As one of the major limitations in organizational creativity and innovation research, much endeavor has been focused on idea generation rather than on idea recognition. Recognizing creative ideas among many options is the most crucial stage in the long process of organizational innovation, and contributes more to its success than generating ideas does. The critical role of decision maker’s mental model—the knowledge and belief structure that individuals use to describe, interpret, predict outside world, and to make judgment and decisions—on idea recognition has yet been examined. By adopting Csikszentmihalyi’s (1988, 1999) system view of creativity, the current study aims a) to demonstrate the difference in idea recognition accuracy between decision makers holding a fixed mindset or a growth mindset; b) to reveal the mediating effect of decision makers’ uncertainty tolerance decision makers; and c) to investigate the moderating effects of idea features and the pattern of organizational innovation practice. The current study contributes to organizational creativity and innovation literature by introducing a new perspective to this field. Also, decision makers can gain insight on how to avoid costly mistakes by reflecting on and modifying mental models of their own.
Common method variance (CMV) is a form of systematic variance attributed to similarities of measurement method facets between constructs. It has potential to distort observational correlations and thus elicits common method bias (CMB). Although it has been noted repeatedly in social science research for almost 60 years, its threat to research validity hasn’t been overwhelmingly acknowledged and remains to be scrutinized. Extant empirical evidence has demonstrated the ubiquity of CMV and identified distinct factors triggering CMB, including data source, time interval, and questionnaire design. As a result, cross-sectional self-reporting surveys are particularly subjected to extensive criticism. Nonetheless, some researchers contend that measurement error and uncommon method variance can offset or alleviate the underlying detriment so that pervasive anxiety regarding CMV is exaggerated and unjustified. The measure-centric approach underlines that CMV originates from the interplay between methods and constructs, and the two-dimensional CMV risk evaluation procedure should be conducted with simultaneous consideration of method and construct. From our view, it is preferable to cultivate a balanced and impartial attitude towards CMV, embrace its existence, discard the prejudice against self-reporting, and, above all, take proactive countermeasures based on the optimization of research design.
Longitudinal study is a research method that introduces time-lag to explore changing trends of variables and causality between variables. In organizational behavior (OB) research, scholars have become increasingly interested in longitudinal study. While the number of OB research adopting this method is rising, a comprehensive and correct understanding is not available so far in China. Longitudinal study can be categorized according to the time-lag, different types correspond to different sample size, survey and statistical analysis methods. Further research could be extended on the team and leadership, organizational culture and change, and employee motivation. Future research should pay more attention to the achievement of cross-culture design.
The two-dimension tactile image is the main approach of translating visual information into haptic information. It plays an important role in helping visually impaired people perceive the external world. The recognition of haptic two-dimension image is considered to be based on the “visual translation” process where the haptic input is translated into the visual image. This process is influenced by the graphic geometric feature, perspective, visual experience, capability of visual representation, the process of tactile exploration, training and age. Exploration of the cognitive neural mechanism of two-dimension images haptic recognition is significant for improving the design and usability of two-dimension tactile images.
Self-generated drawing is a learning strategy in which learners rely on a written text to construct representational drawings that correspond to the main elements and relations described in each portion of the text. Previous studies have examined the role of self-generated drawing in learning by manipulating text, animation and other learning materials. However, it remained various mixed results of the effects of self-generated drawing. From the perspectives of generative theory of drawing construction (GTDC) and cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML), self-generated drawing can improve students' cognitive and metacognitive abilities, stimulate the positive emotional state and result in better retention or comprehension. In addition, cognitive load theory (CLT) might predict the opposite result of learning for the reason that drawing brings about an increase of extraneous cognitive load. In general, the self-generated mapping strategy is conducive to learning, the median effect sizes are dretention = 0.13, dcomprehension = 0.46, dtransfer = 0.38. The inconsistent results may be explained by the existence of potential boundary conditions, such as support, test methods, and prior knowledge, to name a few. Future studies should focus on the moderating effects of material manipulation, effectiveness evaluation, and other variables.
In social interaction, people have a tendency to copy observed actions. This automatic imitation is crucial for understanding others’ feelings behind actions, but can also result in potential conflicts between motor representations of self and other. Therefore, we need to distinguish our own motor plan from that of others and identify the conflicts. This capacity was termed self-other control (SOC). Similar to imitation control, higher levels of social cognition, such as theory of mind, perspective-taking, and empathy, also involve the processing of information about self and others. Much evidence suggested that SOC was a domain-general mechanism, as imitation control and other socio-cognitive processes in the brain shared the same SOC system to distinguish between information of self and other and regulate conflicts thereof. Some recent studies showed that, comparing with inhibitory control (IC) which was to suppress one’s own prepotent responses, SOC played a more pivotal role in social cognition, and the effect of IC on social cognition was moderated by SOC. In addition, the domain-generality of SOC indicates that in the future, individuals with certain socio-cognitive deficits (such as autism and alexithymia) would benefit from rehabilitation via motor-imitation control training.
Problem behaviors refer to abnormal child behavior including internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors, which disturb the normal social adaptation of children. Individual differences in temperament determine the ability and development of child emotion regulation, and is considered as the main influencing factor of child problem behaviors. Based on previous researches, starting from the four dimensions of temperament (Positive Affectivity/Approach, Fear/Behavioral Inhibition, Angry/Irritability, Effortful Control), we summarized the effect of emotion regulation and common regulation strategies on child problem behaviors. We also discussed the emotion regulation interventions from the perspective of temperament. The future study should consider the characteristics of child temperament, discuss the interaction of the temperament dimensions and its relationship with child emotion regulation and problem behaviors, and include the neurophysiological techniques in longitudinal studies to explore the relationship of these three factors in child development. In addition, researchers should deepen domestic research to develop suitable intervention programs for Chinese children and promote the healthy development of children's emotional socialization.
Peer influence is considered to be an important influential factor to eating disorders which are common among adolescents. Identifying the mechanism of adolescents’ eating disorders has great significance for the prevention and intervention. Peer influence which manifest as the mediating effects of the perceived peer behaviors, the actual peer behaviors and the body dissatisfaction, and as the peer quality has a negative impact on adolescents’ eating disorders. Researchers have explored and interpreted the mechanism of peer influence on adolescents’ eating disorders directly and indirectly. They should deepen the research content, such as increasing the studies on the long-term effects of peer influence, the division of peer attributes, the effect size of peer influence pathways, and the interactions between peer influence and other social factors of eating disorders in the future.
Addictive behaviors have caused serious harm to individuals and society. The study on the time perspective of groups with addictive behaviors has developed a new perspective from which to explore the emergence and development of addictive behaviors. Individuals with negative past perspectives and present hedonistic and fatalistic orientations are more likely to have addictive behaviors, while the orientation of future time perspective is a protective factor against addictive behaviors. This not only reduces the occurrence of addictive behaviors, but also benefits recovery from addictive behaviors. Behavioral mechanisms such as self-regulation, impulsive decision, and neural mechanisms of the prefrontal cortex can help us to thoroughly understand addictive behaviors from the time perspective. Future research can further explore the consistency and specificity of the time perspective in different addictive behaviors and use longitudinal research methods to explore the dynamic processes of addicts' time perspectives. Additionally, intervention addressing the time perspectives of addicts can help addicts achieve balance by improving their future time perspectives and reducing their orientations of past negative and present time perspectives, which can then help addicts increase their abstinence.
Lay theories of illness are a collection of lay people’s knowledge, explanations, and attitudes toward a particular disease. Compared with medical professionals, lay people are more concerned with the pathogenic effects of psychological, family and social factors than biological factors. They choose diverse medical treatments rather than follow the standardized medical model; they are more willing to treat the disease experience as a special issue of personal life and develop a constructive understanding. The discrepancies between lay theories of illness and scientific medical theories can lower patient’s satisfaction with medical care, trust in medical practitioners, and adherence to doctor’s advice, thereby affecting treatment outcomes. It is believed that studying Chinese lay theories of illness, their impact on doctor-patient relationships and the social psychological mechanism thereof, in the context of the Chinese medical culture and medical system, will provide useful suggestions for reducing the current tension between doctors and patients in China.
Cuteness is usually defined descriptively as a range of visually perceived physical and behavioral infantile features. Recent research suggested that cuteness might not be limited to visual infant characteristics, but could also be found in funny designs, positive sounds and smells. While the generalization of cuteness has been universally acknowledged, whether there are individual differences in cuteness perceptions is still controversial. In addition, cuteness can evoke a set of cognitive, affective and behavioral consequences. Future research might be mainly conducted on dimensions of cuteness, as well as the relationship between cuteness and morality.
Immoral contagion refers to the process where a moral transgressor as a source of contagion directly or with the help of a morally neutral agent indirectly transfers the negative moral essence to a target, causing emotional, cognitive or physiological changes. The present review aims to, firstly, clarify the mental mechanism under immoral contagion -- disgust, on the basis of which the impact immoral contagion has on the field of moral psychology (moral emotion and moral cognition) is illustrated; then we expand the perspective to embodied cognition, organization and management as well as interpersonal interaction in order to explore the universal impact of immoral contagion on human society. Finally, future research is guided toward cross-cultural comparison, personal differences, the neural mechanism of dynamic process of contagion and positive moral contagion for a more thorough understanding of moral contagion.
People generally have two kinds of regulatory focus, i.e., motivational orientations, which are promotion focus and prevention focus. Regulatory focus influences individuals’ choices of goals (promotion focus sensitizes individuals to maximizing gains, whereas prevention focus sensitizes individuals to minimizing losses), and directs their attention toward different action preferences (promotion focus directs individuals’ attentions toward “approach” style, whereas prevention focus directs individuals’ attentions toward “avoidance” style). Regulatory focus theory has been widely applied in the leadership research, but one of the important yet seldom studied questions is the relationship between two regulatory foci and their joint impacts. By integrating the paradox perspective, the current study points out the importance and feasibility to study the “profile” of two regulatory foci and their joint influence.
As an act guiding employees to take the initiative to change jobs, job crafting intervention has become an important research topic in organizational behavior research in recent years. Based on the current research, a systematical literature review has been conducted according to the conceptual aspect and categorization. Meanwhile, on the basis of the Role-resource Approach-avoidance Model, the results of job crafting intervention are summarized and refined in this thesis. Based on this, using the AOM theory, it presents the internal influence mechanism of job crafting intervention in the context of individual and organizational interaction respectively from the perspective of crafting ability, motivation and opportunity, and then proposes an integrated theoretical analysis framework, which can provide a reference for the development of research on job crafting intervention. Therefore, further research should pay more attention to the influencing factors and mechanism research in the Chinese context.
Cause-related marketing is an important strategy to combine the fulfillment of corporate social responsibility with the improvement of brand image. If a company engage in cause-related activities, the consumers of the company will have the opportunities to participate in philanthropic events when consumption. Base on the current state of knowledge regarding the domain of cause-related marketing, we found that attribution theory, stimulus-organism-response (SOR) theory, self-signaling theory, and balance theory can be used to explain the effects and mechanisms of cause-related marketing on consumer attitude. Future research should further explore new independent variables from the perspective of cause-related marketing that affects consumer attitude, the effect of cause-related marketing from consumer perspective, and even new mechanisms that underlying cause-related marketing effect on consumers' attitude.
A comprehensive model of driver aggression is an integration of the "frustration-aggression" model and the general aggression model. It proposes that psychological processes could interact with personal factors and situational factors. Furthermore, influence mechanism of cognitive appraisals and emotional arousal on driver aggression clarified in this model. In simple terms, using this model has two advantages. First, it can help us to better understand the way that driver's aggression continues to escalate on the road. Second, it can better illustrate why the roles of perpetrator and victim become blurred In the case of aggressive road driving behavior. From what has been discussed above, this model can help us better determine the impact of aggressive driving behavior on traffic accidents and road safety. Finally, it is of great value to study the countermeasures of aggressive driving behavior.