ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Prevention of Adolescents’ Internet Addiction: Based on the Evidence from Research
    LEI Li
    2012, 20 (6):  791-797. 
    Abstract ( 1228 )   PDF (239KB) ( 2928 )  
    With the Internet’s becoming more and more popular in China, adolescents have been one of the most frequent users. Although enjoying the advantage of the Internet, some of them have gotten into Internet addiction for staying online too long and involving in some services too deeply. Based on the development of adolescents, the relationship among their egocentric thinking, self, attachment, personality, life events, and Internet addiction were explored, on which foundations could be laid for the development of Adolescent Pathological Internet Use Scale and the prevention of Internet addiction. Also, the adolescents’ Healthy Internet Use was discussed based the finding of studies.
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    The Brain Mechanisms of Reward Cue in Triggering and Modulating Fronto-parietal Attentional Network in Visual Search
    WEI Ping;KANG Guan-Lan
    2012, 20 (6):  798-804. 
    Abstract ( 742 )   PDF (224KB) ( 1136 )  
    The ability to actively locate potential reward in our environment is highly adaptive. The interaction between reward and visual search was manifested at two levels in recent studies. On the one hand, exerting reward outcome could affect search reaction time and percent correct rate. On the other hand, the to-be-searched target itself with rewarding feature (e.g., food or money) could also affect behavioral performance. However, it is not clear how reward information dynamically switches on and modulates human fronto-parietal attentional network in visual search. In this project, by combining Posner spatial cueing paradigm and visual search paradigm, we manipulate the cue either predicting the target feature (rewarded vs. non-rewarded) or the target location (directional vs. non-directional), and the target feature (rewarded vs. non-rewarded) in visual search task. By using fast event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique, we aim at examining the following two questions: 1) at cue-period, the neural substrates of top-down attentional bias toward rewarding information, and how these substrates differed from the neural substrates subserving spatial attentional bias; 2) at target-period, the dynamic interaction between rewarding information and fronto-parietal attentional network, specifically, the neural correlates for orienting to correctly-informed target and for re-orienting from the incorrectly-informed target.
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    The Social Interaction Mechanism of Unethical Behavior in the Context of Team
    WEN Peng;SHI Shuo
    2012, 20 (6):  805-814. 
    Abstract ( 714 )   PDF (230KB) ( 1188 )  
    Since a series of unethical events such as Enron erupted, it has become the common attention how to impede unethical behaviors in the theory and practical areas. However, previous research has paid more attention to impede individual unethical behaviors, less research focused on its social interaction and contagion mechanism. Based on Chinese cultural background, the present research adopted multiple methods and deeply discussed the social interactions of unethical behaviors. The research includes three parts. Firstly, it will study how individual unethical behaviors affect collective unethical behaviors. We will focus on the moderating roles of individual social status and team work interdependence; Secondly, it will study the effect of collective unethical behaviors on individual unethical behaviors and focusing on the mediating roles of conformity psychology and moral identity and moderating roles of collectivism orientation and traditionality. Thirdly, it will study defensive tactics of the above two social interactions. This paper will deeply study social interaction mechanism of unethical behaviors and enrich research results of unethical behaviors in the context of team. These research results will be helpful for impeding social interaction of unethical behaviors in practical areas.
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    The influence of Event and Temporal Information on Novelty Distraction: Evidence from Cross-modal and Pure Auditory Oddball Tasks
    LI Bi-Qin;PARMENTIER Fabrice B. R.;ZHANG Ming
    2012, 20 (6):  815-824. 
    Abstract ( 552 )   PDF (386KB) ( 770 )  
    Sounds deviating from an otherwise repeated stream of task-irrelevant stimuli (deviant stimulus among standard stimulus) are known to capture attention involuntarily and impact negatively on ongoing behavioral performance (behavioral oddball distraction). The traditional view proposes that the deviant sounds’ low probability of occurrence (relative to that of the standard) constitutes a sufficient condition for behavioral distraction. Contrary to this contention, Parmentier et al. (2010) demonstrated that distraction by deviant sounds is not ineluctable and only occurs when distractive auditory stimuli, though to-be-ignored, act as useful warning cues by providing information as to whether and when a target stimulus is to be presented. The present study demonstrated the role of distracters’ information value; in auditory-visual and pure auditory oddball tasks and sought to disentangle the roles of different types of information conveyed by the distracter stimuli: temporal information (target’s time of occurrence) and event information (the information that a target’s imminent presentation is certain). The results suggest that event information mediates behavioral distraction and plays an important role in both the cross-modal and pure auditory oddball tasks.
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    The Quadratic Polynomial Regression with Response Surface Analysis and Its Use in Person-Environment Fit Research
    ZHANG Shan-Shan;ZHANG Jian-Xin;ZHOU Ming-Jie
    2012, 20 (6):  825-833. 
    Abstract ( 688 )   PDF (402KB) ( 1573 )  
    Quadratic polynomial regression with response surface analysis is a methodology and statistical approach that has become increasingly popular in Industrial and Organizational Psychology, and it originated in the person-environment fit research. The approach is an indirect measurement of person- environment fit, it allows researchers to study the best match between person and environment and the relations with outcomes, and further examination and interpretation in the three-dimensional space. First of all, this article presented the numerous substantive and methodological problems of traditional methods (i.e., difference scores); secondly, we elaborated the emergence and development, logical thinking, methods and process of statistical analysis, and also gave an example to show how to conduct this approach and analyzed the results; Finally, we summarized the advantages and disadvantages of quadratic polynomial regression with response surface analysis.
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    Motor Perception in Language Comprehension: Perspective from Embodied Cognition
    QU Fang-Bing;Yin Rong;Zhong Yuan;YE Hao-Sheng
    2012, 20 (6):  834-842. 
    Abstract ( 735 )   PDF (183KB) ( 1624 )  
    Embodied Cognition is the newest research paradigm and approach in the cognitive science. The central tenet of this approach is that sensorimotor systems are automatically engaged during conceptual processing and bodily process constrains how we perceive others. Embodied language comprehension holds that the system of body, motor and perception play a significant role in language cognition. The theories concerning embodied language comprehension, such as Indexical Hypothesis, Immersed Experiencer Frame and Neural Theory of Language, were firstly reviewed. Secondly, empirical evidences supporting embodiment in language comprehension are reviewed from four perspectives, which are phonological perception, lexical processing, sentence and passage comprehension. Future studies should focus on the explanation of advanced and abstract representation, such as the concrete representation form of embodied words, sentences and passages, and extending the views of embodied language cognition into localization cognition research.
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    Infants’ Speech Perception:The Development and Its Mechanisms
    SONG Xin-Yan;MENG Xiang-Zhi
    2012, 20 (6):  843-852. 
    Abstract ( 755 )   PDF (249KB) ( 1834 )  
    Development of speech perception profoundly influences individual’s language learning. In the first year of life, infants’ speech perception undergoes a drastic change under the influence of native language experience, which reveals the change from initial universal speech perception to the native specific perception. Statistical learning theory was proposed to address the underlying mechanisms of infants’ speech perception and its development. That is, infants in the language environment are very sensitive to the frequency distribution of the phonetic variation in the speech, and they can distinguish native phonetic units from the acoustic continuum by calculating the statistical distribution. Meanwhile, functional reorganization and some social cues also play an important role in the development of infants’ speech perception.
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    Medial Prefrontal Cortex: Neural Basis of the Self
    YANG Shuai;HUANG Xi-Ting;FU Yu-Ling
    2012, 20 (6):  853-862. 
    Abstract ( 908 )   PDF (183KB) ( 2667 )  
    To explore the neural basis of the self mainly relies on the researches of self-reference process. It refers to the cooperation of various regions of cortical midline structures (CMS), or even the whole brain. In self-reference process, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and its sub regions play important role: ventral-MPFC activates stronger when self in default mode, self awareness and on-line self are activated; however, dorsal-MPFC involves more when conscious self, self evolution and agentic self are activated. In self-other representation, activities of MPFC and its sub regions are modulated by the affective, cognitive and cultural factors. It’s the future directions to put self in the dynamic temporal or interpersonal background to explore its neural mechanism.
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    Oxytocin, Oxytocin Receptor Genotypes and Social Adaptive Behavior
    WU Nan;SU Yan-Jie
    2012, 20 (6):  863-874. 
    Abstract ( 862 )   PDF (258KB) ( 1554 )  
    Functioning as a vital regulating hormone in mammalian birth and lactation, Oxytocin (OT) has also been involved in maternal bonding and social affiliation. Recent studies implicates the effect of OT in social adaptive behaviors, including enhancing attachment, influencing parenting as well as leading some pro-social effect such as increasing trust and generosity. Meanwhile, the genetic variation of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) also relates to the formation of parent-child bonds and individual difference on pro-social behavior. However, the mechanism of oxytocin promoting social adaptive behavior remains unknown. Evidence from both studies of genes and hormone suggests that OT and OXTR probably first increase social recognition reinforce empathy, eliminate fear and anxiety, and then subsequent influence a series of adaptive behaviors. Future studies could systematically investigate the gene-hormone-neural mechanism of how OT and OXTR influence social adaptive behavior by combining the methods of molecular genetics and neuroscience.
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    The Role of Attention In Time Perception and Its Theories
    LIN Miao;QIAN Xiu-Ying
    2012, 20 (6):  875-882. 
    Abstract ( 1032 )   PDF (159KB) ( 2320 )  
    Time perception is a term that encompass a broad range of phenomena, including simultaneity, temporal order, the perception of duration and interval. The role of attention is central to a basic account of the relationship between the actual timing of stimulus events and the perceived timing of those events: the more attention was paid, the longer the duration would be; and an attended stimulus was perceived to be earlier. The corresponding attentional theories comprised AGM, the integrated theory, and AUM. More exploration in neurobiology can push forward the study about the brain mechanisms of timing and the integration of cross-modal information.
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    Irrational Phenomena in Temporal Decision-making
    WANG Zhou-Lan;GUAN Yi-Jie;YU Jin-Hong;YANG Rong-Rong
    2012, 20 (6):  883-893. 
    Abstract ( 739 )   PDF (243KB) ( 1288 )  
    The phenomena known as the ambiguity of time cost, the unsteadiness of time perception and the heavy bias towards the present, indicate that people make irrational temporal decisions. Major influential factors of irrational temporal decision-making include mental accounting, decision context, cognitional factors and individual factors. As proposed herein, monetization of time, rational analysis, imagined regret, team decision, suitable time scheduling and cultural knowledge are considerations which help to reduce irrational decision-making. Further studies can investigate the influences that subjective perceptions of time and high technology have on temporal decision-making as well as the socialization of temporal decision-making. Future research can also be conducted considering various perspectives from other disciplines or by trying a new paradigm.
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    The Individual Differences of the Framing Effect
    YU Hui-Hui;XU Fu-Ming;HUANG Bao-Zhen;WEN Gui-Chan;WANG Lan
    2012, 20 (6):  894-901. 
    Abstract ( 807 )   PDF (150KB) ( 1646 )  
    Framing effect is a phenomenon that an individual has different preference to the alternative programs on the same issue due to different frames. A series of research, conducted by Tversky and Kahneman, confirmed the prevalence of the framing effect. However, with further study, many researchers have found that individual characteristics, mainly including personality, cognitive ability, cognitive style, age, gender and so on, have an impact on the stability of the framing effect. In the future, to explain the individual difference of the framing effect better, a dynamic, integrated model needs to be developed, in which the cognition and emotion are considered together.
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    Trust Repair: Present Research and Challenges
    YAO Qi;YUE Guo-An;LAI Kai-Sheng;ZHANG Cen;XUE Ting
    2012, 20 (6):  902-909. 
    Abstract ( 787 )   PDF (156KB) ( 1405 )  
    How to repair damaged trust is one of the unsolved and most important problems in the research field of trust. Effective trust repair should address the whole relation, including trust, negative emotions and negative behaviors. Under some circumstances, trust can’t be fully restored and ambivalence exits in the outcomes of trust repair. There are three theoretical process of trust repair: attribution, social equilibrium and structure. The approaches in this field have changed from single agent to interactionist, and more and more researchers investigate the moderators among the relationships between repairing tactics and repairing outcomes. Future research should pay attention to the integration of theoretical processes, multi-method validities and the effects of time, social contexts and emotion on trust repair.
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    The Asymmetric Kin Altruism: From the Perspective of Evolutionary Psychology
    WANG Rui-Le;LIU Han-Hui;ZHANG Xiao-Yi
    2012, 20 (6):  910-917. 
    Abstract ( 700 )   PDF (159KB) ( 1903 )  
    Inclusive fitness theory was one of the most important theories of evolutionary biology and evolutionary psychology. From the perspective of that theory, the relatives had different value of fitness. Asymmetric kin altruism had been found in several areas, for example, maternal grandmothers always invest the most to their grandsons (granddaughters), followed by maternal grandfathers, then paternal grandmothers, with paternal grandfathers investing the least. Inclusive fitness theory and some specific evolutionary hypotheses such as paternity uncertainty hypotheses could be used to explain that phenomenon. Moreover, we described three of the most commonly recurring misunderstandings of inclusive fitness. Finally, we believed it would be better if researchers in the future could pay more attention to asymmetric kin altruism, try to define altruism behaviors with the same indicators, and collect data using different methods.
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    The Theories and Methods of Money Priming Research
    XIE Tian;ZHOU Jing;YU Guo-Liang
    2012, 20 (6):  918-925. 
    Abstract ( 1495 )   PDF (211KB) ( 1979 )  
    Money priming research is a new approach to exploring the psychology of money. The article introduced three theories of money priming: self-sufficiency theory, social resource theory, and mind-set theory. The methods of money priming were categorized into four types of tasks: scrambled-words task, money/image-presenting task, money-questioning task, and the task of recalling or reading the stories or experiences about money. The author stated the contribution of the money priming research and commented on the three theories above. In the end, the author proposed the potential mechanisms of money priming, and prospected future directions of exploring the boundaries of money priming theories, and taking individual’s autonomy and initiative into consideration.
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    Moral Hypocrisy: An Opportunistic Adaptive Strategy
    WU Bao-Pei;GAO Shu-Ling
    2012, 20 (6):  926-934. 
    Abstract ( 1434 )   PDF (155KB) ( 2455 )  
    Moral hypocrisy refers to both the intrapersonal discrepancy between what individuals think is moral and how they actually behave, and the interpersonal discrepancy between the acceptability of one’s own moral transgression and the same one committed by others. Researchers usually comprehend moral hypocrisy from moral motive, cognitive dissonance, and psychoanalysis perspectives, attribute deceit and self–deception as indispensable parts of moral hypocrisy, and show that induced hypocrisy leads to attitude or behavior change in line with individuals’ public commitment. From the perspective of evolutionary psychology, moral hypocrisy is an opportunistic adaptive strategy, evolved in the group living situations, motivating people to appear to be moral so that they are accepted by other in–group members and behave immorally when they are not noticed by others to reap more survival and reproduction resources. Many factors shape moral hypocrisy perception and judgment — specific emotions, power, presentation order of statements and inconsistent behavior, cognitive control and individual difference variables. Intrapersonal moral hypocrisy may entail self–deception, whereas interpersonal moral hypocrisy may entail deceit. Many understudied factors which may also influence moral hypocrisy, such as narcissism, shame, Machiavellian intelligence, emotion intelligence, and cultural variables, should be investigated in the future research.
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    Employee Well-being: From the Perspective of Person-Environment (Organization) Fit
    ZHANG Xing-Gui;LUO Zhong-Zheng;YAN Biao-Bin
    2012, 20 (6):  935-943. 
    Abstract ( 774 )   PDF (228KB) ( 2038 )  
    The research concerning the links between Person-Environment Fit (P-E Fit) and Employee well-being focuses on overall job satisfaction, affective well-being, job-specific well-being and psychological well-being; while the current research not only involves correlation between P-E Fit and happiness but also values the impact of P-E Misfit and its directions on the employees’ happiness and builds the integrative models through introducing moderators. The researches to follow shall clarify the definition of P-E Fit and Employee well-being, with their research contents going beyond the job satisfaction to an extent of concerning the relations between different aspects of P-E Misfit with happiness; and they are to be conducted with a dynamic study approach based on specific situations.
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    The Reality of Psychology in Post-Soviet Russian
    WANG Guang-Rong
    2012, 20 (6):  944-948. 
    Abstract ( 541 )   PDF (268KB) ( 801 )  
    After the collapse of the Soviet Union, researches of the psychology in Russian showed some new trends in the so-called post-soviet, mainly as follows: The principles and perspectives of Soviet psychology were re-evaluated and examined, the deviations of the development of psychological science that emerged after the October Revolution were corrected, the concept of activity and culture-history theory still have a profound impact on current studies, theoretical researches haven’t made significant progress, but work is continuing, and researches of psychological science have been getting close to the social life and practice, etc. Currently, Psychology in Russian has become a popular science, which significantly contributes to the development of various forms of social practices.
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