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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 20 Issue 7 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Editor-In-Chief Invited
    Interactive Theory of Color Cognition and Its Evidence
    ZHANG Ji-Jia;FANG Yan-Hong;XIE Shu-Shu
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2012, 20 (7): 949-962.  
    Abstract   PDF (242KB) ( 1240 )
    Color cognition is always the key topic of the debate of Linguistic Universalism and Linguistic Relativity. Because of the same structure of human eyes, and the similar sense to spectrum, General theory of evolution, which supports the view of Linguistic Universalism, claims that color cognition is not affected by language and mutually independent of color words, whereas Language relevance hypothesis, which is the main hypothesis about Linguistic Relativity, argued that color cognition can be affected by color words. Although both General theory of evolution and Language relevance hypothesis have their own evidence, the two theories also have disadvantages. Thus, a compromised view became to be popular in the relation of color words and color cognition. Recent studies about this topic of Chinese research showed that color cognition is a jointed result of physical, physiological, cognitive, intelligent, linguistic and culture which have a relationship of interactive and compensation. Evidence came from research about the regular Han nationality, individuals who are blind, mentally handicapped, or deaf, and individuals of other nationalities in China. In this paper, an Interactive theory of six factors was proposed to solve the recent argument of Linguistic Universalism and Linguistic Relativity. In this theory, six factors are divided into three hierarchies: (1) physical-biological level. In this level, color cognition is mainly affected by physical properties of colors and biological properties of human eyes; (2) cognitive-intelligent level. Cognition, including perception, memory, thoughts, and intelligence are involved in this level. (3) social-cultural level. Color cognition can be affected by cultures of colors, such as color preference. Interactions among three hierarchies including six factors determine how people cognize colors. In addition, influence of language can be found in both cognitive-intelligent level and social-cultural level. In short, color cognition is a complicated psychological phenomenon which includes multi-factors and multi-levels. It is integrated by objectives and subjective, perception and conception, universality and individuality, humanity and national characters. No levels or factors should be ignored.
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    Conceptual Framework
    A Study on Temporal Information Processing and the Two-Phase Model of Time Shifts Processing
    HE Xian-You;YANG Hui;DENG Yu-Mei;WU Shuang
    Advances in Psychological Science. 2012, 20 (7): 963-970.  
    Abstract   PDF (232KB) ( 720 )
    The processing of temporal information has been a hot topic in contemporary reading psychology. Previous researches results were inconsistent on the nature, the dimensional features, and the retrieval mechanism of temporal information. The Strong Iconicity Assumption and the Scenario Model were the most significant accounts on this problem. This study assumes that there are two stages during the processing of temporal information. The first stage is to process time words and the updating of a situation model, and the second stage is to access and integrate the previous information. According to the Two-Phase Model, the Strong Iconicity Assumption corresponds with the first stage, while the Scenario Model explains the second stage. That is to say, these two models account for the different stage of temporal processing. That is the possible reason why they can not come to an agreement. We try to integrate these two accounts in terms of the Two-Phase Model. In this study, we used classic experimental methods of cognitive psychology and eye tracking technique to explore the nature of temporal information representation, the dimensional features, and the activation and inhibition mechanism in the retrieval process. All of these experiments provide behavioral and eye-tracking evidences for the Two-Phase Model. Therefore, we solved the disagreement between the Strong Iconicity Assumption and the Scenario Model. The study provides theoretical and methodological implications for the solving of some other issues in text reading.
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    研究前沿
    How Event-based Plausibility Influences Language Comprehension
    FENG Jian-Xin;QIAO Rui
    . 2012, 20 (7): 971-980.  
    Abstract   PDF (214KB) ( 841 )
    The event-based plausibility knowledge is playing an increasingly important role in sentence comprehension.The studies of the event-based plausibility in sentence reading can clarity the time course of different kinds of knowledge during on-line reading comprehension, as well as build the architecture of the language processing system. A number of studies have demonstrated that event-based plausibility has a strong influence on language comprehension. On the one hand, methods which are used in sentence reading can be used in event-based plausibility research; on the other hand, the studies of event-based plausibility can provide new ideas to the theory of sentence reading. Given that a number of theories of language comprehension hinge on the rapid influence of event-based plausibility, and many factors, like selectional restrictions and thematic roles, can influence the event-based plausibility, future studies should balance these factors, bilingual participants being used in experiment may be a good choice.
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    The Processing Asymmetry Effect of Subject/Object Relative Clause and Its Neural Mechanism
    HE Wen-Guang;CHEN Bao-Guo;CUI Peng
    . 2012, 20 (7): 981-994.  
    Abstract   PDF (270KB) ( 820 )
    The processing asymmetry effect of Subject\object relative clauses is a phenomenon across many languages. Studies have found two important factors contributing to this effect: cognitive resources and syntactic structure. The present paper analyzed this phenomenon from the three following perspectives: 1) its universality and particularity in Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages, revealed in the language by adults, children, and aphasics; 2) different models of the processing asymmetry effect, including the syntactic role theory, filler-gap dependency theory, active-filler strategy, noun phrases accessibility hierarchy theory and similarity interference theory; 3) ERPs (event-related potentials) components and brain activations. Finally, “fluid mark theory” based on our studies and others was constructed to account for sentence processing, and future research directions about the issue were pointed out.
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    Effects of Working Memory Training on Cognition and Brain Plasticity
    LIU Chun-Lei;ZHOU Ren-Lai
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1003-1011.  
    Abstract   PDF (167KB) ( 2409 )
    In recent years, working memory training has been recognized as an effective way to improve individual cognitive performance. Working memory training uses working memory span tasks, updating tasks, and other complex tasks which are carried out in computers progressively. Recent researches find that working memory training can improve working memory itself, fluid intelligence, inhibition, attention, reading and mathematics. Researches on brain plasticity found that working memory training weakens the activation in frontal and parietal regions, strengthens the activation of subcortical structures including corpus striatum and caudate nucleus, decreases grey matter, improves white matter connectivity, and changes dopamine receptor in caudate nucleus. More studies need to be carried out to revise research designs, research subjects and research methods, to check the effectiveness of working memory training, and to uncover its cognitive and neural mechanism.
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    The Mechanisms and Influential Factors of the Tradeoff Between Proactive and Reactive Cognitive Control
    XU Lei;TANG Dan-Dan;CHEN An-Tao
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1012-1022.  
    Abstract   PDF (259KB) ( 1118 )
    The study of proactive and reactive control provides an important new insight into cognitive control. Proactive control serves to prevent interference before it occurs by actively maintaining goal-related information, whereas reactive control can resolve interference after its onset by reactivating goal-related information. There is a tradeoff between these two kinds of control to optimize task performance. Several paradigms, such as AX-CPT, combined with ERP/fMRI techniques, have been utilized to investigate proactive and reactive control, revealing the temporal dynamics and location of brain activity (e.g., lateral PFC) under proactive versus reactive control. The tradeoff between these two controls can be influenced by physical development (e.g., age), cognitive factors (e.g., fluid intelligence, expectation, training), non-cognitive factors (e.g., emotion, motivation). Further researches should integrate with the study of conflict control and focus more on the computational and neural mechanisms behind such a tradeoff.
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    The Effect of Emotional Valences on Approach and Avoidance Responses
    ZHANG Xiao-Wen;XUAN Yu-Ming;FU Xiao-Lan
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1023-1030.  
    Abstract   PDF (207KB) ( 1537 )
    Emotional information helps human beings produce corresponding responses: approaching or avoiding. Recently psychologists are more and more interested in the effect and mechanism of emotion on approach and avoidance response. Regardless of the disparity in the operational definitions of approach and avoidance, previous studies demonstrated that the compatibility effect of approaching the positive and avoiding the negative -- the positive facilitated compatible approach response and the negative facilitated avoidance response. Motivational orientation theory claims this facilitation is automatic but event coding theory claims the facilitation is dependent on explicit valence evaluation. Evidences supported the two theories were demonstrated and directions of future work were also discussed.
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    Impression Formation Based on Face: From the Perspective of Neuroscience
    ZHANG Yao-Hua;ZHU Li-Qi
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1031-1039.  
    Abstract   PDF (162KB) ( 928 )
    Impression formation is the classical research domain in Social Psychology. As the neuroscience emerges and surges along with the development of imaging technique, researchers have explored this domain from the viewpoint of neuroscience. Impression formations are mainly based on three sources of information, that is, face observation, direct interaction, and secondhand information. Adopting different paradigms, researchers have found that impression formation phenomena and underlying neural substrates are distinct. Generally, observation-based judgments is efficient and precise, frequently recruiting amygdala, while impressions based on secondhand information and direct interaction are involved in deliberative tasks, often recruiting medial prefrontal cortex, and posterior regions of superior temporal sulcus. The neural mechanism of impression formation, the relationships of different cue sources, and its consequences for human judgment and behavior are worthy further investigation.
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    Masculinity: Theoretical Foundation, Research Perspectives and Related Fields
    JIANG Xu-Ling;LV Hou-Chao
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1040-1051.  
    Abstract   PDF (185KB) ( 2006 )
    Masculinity refers to a personality trait which is opposite or parallel to femininity with a certain degree of plasticity. It is a construct internalized by individuals about what men should behave so as to be consistent with masculinity ideology, which maintains the consistency of self-concept and behavior. The forming process of masculinity depends on gender self-identitity, social identification and cultural identification. Stubbornly conforming to the masculine ideology norms in certain society will have positive or negative effect on male’s mental health. This paper systematically reviews the theoretical foundation, research perspectives (ideology, social construction and identity) as well as the related fields in the research of masculinity. Future studies should update the measurements and research methods, refine research fields and explore the cross-cultural masculinities from the point of diversifications.
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    Overview on Theory and Research of Team Learning
    WANG Yan-Fei;YANG Yi
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1052-1061.  
    Abstract   PDF (209KB) ( 1184 )
    Team learning is an interaction process which team members improve behavior performance, optimize team system and improve organizational flexibility based on constantly acquiring, processing, sharing knowledge and information to achieve expected organization goals. This article reviews integrate and extract key point from recent researches of team learning, then comprehensively introducing the concept, character, theory, dimension, measurement, and discussing the factors, the effect and the mechanic role of team learning At the end of the this article we point out that future research should still focus on the definition of team learning, developing more measurement tools and systematic models, expanding the effect of outcome variable and cross-cultural background research in China.
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    The Construct, Measurement and Correlational Researches for Work Autonomy in the Productive Enterprises
    WANG Yi-Fu;QIN Qi-Wen;ZHANG Jian-Ren
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1062-1067.  
    Abstract   PDF (131KB) ( 1362 )
    Work autonomy, as the key variable of the job characteristics, refers to the degree of control or discretion in which an employee is able to implement on work methods, work scheduling, and work criteria which construct three dimensions of Work Autonomy Scale. Many researches revealed that work autonomy had significant effects on the outcome variables, such as job attitudes, job performances, and so on. Meanwhile, it moderated the relationships between the other variables. More confirmatory and intervening experiment researches should be conducted in local scene in future.
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    The New Orientation of Behavioral Decision Making:
    Experience-based Decision Making
    LIU Teng-Fei;XU Fu-Ming;MA Hong-Yu;MA Xiang-Yang;WU Xiu-Liang
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1068-1079.  
    Abstract   PDF (269KB) ( 1471 )
    Experience-based decision making refers to the choice that the individual obtains payoff distribution by repetition and feedback in the context of statistical probability. The paradigm of experience-based decision making includes exploration to exploit paradigm and exploration and exploit paradigm. The implicated decision-maker hypothesis is naïve intuitive statistician. Following this approach, focuses on description-experience gap and its reasons, and also concerns experience-based inner decision processes. Finally, the issues worthy of further research were also outlined, such as description-experience gap and its causes, the model and the application of experience-based decision making.
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    The Confirmation Bias in Judgment and Decision Making
    WU Xiu-Liang;XU Fu-Ming;WANG Wei;MA Xiang-Yang;KUANG Hai-Min
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1080-1088.  
    Abstract   PDF (195KB) ( 1210 )
    Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek out information or interpret evidence in ways that are partial to existing beliefs, expectation, or hypothesises and to ignore or overlook information that is potentially inconsistent. This tendency is universal in behavioral decision making. Currently, researchers explicating the generation mechanism of confirmation bias, have proposed theories like positive-test strategy, cognitive dissonance theory and error avoidance phenomenon. In addition, researches highlighted moderating variables, including need for cognitive closure, abstractness of materials, experience, and conditional reference frame, to which confirmation bias may be subjected. Though a largely implacable cognitive tendency, confirmation bias can be abated through analysis of competing hypotheses and a consideration of the opposite. Moreover, directions for future study on confirmation bias are discussed.
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    The Relationship Between Narcissism and Decision-Making
    HE Ning;GU Yuan-Bo
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1089-1097.  
    Abstract   PDF (154KB) ( 1966 )
    A literature has emerged of laboratory-based studies on the relationship between narcissism and decision-making in gambling, investment and management settings. Individuals with more narcissistic personalities have relatively consistently shown biased decision-making in the direction of increased risk seeking. Some evidence suggest that the increased risk taking observed by narcissists may be adaptive under some circumstances. Here we review the literature of narcissists’ decision-making and key models that attempt to account for it. Limitations of the current literature are also addressed, and future areas of inquiry are suggested.
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    Be Satisfied and Happy: Review and Prospect of Marital Expectation
    WU Bo;HUANG Xi-Ting
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1098-1109.  
    Abstract   PDF (195KB) ( 1857 )
    Marital Expectation is a serial of standards that individuals realistically expect from their marriage, which people believe are capable to be met. Many factors including gender, age, attachment, parents’ marital expectations and cultural background exert influence on the development of marital expectation. Marital expectation violation is found to be significantly related to people’s marital satisfaction. People cope with marital expectation violation in ways such as partner regulation and ideal distortion. Further researches including the development of innovative measure instrument in Chinese background, investigations in family factors and other coping ways in which people deal with marital expectation violation, as well as couple matching of marital expectations are still needed.
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    研究方法
    Ambulatory-assessment Based Sampling Method: Experience Sampling Method
    DUAN Jin-Yun;CHEN Wen-Ping
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1110-1120.  
    Abstract   PDF (230KB) ( 1403 )
    The generalizability of research findings is the golden standard of psychological research. To achieve this goal, researchers constantly develop more realistic research methods with higher ecological validity. Experience sampling method (ESM), a method of data collection by which participants respond to repeated assessments at moments during the course of the time in real situation, is highly favored by various researchers since it was proposed. This article introduced this data collection method and its statistical analyses processes, compared and elaborated the strengths and weakness of this method, and illustrated its main application fields. Finally, the future studies of experience sampling method were discussed as well.
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    Research Design, Measurement, Classification and Future Research Directions of Coping
    SHAO Hua
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1121-1127.  
    Abstract   PDF (145KB) ( 948 )
    Stress and coping is the most widely researched subject in modern psychology. However, the current situation in this filed is stagnant. The main challenging problems in coping research are research design, measurement and classification of coping. Longitudinal dynamic design will be promoted and the functions of situation factors should be stressed in the respect of research design; an Ecological Momentary Assessment and Narrative approaches could be encouraged in the respect of Measurement of coping. Meanwhile, the appropriate methods should be chosen according to the research content; meaning-focused coping should be emphasized in the respect of classification of coping. The new directions of coping include Future-Oriented Proactive Coping, Coping at the Dyadic Level, coping and positive emotions.
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    The Specialty Visualization Study of Psychometrics in Recent 15 Years:
    An Analysis Based on Citespace Ⅱ
    LI Feng;ZHU Bin-Yu;XIN Tao
    . 2012, 20 (7): 1128-1138.  
    Abstract   PDF (357KB) ( 1693 )
    Aiming to understand the development of psychometrics in recent 15 years, the study analyzed the co-cited network of the related papers in Web of Science database during 1998~2011. Using information visualization software based on citation analysis, the paper summarized the most important literatures and described the results of clustering. The Intellectual Base of Psychometrics was figured out and discussed, which consist of algorithm and modeling of IRT, Structural Equation Model related with construct validity, reliability, Differential Item Function related with fairness of test, and dimension detecting related with IRT.
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