUAN Deng-Hua
    2010, 18 (2):  339-347. 
    Abstract ( 990 )   PDF (658KB) ( 2200 )  
    Adaptive performance, as a multi-level and multi-dimensional concept, refers to various behaviours that cope with the changes in job requirement and environment. Previous studies showed that there may be overlaps between adaptive performance, task performance and contextual performance. The results of previous researches about the dimensions of adaptive performance are inconsistent. A series of individual and environmental factors, such as general cognitive ability, “Big Five” personality and social network, can predict adaptive performance. Studies can further explore the theoretical framework, measurement, antecedents and managerial implications of adaptive performance in the future.
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    The Effect of Job Characteristics on Workers: Comparison between DC Model and JD-R Model
    WU Liang; ZHANG Di; WU Xin-Chun
    2010, 18 (2):  348-355. 
    Abstract ( 1009 )   PDF (663KB) ( 3620 )  
    Job characteristics are work-related factors or attributes, which have important effect on workers’ physical and mental health. Comparative study found that while job characteristics in DC Model were divided into three relatively specific dimensions: job demands, job control and social support; JD-R Model was distinctive in classifying job characteristics into two more general categories of job demands and job resources. Nevertheless, the outcome variables DC model and JD-R model focused on workers’ physical and mental health as well as organizational performance; moreover, both of the two models highlighted the effect of job characteristics on workers. Future research should explore in depth the important role of core job characteristics and combinations of different job resources and demands in different occupations as well as their applicability to individual traits and citizen groups in our country, and finally try to apply the results of research to the practice of job redesign in order to promote the occupational health of workers.
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    Stereotype Effects on Spontaneous Trait Inferences
    YAN Xiu-Mei; WANG Mei-Fang; ZHANG Qing; ZOU Ji-Lin
    2010, 18 (2):  356-364. 
    Abstract ( 1008 )   PDF (653KB) ( 1451 )  
    Spontaneous trait inferences are trait inferences that occur unintentionally, almost effortlessly, and usually without awareness. Recently, spontaneous trait inferences become an important topic of research for social cognition. In the past few yeas, a new research trend has been developed to describe the cognition phenomenon of spontaneous trait inferences. By examining the impact of implicit stereotypes on spontaneous trait inferences, researchers gained access to a new level of understanding on it. They provided evidences for the influence of automatically activated stereotypes, including occupation stereotypes, race stereotype and gender stereotypes on the process of spontaneous trait inferences. After a brief introduction of the theoretical basis for researchers to explore the stereotype effects on spontaneous trait inferences, the present paper systematically reviewed some studies related to this topic. In the end, three prospects for the future research were pointed out.
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    Retrospect and Prospect of Researches on the Self-regulation of Prejudice
    LI Qiong; LIU Li
    2010, 18 (2):  365-373. 
    Abstract ( 1098 )   PDF (634KB) ( 1941 )  
    Prejudice is not inevitable. People can control their prejudiced responses through self-regulation. Individuals who have high internal motivation and low external motivation are able to control their prejudice most effectively, including implicit prejudice. When the motivation is well internalized, it performs automatically. The quadruple process model disentangles the influences of automatic process and controlled process on implicit task performance; and it can better explain how the interaction of association activated automatically and self-regulation influences behavior. The limitations of current literature in the field were discussed.
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    A Critical Review of Group Diversity Research: A Reflection Based on the Group Faultlines Theory
    HAN Li-Feng; WANG Zhong-Ming; HUI Eddie Chi-Man
    2010, 18 (2):  374-384. 
    Abstract ( 1083 )   PDF (676KB) ( 1817 )  
    Group diversity research has gained much progress in the past two decades, but still little has been known about how diversity affects group process and its effectiveness. This paper reviewed recent literature on group diversity, and proposed a series of theoretical development and empirical evidence based on group faultlines theory, with particular emphasis on the interpretation of best practice and contingency factors. Finally, this study discussed some key issues for future diversity research as well as its managerial implications.
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