The positive effect of autonomous safety motivation on safety performance has received considerable attention; however, the mediating mechanism between motivation and safety performance has not been explored. The present proposal integrates self-determination theory and a multilevel motivational process to explore the effect of individual and team autonomous safety motivation on safety performance through safety goals, and the intervention effects of autonomy-supportive factors and job crafting on promoting autonomous safety motivation in the workplace. A longitudinal design, experiment as well as quasi-experiment including cognitive tests and questionnaires is proposed to test the model. The results can contribute to self-determination theory and safety research by deepening the understanding of the multilevel mechanism, and has practical implications for safety training and safety performance in high-risk organizations.
One of the key elements for firms to develop stably is a high level of employees’ identification with their organizations. Employees’ innovative behavior is the cornerstone of firms’ innovation. However, there are inconsistent research findings about the influence of organizational identification on employees’ innovative behavior. The normative conflict model provides a theoretical lens for deep understandings of their relationship. According to this model, organizational identification has a dual impact (i.e. promotive and prohibitive) on innovative behavior through two disparate paths (i.e. dissatisfaction of the status quo and conforming to the status quo); employees’ perceptions of normative conflict are crucial conditions to trigger their dissatisfaction of and conforming to the status quo; leaders’ expectations and support for employees’ innovative behavior play moderating roles in the process whereby organizational identification promotes and prohibits employees’ innovative behavior.
With the profound changes in the external environment, how to promote leaders’ empowering behavior has been emphasized both practically and academically. However, previous researches lacks systematically theoretical analysis of the formation of leader empowering behavior, and have the tendency of "leader-centered" bias, which lead to their failure to solve the practical issues. Thus, based on goal theory, the present paper investigates the roles of leaders and subordinates comprehensively in the context of teams, and conducts theoretical and empirical researches on the forming mechanism of leader empowering behavior. Firstly, this paper will conduct a multi-case study to explore the different types of goal congruence and their processes that promote leader empowering behavior, aiming to develop a theoretical framework of the forming mechanism of leader empowering behavior. Secondly, this paper will empirically investigate the effects of these goal congruence on leader empowering behavior by collecting the longitudinal and dyadic data. Finally, we will test the forming mechanism of leader empowering behavior comprehensively. Accordingly, this research contributes to the leader empowering behavior research in terms of advancing the understanding on the forming mechanism of leader empowering behavior, and better grasping the forming rules of leader empowering behavior. In addition, this project is also helpful for enterprises to carry out the management practices more accurately.
To investigate the changes of mental health status of medical college students in China, data from 181 papers were analyzed using the cross-temporal meta-analysis. The reporting data were collected from 1993 to 2016 (N = 129613), applying the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90). Results showed that: 1) With only one exception (the phobic anxiety dimension), scores of all other 8 symptom dimensions of SCL-90 were negatively correlated with year, which indicated that the mental health level of medical college students in China has been improved over the past 24 years; 2) Scores of these 8 symptom dimensions were negatively correlated with the level of two social indicators (total expenditure for health and number of registered physicians), which suggested that these two social indicators may be key predicting factors for the increase of mental health status of Chinese medical college students; 3) The increasing trend was slightly more salient with male students than with their female counterparts, however, the gender difference was not significant; 4) The increasing trend of mental health status was more salient and comprehensive with freshmen than with non-freshmen of medical college students in China.
Single-item measures have long been debated by researchers. Proponents advocate the efficiency of single-item measures, while opponents question reliability and validity of them. Through comprehensive qualitative and quantitative reviews, advantages and disadvantages of single-item measures are summarized, and doubts and debates in the literature are analyzed and responded specially. Through systematic review, results show that single-item measures have acceptable level of reliability and validity. More notably, the criterion-related validity of multi-item measures is not superior than single-item measures. With the review and current findings, issues that should be noted during the development and usage of single-item measures were addressed. Although multi-item measures are more acceptable, single-item measures may also have its legitimacy in academic research. That is, researchers should value the potential advantages and application scope of single-item measures, so that single-item measures can play its appropriate role in managerial psychology and social science research.
The integration of various emotional information from different modalities (e.g., face and voice) plays an important role in our interpersonal communication. In order to understand its brain mechanism, more and more researchers found that the interaction between facial expression and vocal emotional information begins in the early stage of perception, and the integration of emotional information content occurs in the late decision-making stage. In the early stage, the primary sensory cortex is responsible for encoding information; while in the late stage, the amygdala, temporal lobe and other advanced brain regions are responsible for cognitive evaluation. In addition, the functional coupling of oscillation activities on multiple frequency bands facilitates the integration of emotional information cross channels. Future research needs to explore whether facial expression and vocal emotional information integration is associated with emotional conflict, and whether inconsistent emotional information has advantages. Lastly, we should find out how the neural oscillations of different frequency bands promotes the integration of facial expression and vocal emotional information, so as to further understand its dynamic basis.
Acquired spatial incompatible stimulus-response associations in a prior practice task can reduce, eliminate, or even reverse the Simon effect in a subsequent transfer task. This is called the transfer-of- learning (ToL) effect. Researchers have found some factors that influence the ToL effect in both individual and social situations. Some relevant theoretical explanations, e.g., the short-term memory associations account, the bottom-up priming mechanism and the response-opposite strategy, can explain the ToL effect. Future research should seek to clarify whether or not the stimulus-response transfer is bidirectional, and explore the cognitive neural mechanisms involved, as well as the developmental aspects of the ToL effect.
The processing of moral metaphors is essentially a dynamic process of mapping a concrete source domain with sensorimotor experience to an abstract target domain and representing abstract moral concepts. And it should also be regarded as a result of interactive activity amid physical experience and moral emotions. Researches on the neural mechanism of moral metaphors showed that physical and emotional experience influence the processing of moral metaphors, and discussed the effects of moral emotions on the metaphorical mapping of morality. Future researches should enrich the range of subject and directions of mapping, and improve the ecological validity and cross-cultural validity by modifying the experimental paradigms in social interactions.
Fantasy is a term that refers to imaginary perceptions directed toward the future and associated with conscious or unconscious personal desires. It is not necessarily based on objective laws. Reality refers to something of substance or a phenomenon that exists in daily life or that is consistent with the rules of life. Making an accurate distinction between fantasy and reality is conducive to protecting children’s imagination and ensuring their personal safety. Many studies have reported that children’s ability to distinguish fantasy from reality increases with age, and is influenced by external factors (emotions, character and themes of experimental materials) and internal factors (individual emotional perception intensity and experience). Language, metacognition, theory of mind and the nervous system may be components of the mechanism by which children distinguish fantasy from reality. Future studies need to explore the possible moderating effects of various mechanisms on children’s ability to distinguish fantasy from reality at given ages, as well as the neural mechanism associated with children’s confusion between fantasy and reality. The purpose of this study is to further clarify effective measures by which to protect children’s imagination and ensure their personal safety.
Self-others overlap is the overlap of self-concept between individuals and others. In previous studies, multiple concepts of self-others overlap were proposed, and different measurements were formulated to measure the two dimensions of perceived closeness and overlapping representation. Moreover, a variety of methods were developed to modify an individual’s self-other overlap with others. Furthermore, this article analyzed the relationships between self-other overlap with relational self, self-expansion, and social distance. It was found that self-others overlap is the result of self-expanding activities through including the others’ identities, resources, and perspectives into themselves. In future, it is necessary to explore the neural mechanism of the self-other overlap, in addition to negative impacts on the interpersonal relationship.
Bystanders in cyberbullying refers to “the individuals who witness bullying events online”. The behaviors of bystanders after witnessing bullying can be divided into two types - prosocial behaviors and antisocial behaviors. There are factors that influence bystander’s behaviors which include their personality traits (impulsiveness, extroversion and openness), psychological factors (empathy, self-efficacy, social support and loneliness), the degree of self-disclosure of bullied individuals, and their relationship in the ecological environment, etc. Bystander intervention model, moral disengagement and bystander effect can explain bystander reactions after they witness the cases of cyberbullying. Future studies may make further explorations from the perspectives of cognition, brain mechanism, cross-cultural practices and the constructions of network environment.
In the age of mobile Internet, it is common for people to focus on their mobile phones while neglecting other people or events around them in social situations. This phenomenon refers to phubbing. In the current paper, we systematically reviewed relevant studies, and summarized the antecedents, consequences, and functioning mechanisms of phubbing. Building on them, we proposed several directions for future research, including using a person-centered approach to explore how phubbing develops, examining the effects of phubbing from the boundary creation perspective, demonstrating the mutual influence of phubbing and interpersonal relationship quality, clarifying the impact of phubbing on the phubbers, and exploring the functioning mechanisms based on the perspective of non-interpersonal perception.
Social class signs are a component of person perception about social class of others. People can determine another’s social class by processing these subtle social class signs, and another’s social class has a profound and extensive impact on interpersonal social interaction. This article used personal attire, facial features, and speaking characteristics as examples to illustrate that social class signs affect individual’s judgment of another’s social class. Moreover, we summarized the distinguishing influences of social class signs on interpersonal social interactions based on the perspectives of social exchange, social fairness, and social identity. It would be desirable to study if the functions of some social class signs are weakened because of the problem of conspicuous consumption. Regarding the relatively high relevance between social class signs and social class, it is necessary to explore the relation and distinction between these two constructs in future research. Given that few studies have examined the impacts of social class signs of a third party on interpersonal social interactions, it is important to expand the research from the interpersonal perspective to the third-party perspective.
Temporal landmarks defined as any distinct event that stands out in the everyday humdrum of life, may be beneficial to goal-pursuit motivation. Specifically, when individual experience a current temporal landmark or expects a future temporal landmark, their levels of goal-pursuit motivation would be enhanced, and at the same time, their goal-related behaviors would be more likely to occur. In addition, temporal landmarks may increase individuals’ senses of psychological separation of temporal selves and then enhance goal-pursuit motivation through a series of mental processes such as increased self-efficacy, cognitive consistency, loss aversion and discrepancy-reduction. Future research should focus on examining the motivating effects and duration of temporal landmarks and its generalizability. Moreover, it is worth for future studies to investigate the potential mechanisms of temporal landmarks and to conduct a considerable amount of empirical studies to nudge decision making by manipulating temporal landmarks.
Hyperscanning refers to measure neural activities simultaneously from two or more agents interacting in the same task, and explain the neural mechanism of interpersonal exchange. From the perspective of game theory, three types of tasks in hyperscanning researches are clarified: conflict, cooperation and coordination task, which contributes to distinguishing "coordination" and "cooperation", two concepts which are not well-defined in existing hyperscanning studies, and establishes a new model to depict the multi-subject paradigms in this area. Future studies might further explore the psychological and cerebral mechanism underlying the differences between cooperation and coordination behavior and the formation of norms, in combination with the usage of evolutionary game theory model.
Employees’ green behavior directly affects the effectiveness of the environmental protection of organizations, and is the key to promote the sustainable development of the organizations. Employees’ green behavior refers to a series of behaviors implemented by employees that aim at reducing the negative effect on the environment and contributing to environmental sustainability. First, provides an overview of the concept and structure of employees’ green behavior. Second, drawing on self-determination theory, affective events theory, planning behavior theory, social cognitive theory and social learning theory, explains antecedents of employees’ green behavior. Finally, demonstrates that future research can pay attention to the three major aspects of concept definition, research level, research perspective (balanced perspective, dynamic perspective) to further research.
Attitude-Behavior gap in green consumption has been well documented in the marketing literature. Some research has been done to investigate why consumers often fail to engage in actual green consumption even though they have previously indicated their intention to do so. It is important to gain greater understanding of such attitude-behavior gap in green consumption, as sustainable development becomes the critical social and economic trend. This article 1) summarizes the empirical findings and theories from the literature in the past decade; 2) discusses what have not been studied in the literature; and 3) finally suggests possible directions for future research in the field, such as measurement scale development, possible moderating and mediating factors, motivational factors, learning and trust mechanism, and cross culture issues.
As people become more and more concerned with health, environmental protection and animal welfare, vegetarianism is emerging and has drawn increasing attention from psychologists. Psychological research on vegetarianism is still at an early stage. Psychological processes regarding vegetarianism involve cognitive, emotional, motivational aspects and vegetarian identity. Individual differences, stereotype, and macro factors also influence vegetarianism. Future research could further explore how socio-cultural factors influence vegetarian food choice, social representations about vegetarianism in China, the embodied cognition effect of vegetarian food, as well as the dynamic development of vegetarianism as a subculture. Implications can be drawn for developing effective interventions on healthy and pro-environmental dietary patterns.