Based on the related existing research on group psychology, this study presents a comprehensive psychological mechanism model of a harmonious doctor-patient relationship by integrating the structural characterization and dynamic construction process of a doctor-patient relationship. It advocates that, (1) the structure of a harmonious doctor-patient relationship could be regarded as the basic observation index of medical satisfaction, intergroup trust between doctors and patients, and compliance with medical programs, and (2) the dynamic construction process of a harmonious doctor-patient relationship could include the intergroup level doctor-patient relationship that existed before medical treatment and the instant interpersonal level doctor-patient relationship that forms during the process of doctor-patient interaction. These two progressive components interact and integrate into each other gradually. Among them, the construction of the intergroup level harmonious doctor-patient relationship is mainly influenced by the spread of the doctor-patient public opinion, trust in the medical system, and intergroup relationship factors such as intergroup cognitive biases and group identifications. Meanwhile, the interpersonal trust level and communication mode between the doctors and patients mainly influence the construction of an interpersonal level doctor-patient relationship. Based on such theoretical models and empirical research, the strategy of promoting a harmonious doctor-patient relationship is presented. This research has important theoretical significance and practical value in the development and promotion of a harmonious doctor-patient relationship.
Team voice is widely considered as one contributor to positive team outcomes such as team performance and innovation. The empirical evidence, however, is inconclusive. From the perspective of group information processing, this paper proposes a two-path model to illustrate the underlying mechanism of influence of team voice on team effectiveness. The main purposes of this paper are to: (a) develop the voice quantity and quality scale, (b) propose a two-path model of team voice influence, (c) develop a training program aiming at improving team leader’s voice managing abilities and skills. The potential theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed.
Bootleg innovation is an effective way to break the innovation bottleneck, and get rid of “The Innovator’s Dilemma”. It is an important channel for innovation in the new era. However, because bootleg innovation encompasses creative and deviant components, it has been labeled as both "loyal" and "rebel". Starting from the issue about whether bootleg innovation is loyal behavior or rebel behavior, we conducted a systematic research by developing a scale for bootleg innovation, exploring its formation mechanism and its effectiveness. This study consists of three sub-studies. The first sub-study refines dimensions and develops a scale for bootleg innovation in the context of Chinese organization based on the perspective of creative process. The second sub-study discusses the formation mechanism of bootleg innovation based on multi-levels. The third sub-study builds and testifies the influence mechanism of bootleg innovation on organizational effectiveness from the perspective of success and failure of bootleg innovation based on the event system theory. The three sub-studies connect with each other and progress gradually. Theoretical contributions of this study not only lie in deepening the understanding of the bootleg innovation and promoting the development of bootlegging theory, but also extending application of deviance theory, innovation theory, positive organizational behavior theory and event system theory.
With live marketing as background and based on the analysis of the literature, we introduce social presence and explore the connotation and composition of social presence in live marketing environment. Besides, ground on the theory of conformity consumption, we conduct behavioral tests and probe into the cognitive mechanism of how social presence influences online conformity consumption in live marketing. Furthermore, according to the theory of social presence, this paper discusses the moderating effect of self-construction and tie strength between buyer and network-anchor in this process. Finally, based on the theory of social facilitation, this study explores the emotional mechanism using neuroscience method which has the advantages of objectivity and "process measurement". This research will reveal the effect of social presence on online herd consumption, provide guidance to network-anchor and E-sellers, meanwhile help consumers understand their own behavior better in order to make more rational consumption choices.
Social anxiety has become a serious public health concern in our society. It is imperative to examine risk factors for this problem. Among these predictive variables, self-esteem has been one of the most examined risk factors for social anxiety. Numerous studies have explored the relationship between self-esteem and social anxiety among Chinese students. However, these results are far from consistency. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to explore the relation between self-esteem and social anxiety among Chinese students, and investigate the moderating effects of measurement tools of social anxiety, participant types, and gender. Through literature retrieval, 58 independent effect sizes together with 32181 participants which met the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis were selected. Heterogeneity test indicated that random effects model was appropriate for the meta-analysis. The results of funnel plot and Egger’s intercept illustrated no publication bias. Main-effect test indicated a significant negative correlation between self-esteem and social anxiety (r = -0.35, 95%CI = [-0.39, -0.31]). Further moderation analyses revealed that the association between self-esteem and social anxiety was moderated by measurement tools of social anxiety, but not by the type of participants and gender. The results supported the fear management theories of self-esteem and the cognitive models of social anxiety. Longitudinal or experimental studies are needed in the future to reveal the causal relationship between self-esteem and social anxiety.
The term descriptive norms refers to the influence of most peoples’ practices on the attitudes and behaviors of others. This study attempted to use descriptive norms to promote the willingness of participants to donate blood voluntarily and engage in other blood-donation behaviors. The study consisted of two similar experiments. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of descriptive norms on blood donation and found that descriptive norms increased participants’ willingness to donate blood, but not their actual donation of blood. Given the results of Experiment 1, Experiment 2 was designed to increase blood-donation activity by sending participants “short message service” reminders. However, Experiment 2 also found no increase in the participants’ blood-donation activity. These two experiments consistently demonstrated that descriptive norms promoted participants’ willingness to donate blood voluntarily but did not promote their actual donation of blood. The paper discusses possible reasons for these results.
Schizophrenia is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by a series of symptoms. Language impairment is one of the core features of cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. This article presents a critical review of behavioral and neurological studies on speech perception at the segmental and suprasegmental levels in individuals with schizophrenia. It is pointed out that special attention should be given to the exploration of speech perception in patients with schizophrenia speaking Mandarin Chinese.
Pre-attentive processing is a cognitive process that takes place before attention and is independent of consciousness. It reflects the unconscious, automatic aspects of brain processing. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is the most commonly used indicator of pre-attentive processing. MMN amplitude reduction has emerged as one of the important clinical indices for psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia and depression. The main research paradigms of MMN include oddball paradigm and multi-feature paradigm. Music training has dramatic effects on the structure and function of human brains, such as increasing grey matter volume and improving attention and memory functions. Music training also has a significant impact on MMN, which is reflected in the paradigms constructed by different acoustic features. Future research should compare the impacts of oriental music and western music on MMN, explore a more ecologically valid research paradigm, and reveal the impact and mechanism of music training on MMN in the elderly.
There is mounting evidence in psychology, neuroscience and behavioral economics to support the notion that human behavior is governed by dual-learning systems, namely, reflective, “cognitive” or reflexive, “habitual” system. The former one is performed automatically, responds quickly and does not consume cognitive resources. The latter one responds slowly and consumes more cognitive resources, but it is also more flexible and sensitive to the changes in the external environment. Both of these learning systems exist in parallel and compete with each other to jointly influence individual's mind and behavior. A widely concerned question in recent years is which system exerts dominant control over specific behavior and what factors determine whether reflective or reflexive system governs behavior. Over the past decades, researchers used navigation learning task, probabilistic classification learning or instrumental learning task and associated computational models to explore the changes of multiple learning systems under acute and chronic stress at both behavioral and neural levels. By reviewing these studies, we summarize the psychophysiological mechanism underlying the stress-induced bias toward habitual behavior, and reinterpret the causal relationship between this shift and drug addiction. Existing research shows that noradrenaline and glucocorticoids act through mineralocorticoid receptors and exert interactive impact on brain regions that subserve dual-learning systems, which is orchestrated by the amygdala. Future studies need to focus on the modulatory role of genetic differences in the effects of stress on learning, and use a variety of technical methods to elucidate its neuroendocrine basis.
Acute aerobic exercise is a bout of aerobic exercise lasting from 10 to 60 minutes. Acute aerobic exercise can temporarily change cognitive performance, such as sensory sensitivity, memory, executive function. The effects of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive performance are varying, which are moderated by participant physical fitness level, exercise intensity and type of exercise. Arousal theory, Reticular- activating hypofrontality model, catecholamines hypothesis, BDNF hypothesis and strength model of self-control have been proposed to account for the effect of acute aerobic exercise on cognitive performance. Future studies are suggested to investigate the mechanism of how acute aerobic exercise effects cognitive performance, explore the interfering effects of different forms of acute aerobic exercise, such as mind-body exercises, group sports, and thus providing more evidence for the long-term ‘exercise prescriptions’.
The human parental brain could be defined as is the network of regions that support caregiving behaviors to identify and react to infant related stimuli (infant vocals and facial expressions). First, we reviewed the neural circuits that were demonstrated to be involved in establishing and maintaining parent-infant relationships, which included circuits for motivation-reward, empathy, emotion regulation and executive function. And the important brain areas incorporate the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, amygdala, and supplementary motor area. Second, the current review summed that human parental brain is sensitive to multiple parenting determinants, including parenting abilities, parental hormones and psychopathology. The growth of parenting abilities and the improvement of oxytocin levels are beneficial to the processing for infant stimuli. Finally, several advices were proposed for future directions: 1) prospective and longitudinal studies across important transition periods for parenting; 2) describing the neural basis of male psychopathologies and exploring targeted interventions and treatments; 3) employing some advanced neuroscience technique (e.g., hyper scanning) to highlight the simultaneous neural activity between mother and father or parents and infants; and 4) conducting parental brain research in Chinese culture.
Prejudice is the consequence of the interaction and joint construction of perpetrators, targets, and bystanders, rather than a unilateral social psychological phenomenon. As targets or bystanders, women’s responses to perpetrators are different or similar.We discuss Stress Coping and Confronting Prejudiced Responses Models that interpreting women's response to gender prejudice between two different identities. In particular, we analyzed the various influences of optimism, cost/benefit, distress and feminism on the confrontational response of women to prejudice while they are targets versus bystanders. Finally, we outline directions for future research and call for greater consideration on the controversy for the validity of confrontational responses, the intervention on perpetrators who hold an implicit gender prejudice and the substitution effect of expanded imagined contact.
As an emerging interdisciplinary field, organizational neuroscience is revolutionizing and reconstructing the micro-foundation of organizational behavior by exploring the biological mechanism beneath the organizational phenomenon. From multi-level paradigm perspective, we offer a fine-grained analysis of the organizational neuroscience by articulating its philosophical foundation (from Reductionism to Emergency), theoretical foundation, involving Socially Situated Cognition theory (SSC), multilevel research and reverse inference, and research methods (i.e., Neuroimaging Methods and ANS methods). We also suggest new avenues to build new organization and management theory and articulate a future research agenda for the application of neuroscientific methods.
Unethical pro-organizational behavior (UPB) is an important research topic which has drawn more and more attention from the organizational behavior field in recent years. Yet, it’s worth noting that the conceptualization of UPB is somewhat vague. Based on the motivational perspective, this paper deeply deconstructs and analyses the conceptual ambiguity of UPB in terms of definition, characteristic, motivation and type, and form a systematic concept connotation of UPB. Further, following the motivation-related logic behind UPB, this paper systematically reviews the influencing factors of UPB, and explains the mechanisms of these influencing factors on UPB. Finally, this paper provides specific suggestions for future research in terms of subtype, measurement, research perspective, influencing factor, inhibition mechanism, influencing mechanism and localization.
Previous leadership research has primarily concentrated on the bright side of positive leadership styles, while paying less attention to their possible dark side. Although the recent years have witnessed an increasing number of these inquiries, there is still a lack of a clear understanding of the dark side of positive leadership. A review of 41 empirical journal articles illustrates the scientific status of this research area. In general, research has illustrated the dark side of behavior-oriented leadership (i.e., transformational, ethical, empowering, inclusive, and benevolent leadership) as well as relationship-oriented leadership (i.e., leader-member exchange) in terms of their negative effects on leaders, followers, and teams. Besides the research that solely examined the negative effect, there is a body of research that investigated the double-edged sword effects and nonlinear effect of positive leadership. Social identity theory, social exchange theory, psychoanalysis theory, social information processing theory, and resource-based theories were primarily used to account for the dark side of positive leadership. Future research should develop an integrated theoretical framework underlying the dark side of positive leadership, extend existing literature by examining the dark side of other leadership styles, and identify the boundary conditions that alleviate these dark side effects. Group differences (e.g., cultures, generation, and gender) should also be considered as boundary conditions of the dark side of positive leadership.