Third-party punishment (TPP) is a substantial and special kind of altruistic behaviors, which could help maintain social norms and human cooperation. A large body of research has studied norm conformity like fair behaviors and its underlying cognitive mechanisms, merely few studies, however, have discussed norm enforcement behaviors like TPP and its cognitive process. One issue of strong interest is the way how cognitive control influences TPP. Thus, through (1) exploring the specific role of cognitive control in TPP by means of employing different technical methods; (2) from the perspective of developmental psychology, examining how the effects of cognitive control vary by stages of development, particularly focusing on preschoolers and adolescents, who are undergoing rapid development of cognitive control, the present project aims to deepen the understanding of the cognitive basis of TPP, explain the developmental trajectory of TPP, and help build a psychological model for the TPP decision making.
The risk assessment of violent recidivism is especially important for the evaluation of risk among prisoners. As aggression is a stable factor of prisoners’ violent recidivism, investigating their aggressive behavior can prevent and reduce risk of violent recidivism after parole or release, and contribute to social security and stable development. Studies have shown that aggressive behavior is influenced by childhood adversities and genetic susceptibility (such as MAOA-uVNTR low activity allele). However, most of the studies only focus on linear association, neglecting the interaction between factors and non-linear relationships. Moreover, the assessment of prisoners’ aggression ignored the subtypes of aggression, and was often conducted by questionnaires. These problems constrain effective prediction of aggression. In the current study, latent class model is applied to identify the classification of childhood adversities among male prisoners and ordinary adults. Using an experiment paradigm and questionnaires, as well as behavioral data as aggressive indicators, we further analyze the relationship between childhood adversity and aggression, and the moderation by MAOA-uVNTR, COMT Val158Met, and 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. The findings would help identifying the genetic indicators of highly aggressive individuals and detect susceptible individuals affected by childhood adverse experiences. Moreover, they provide theoretical and empirical reference for predicting violent behavior and building related intervention through training or medication.
The increasingly rigid traditional management methods, diversified interest demands of the new generation of employees, and frequent labor conflicts in enterprises have led to the decline of grass-roots labor unions in labor relations in China, and thus fell into the dual dilemma of organizations' reluctance to invest and employees' active abandonment. Based on the perspective of "instrument-emotion" dual path and the logical framework of "context-cognition", we intend to answer the important question of "whether strengthening the practical utility of labor unions can bring returns to enterprises" theoretically and empirically. Specifically, it explores whether instrumental/affective labor union practices can improve employees' sense of well-being at work by alleviating labor conflicts through the cross-level research method of measuring labor union practices at the organizational level and individual level respectively, and further studies the boundary conditions on this chain. We believe that it could reveal the substantial value of grass-roots trade unions in realizing win-win between labor and capital and their effect on employee well-being. It is not only an ethical response to the "conscientious research" of management science, but also an important strategy to strengthen the construction of grass-roots trade unions.
This article fills the void in leadership and engagement literature through conducting a quantitative review to explore the disparities among relationships between different leadership styles and engagement. Based on a meta-analysis of 148 cases and 162 independent effect sizes (N = 84836). We found positive associations between various leadership styles and engagement, and the results of relative weights analysis suggest that engagement was decrementally predicted by empowering leadership, ethical leadership, transformational leadership, leader-member exchange, authentic leadership, transactional leadership, servant leadership and paternalistic leadership. Moderator analyses revealed that the particular engagement scale, design of research and cultural background all produce meaningful influences on the relationships in the meta-analysis.
Categorical perception (CP) effect indicates that people are faster and more accurately at discriminating between two colors from different categories than two colors from the same category, even when between- and within-category chromatic separation sizes are equated. CP effect is an important evidence for the controversy between Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and the Universal Evolution theory (UE). Some studies demonstrated that CP is language-driven. They found that CP is left-lateralized and is disrupted by verbal, but not by nonverbal interference task. Moreover, the language-driven CP also got support from the cross-language researches and neurophysiological studies. However, other studies proved the existence of bilateral CP effects and CP effect in pre-linguistic infants. In recent researches, there is a third perspective that CP effect results from both innate mechanism and language-driven mechanism. Evidences supporting language-driven CP, innate CP and the compromised viewpoint can be summarized to explore the mechanism of color CP and the effects of language. Further research should focus on the interaction between perception system and concept system.
Facial trustworthiness plays a key role in how we express and understand social signals. During social interactions, people quickly judge the trustworthiness of others through subtle facial cues in order to make choices in daily life. The researchers delved into behavioral and ERP studies related to the time course of facial trustworthiness processing, and explored the life-span development of facial trustworthiness, as well as the influence of face emotions and face gender on the evaluation of facial trustworthiness. Further research is needed to improve the ecological validity of stimuli used in facial trustworthiness studies, to expand the study of facial trustworthiness in adolescents and aging population, and to consider the contextual effects on facial trustworthiness assessment.
In the process of visual working memory, the maintenance and manipulation of the memory items require transforming a fleeting sensory input into a durable working memory representation, which is defined as the visual working memory consolidation. In light of the “gating” role of the consolidation, the researchers have developed a variety of research paradigms to explore the mechanisms that may be involved. However, the time course and the patterns of consolidation observed under different paradigms is quite different. Moreover, there are also different views on the theoretical and neural mechanism involved in consolidation. By comparing the differences among different paradigms and sorting out the views of various parties, the solutions to these problems can be effectively promoted. In addition to verifying the consolidation model in a variety of paradigms, future researches can also explore the role of attention in consolidation and how factors such as project familiarity affect consolidation processing.
Stable memories may re-enter an unstable state when they are retrieved. Upon retrieval, a consolidated memory can be updated, strengthened, weakened, or even erased. This process is known as reconsolidation. Thus, reconsolidation interventions provide an opportunity to modify seemingly stable memories. Studies on the reconsolidation of maladaptive human memory emphasize the role of propranolol and behavioral intervention therapies in fear and episodic memory reconsolidation. Multiple cortical brain regions and neural circuits are involved in the reconsolidation of human fear and episodic memory. These include the amygdala, hippocampus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), the amygdale-vmPFC network, and the hippocampus-PFC network. Existing memories can be modified during reconsolidation by various interventions, such as drug treatment, behavioral therapy, or noninvasive brain stimulation. This introduces the possibility of using these strategies to treat memory disorders. However, there is a significant gap between the relevant basic research and the clinical application due to the complexity of pathologic memory formation. Therefore, additional experimental paradigms that more closely resemble clinical situations are required. Furthermore, the precise boundary conditions for reconsolidation disruption should be elucidated in a future study, as this will promote the clinical application of laboratory research.
In the recent years, children’s selective learning has attracted wide-spread attention in the field of cognitive development. Specifically, understanding children’s selective learning in the domain of causal knowledge provides important insights for addressing a classic question in developmental research, namely how children acquire knowledge. Children generally acquire causal knowledge by identifying, evaluating and endorsing information from others. They actively seek explanations from reliable informants, and they select their responses based on the quality of the answers they have received. Since an early age, children can use verbal cues to distinguish explanatory responses from non-explanatory responses. Moreover, when given several explanations, they can tell which one is superior to others based on the structural characteristics of these explanations. Older children can even identify various modes of construal and adopt the appropriate one. Future studies could further investigate the roles of other exploratory characteristics in children’s selective causal learning. Researchers should also further address some controversial issues regarding the cognitive mechanisms of selective casual learning.
Effort plays a critical role in reward processing, which has been couched within two contradictory theories regarding effort as either a cost or a reward. On the one hand, effort is regarded as a cost whereby it reduces reward value, which has been articulated in the intrinsic cost model, the opportunity cost model, and the signal model. On the other hand, effort can boost the value of reward, which has been explained by the cognitive dissonance model, the learned industriousness model, and the need for cognition model. Both theories have been supported by converging evidence from animal studies, human behavioral studies, electrophysiological studies, and neuroimaging studies. Future research is needed to specify the definition of effort, integrate the competing theories in terms of the time course of effort expenditure, and explore potential factors that impact on effort.
Emotional intelligence (EI) comprises of a set of abilities related to detecting, using, understanding and managing emotion. Researches and discussions of EI have disproportionately focused on pro-social outcomes but have neglected the possibility that EI might have a dark side. EI in the workplace was negatively related to physical and mental health and job performance at the within-individual level, and led to emotional manipulation and negative behavior at the between-individual level. The internal mechanism of negative effects of EI can be analyzed by the ego-depletion effect and emotional intelligence strategy model. Furthermore, psychological mechanism, situational moderators and negative effect of EI at the team level provide us with important clues to guide future research.
Self-choice preference refers to the fact that people always prefer self-determined choice when faced with self-selection or entrusting others to choose, even if they have to pay for this. Specifically, this phenomenon is manifested by the willingness to pay for the right of self-determined choice, regarding the right of self-determined choice as a reward, being more motivated for the self-determined choice, and preference of the self-selected outcome. This is to say, people will pay more money or make more effort to hold the right to choose firmly in their own hands, which will make them feel positive. Overconfidence, ambiguity aversion, and illusory of control are thought to be its underlying mechanism, however, it is more likely it is the intrinsic values embedded in the self-determined choice that make people prefer choosing themselves. It is mainly supported by the reward system (striatum, medial prefrontal lobe), and regulated by cognitive control system. Self-choice preference is widely used in decision-making, management, and education. Future research should further reveal its mechanism and regulatory factors under social scenarios, and explore the balance mechanism of self-choice preferences among different groups, in order to promote individual wellbeing and group interests.
Prosociality is a central feature of human beings and a major focus of research across the natural and social sciences. Most theoretical models of prosociality share a common assumption: Humans are instinctively selfish, and prosocial behaviors require exerting reflective control over these basic instincts. However, the intuitive model of prosociality has recently contradicted this view. This model assumes that the understanding of prosociality should be revised to include the possibility that, in many cases, prosocial behavior -- instead of requiring active control over our impulses -- represents an impulse of its own. The intuitive model of prosociality is supported by at least three markers: (1) behavioral signs of automaticity, (2) neural signatures of reward seeking, and (3) early development. Furthermore, based on social heuristics hypothesis, we explained human’s intuitive prosociality and analyzed the context and the individual factors which affect human’s intuitive prosocial behavior. These observations provided a new perspective for researchers and challenged them to reconsider the roots of prosociality.
Benevolent sexism (BS) is a set of interrelated attitudes toward women that are subjectively positive in tone but viewing women stereotypically in traditional gender roles. These attitudes failed to be detected as prejudice by the perceiver but still reinforces women’s subordinate status. Benevolent sexism revealed in family education and intimate relationships and in workplace contexts restricts the career development of women by disarming them and, rather than compelling them directly, persuading women to internalize these restrictions. To explain the function mechanism, previous studies have investigated how women perceive and react to benevolent sexism with corresponding theories such as stereotype threat, fear of success, and system justification theory. However, the objective and neutral standpoint that the researchers hold in the study of benevolent sexism is worth debating from the perspective of feminist psychology because masculine value has been implicitly admired and heterogeneity among women has been ignored. Considering the recent trend of feminist psychology, some further research ideas are implied and discussed in this review.
The study reported here is based on our thorough review on 97 articles published in English before May, 2018 as a result of our extensive literature searches. Based on the core hypotheses of the self-determination theory and applying the theoretical framework of “environment - basic psychological needs - work motivation - outcome”, we systematically analyzed and summarized the current streams and future directions of research on the causes and outcomes of work motivation. Our research reveals that employees’ basic psychological need satisfaction and autonomous motivation as intermediary variables can explain the positive impact of autonomy-supportive working environment, and employees’ individual characteristics on their work behavior, attitude, and mental health. Future research focuses that we are proposing include: (1) specific factors of controlled working environment and their impact on employees’ basic psychological need satisfaction and thwarting, controlled motivation, amotivation, work behavior, attitude, and mental health, (2) mediators and moderators of different motivation types and their effect on employee performance, behavior and attitude, and (3) impacts of external rewards, including pay and performance-based bonuses, on employees’ work motivation, basic psychological need satisfaction, performance, and mental health as well as the boundary conditions of these effects.
Green consumption is an ethical issue, including two types of motivation: Identity construction and environmental concern. Green consumption based on identity construction would lead to the instability of green consumption, even lies and theft, and its psychological mechanism was moral self-regulation. The green consumption performance based on environmental concern was the opposite, and mechanism of moral identity played a role. So, was it identity construction or environmental concern? It might be influenced by many factors. On this basis, we built a green consumption model based on individual life style, which clarified the problem from the perspective of individual differences. Finally, Future research needs to focus on green consumption from theory and practice.