The effect of the babyface schema is an innate instinct that promotes the formation of early parent-child relationships; this has been thought to be primarily influenced by the baby's face structure. However, in recent years, the influence of facial expression on this effect has begun to attract attention. With the adult face as the baseline, the size of the babyface schema’s effect will change with different facial expressions, and the effect of a neutral babyface schema becomes the strongest. Because the cause of this phenomenon and its neurological mechanism are still unclear, this project first plans to establish a set of standardized facial pictures of an infant and adult displaying various affective faces. Then, based on this, the researchers will investigate whether facial expression uncertainty can moderate adults’ preferences and attention biases for infants with different facial expressions, and they will furthermore explore the corresponding neurological mechanism to promote research on the parental brain in China.
A large body of research has examined the relationship between guilt and prosocial behavior - yet the findings are inconclusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the effect of trait and state guilt on prosocial behavior, as well as potential moderators of this effect. A literature search yielded 46 qualified papers with 92 effect sizes and 17248 participants. Results showed that trait guilt was significantly associated with prosocial behavior (r = 0.36, p < 0.001), and this relationship was moderated by the type of prosocial behavior. The induction of state guilt also significantly impacted prosocial behavior, with a small effect size (d = 0.24, p < 0.001) - and this relationship was moderated by whether the recipient of the prosocial behavior was also the victim of the guilt-evoking act. No other moderators were found. The p-curve analysis showed that the p-curves of the two meta-analyzes were right skewed, indicating that the relationship between the guilt proneness and prosocial behavior and the effect of state guilt on the prosocial behavior had a real effect, not caused by publication bias or p hacking.
The ending effect of risky decision-making refers to the phenomenon that individuals would be more likely to take risks when a multiple-played decision-making task comes to an end. Three experiments examined the ending effect with risky decision tasks of different expected values, both in laboratory settings and in natural environment. The results showed that, the ending effect appeared in both laboratories and natural settings. Participants showed increased risk taking in the last round in both equal-expected value gambles and negative-expected value gambles. In addition, the ending effect is not moderated by the amount of tokens participants had before the last round. It appears that the ending effect is driven by the motivational need for an emotionally rewarding ending and suggests that the ending effect is reference independent. Future research on the underlying mechanism of the ending effect may benefit by focusing on affective system since it plays an important role in the ending effect.
Writing and reading are both developed on the basis of written language and share some common neural mechanisms. Writing can affect reading processing due to that reading not only relies on visual processing, but also relies on writing motor representation. Different ways of writing have different effects on reading, i.e., traditional writing promotes reading processing, whilst typing impedes the reading processing to some extent. For Chinese readers, traditional writing promotes reading processing by strengthening orthographic representation, however, the effect of typing on reading processing is still controversial. In the future, we should investigate the different neural mechanisms underlying different writing approaches. More importantly, we should focus on the influence of typing on Chinese character processing.
The intentional binding effect refers to subjective compression in time between a voluntary action and its delayed outcome. Sense of agency based on action and causation are two explanations for this effect. We first introduced the mechanisms underlying sense of agency related to action and sense of agency related to causation to interpret the intentional binding effect through providing corresponding evidence from both behavioral and neural perspectives. Meanwhile, we discussed the relationship between these two explanations for the intentional binding effect. We provide two perspectives regarding the relationship between the two factors to explain intentional binding effect.
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is one of neuroendocrine hormones which plays an important role in regulating human social behaviors. Firstly, studies about family bonding revealed that AVP is related to facilitating sexual behaviors and fatherhood in males. Secondly, studies concerning emotion perception or social assessment found that AVP is associated with inter-male aggression and inter-female affiliation. Finally, studies on social decision-making revealed that AVP promotes social engagement/cooperation associated with self-interest in males and associated with reestablishing interpersonal relationship in females. The limitations of previous studies include: i) most of evidence on effects of AVP was based on male subjects; ii) the potential clinical application of AVP treatment needs further investigation; iii) potential contextual or individual variables that modulates or mediates AVP effects needs to be identified. Future studies should also evaluate the modulations of AVP on other aspects in human social behaviors, e.g., emotion regulation, learning.
The psychosocial stress will make the immune system experience functional changes in aspects of immune defense, immune homeostasis and immune surveillance and also appear dynamic transition between abnormality and normality along with time and intensity of stress stimulation. Its mechanism is related to biological factors such as heredity, neuroendocrine, free radical metabolism and intestinal flora changes and the microglial cell maybe play an important mediating role in it. Lots of biological factors, demography factors such as age, gender and economic status as well as route jointly determine occurrence and development of immune reaction in psychosocial stress. As for its intervention, the physical exercise in kinesitherapy is a kind of method that is worthy of attention.
Impulsivity is a type of risky behavior or tendency of carrying out such behavior without sufficient consideration of its consequences. It could be represented by impulsive behavior-related personality traits and also delaying discounting or proponent response inhibition. A large number of researches have indicated that the impulsive behavior is implicated in the stages of initiation, maintenance, and relapse of drug-seeking behaviors that are involved in drug addiction. However, how impulsivity influence and facilitate the process of drug addiction is yet to be clarified. Analyzing the impulsivity of the different stages of addiction may lead to further understanding. At the beginning stage of drug use, impulsive personality trait plays a role of motivation to facilitate the drug use behavior. Then continuous operant condition learning leads drug users to enter the goal-oriented stage and presents impulsive selection tendency. At the third stage, classical conditional learning promotes the matching of related cues and drug effects, forming a conditioned reflex. Addicts enter the stage of habitual drug use and show stop impulsivity.
Contact intervention is an important way to reduce the public stigma of mental disorders. Various forms of contact have been widely used in intervention studies of this approach, and have proven to be effective in reducing stigma in terms of attitude, emotion, behavior intention and so on. The effect of contact intervention depends on how the intervention is carried out and individual differences of the intervention object. Regarding implementation, effective contact intervention involves three key ingredients: people with mental disorders, information and interaction, which may be affected by certain characteristics. During study, the presence of multi-form contact, continuous contact, contact quality and other ingredients can further magnify the effect of the intervention. As for the intervention object, the effect varies according to individual differences. In the future, the study design for contact intervention should be further improved, to enrich the study of the theoretical mechanism of contact intervention, and promote development of evidence-based practices of contact intervention. In addition, further study will focus on application of contact intervention in reducing public stigma of specific groups and specific types of mental disorders, as well as verification of the effect of contact intervention in the culture of China.
Despite previous research primarily focused on the positive outcomes resulting from empowering leadership, recent studies in this realm have indicated that empowering leadership could also bring potential negative effects apart from the positive outcomes. With respect to this issue, we first demonstrated the conceptualization and core characteristics of empowering leadership. Then, based on dual-task processing effect, role theory and implicit leadership theory, we explained the theoretical mechanisms of the negative effects of empowering leadership. Next, we analyzed the boundary conditions under which empowering leadership exerts positive influence on employees and organizations. Finally, we proposed several future research directions regarding the negative effects of empowering leadership.
Traditional views argued that organizational citizenship behavior (OCBs) and counterproductive work behavior (CWBs) were opposite poles of the same construct, or negatively correlated and relatively independent two-dimensional structure. However, recent studies suggested that their relations were not as simple as imagined. They might have a modestly positive correlation under certain circumstances. Firstly, the antecedents of OCBs and CWBs, as well as cognitive evolution of their relations were reviewed; Secondly, in the integrated view of emotion and cognition, the mutual mechanisms between OCBs and CWBs from the perspective of Conservation of Resource Theory and Moral Balance Theory were explored; Finally, the future research directions were also discussed, such as exploring the boundary mechanism of mutual relationship through empirical study, verifying the mutual relationship by multiple methods, analyzing the dynamic change based on latent growth model, and exploring the management practices of them.
Virtual sales agents (VSA) on e-commerce and online retail Web sites, representing animated embodiments that respond to users through verbal and non-verbal communication, most often serve a search support function by presenting product and service information, or a basic decision support function. Recent researches have demonstrated the persona effect of VSA, that is the integration of social cues (i.e., cues based on humanlike sales agents) into retail Web sites may heighten the perception of employee presence and feeling of being served, which thus enhance consumers’ online shopping experiences. Theories related with the persona effect of virtual sales agent hold different points. The persona effect of VSA could be influenced by the VSA’s characteristics, consumer factors and product factors. Its mechanism includes social presence, sense of personalization, perceived social support, trust and perceived risk. On this basis, we point out the future research direction.
Probability weighting bias refers to the deviation between the perceived likelihood and the objective likelihood of an event, which affects investment, insurance, doctor-patient communications, etc. The non-compensatory strategy in which people give more weight to “outcomes” than “probabilities”, and the emotional fluctuation induced by the reference point cause probability weighting bias; changing the description of “probabilities”, emotional experience of “outcomes”, reference point of “gains and losses”, and psychological distance from risk, can adjust such bias and optimize decision-making. Future studies need to further explore the issues, such as its application situations, mechanism correlations, and the identification of probability weighting bias.
Classical studies define and understand the phenomenon of materialism from the perspective of a person’s traits, values, goals, and needs. Although self-concept has always been a clue through materialism research, researchers have recently attempted to synthesize the existing research on self-concept. Relevant studies have shown that materialists’ self-evaluation is low and their self-knowledge is inconsistent. Low self-evaluation is characterized by low self-esteem, contingent self-esteem. The inconsistent self-knowledge is manifested by an unclear self-concept, a discrepancy in explicit and implicit self-esteem, and self-disparity (a discrepancy between notions of an ideal and real self). Two recent comprehensive theories- the theory of materialistic escape from the self and identity goal pursuits theory of materialism-suggest that materialism is one’s use of material possession as a means of escaping from one’s self-awareness or as a means of constructing and pursuing self-identity. By well interpreting the existing research findings, these two theories make up for the lack of integration theories of materialism research. Future research should transcend the materialists’ self-deficiency approach and make greater theoretical contributions by borrowing the theories of self-concept.
In recent years, multiple religious priming paradigms have been used to explore the relationship between religions and morality. It has been found that religious initiation, on the one hand, could promote people's prosocial behaviors and urge people to obey moral rules; on the other hand, it could also activate out-group prejudice and stimulate the hostility to groups with conflicting values. Existing research suggests that specific religious beliefs mediate the influence of religious priming on morality. Variables such as intrinsic religion, gender, the priming method and connotation of the stimuli, and some personality traits would serve as moderators influence the relationship between religion and morality because they may have influence on specific religious beliefs. Future research could further focus on methodological innovation as well as the exploration of other mediators and integrate more cross-religious and cross-cultural perspectives with interdisciplinary collaboration.
Explanatory item response theory models (EIRTM) refer to a family of item response theory (IRT) models that are constructed based on the generalized linear mixed models and nonlinear mixed models. EIRTM can be utilized to address various measurement problems by incorporating predictors into IRT models. First, the relevant concepts and parameter estimation methods of EIRTM are introduced in this paper, followed by the procedures regarding how to use EIRTM to account for the item position effect, test mode effect, differential item functioning, local person dependence, and local item dependence. Next, an example is provided to illustrate the use of EIRTM. Finally, the shortcomings and potential applications of EIRTM are discussed.