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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 20 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    主编特邀
    A Cultural Neuroscience Approach to Self-Concept Representation
    HAN Shi-Hui;ZHANG Yi-Fan
    . 2012, 20 (5): 633-640.  
    Abstract   PDF (151KB) ( 1876 )
    The nature of mental representation of the self has been addressed extensively by philosophers and psychologists. Cross-cultural psychological research has shown evidence for Western/East Asian cultural differences in self-construals. Recent brain imaging studies have explored neural correlates of self-related processing and have found evidence for neural mechanisms of self-representation that are sensitive to cultures. This paper reviews recent brain imaging findings of Western/East Asian cultural differences in neural substrates underlying self-representation in the perceptual and mental domains. The studies using transcultural and cultural priming imaging have led to the development of cultural neuroscience.
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    研究构想
    Shared Mental Models of Collective Ball Sports Team: From Network and Evolution Perspective
    YANG Jie;DENG Wei-Quan;CHENG Hao
    . 2012, 20 (5): 641-650.  
    Abstract   PDF (377KB) ( 837 )
    As team is important in today’s organizations and collective sports, it is the focus of multiple academic disciplines. Shared Mental Models (SMM)are team members’ shared, organized understanding and mental representation of knowledge or beliefs about key elements of the team’s relevant environment. Recently, the competitive strength of China football, basketball, volleyball (three balls for short) has been declining dramatically. All of them became the subject of immense criticism in the media and a national embarrassment. As a result, reviving three balls is a must-do thing for China to become a strong sport nation. Based on network and evolution perspective, this study will investigate China three balls professional teams in an attempt to improve the training and competition level of three balls through analyzing the evolution process and mechanism of team shared mental models (SMMs). Firstly, the researchers will explore the similarities and differences among three balls’ shared mental models by in-depth experts interview and the scoring video analysis of benchmarking teams, which will provide materials and parameters for further studies. Secondly, a multiple case study and longitudinal design will be adopted to study the evolution processes to cross validate and replicate the principles and mechanism of SMMs. Thirdly, the effects of team members’ social network type, structure, and evolution on SMMs and the team effectiveness across three balls will be empirically examined. Last but not least, software package Repast will be taken to monitor the formation and evolution process of SMMs in order to provide references for prediction and real-time intervention.
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    研究前沿
    Using Verbal Probability to Measure Uncertainty:Features and Problems
    DU Xue-Lei;XU Jie-Hong;SU Yin;LI Shu
    . 2012, 20 (5): 651-661.  
    Abstract   PDF (258KB) ( 697 )
    Verbal probability is one of the ways of measuring uncertainty. People use verbal probability, such as “uncertain” and “possible”, to describe the chance that an event will happen. Verbal probability differs from numerical probability, particularly in features of vagueness, non-probabilistic operation, and semantic feature. Some remarkable phenomena and problems arise and the quality of judgment and decision making suffer in one way or another when people use verbal probability, rather than numerical probability, to measure uncertainty. The role of verbal probability in risk decision making is understudied in spite of the fact that people often use verbal probability to communicate uncertainty in their daily lives and of the great differences between verbal probability and numerical probability. Suggestions are made for future work to focus on risk decision making using verbal probability and on other potential features (e.g., the relationship between verbal/numerical probability and the dual system model, cross-cultural differences in verbal probability) and their effects on risky choices, in order to further improve our understanding of the mechanism of risk decision making.
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    The Influencing Factors and Mechanisms of the Visuomotor Simon Effect and Cognitive Simon Effect
    WANG Li;ZHANG Li-Wen;ZHANG Ming-Liang;CHEN An-Tao
    . 2012, 20 (5): 662-671.  
    Abstract   PDF (241KB) ( 1535 )
    The Simon effect refers to the phenomenon in which responses are faster and more accurate when the stimulus location and the location of the assigned response correspond than when they do not. Researching this effect is important to understand perception-action relations. In the domain of Simon effect, most researchers thought that a common mechanism was involved in the Simon effect which was obtained under different experimental conditions. However, There is a growing number of evidence demonstrating that there were two different kinds of Simon effect, namely, Visuomotor Simon effect and Cognitive Simon effect. These two types of Simon effect could be affected by the stimulus form, arrangement mode, response rule and response manner. The Visuomotor Simon effect was due to the spatial code of a stimulus activating a congruent response, while the Cognitive Simon effect originated from the interaction between the code represented the stimulus position and the code represented the response position. The ventral stream and the dorsal stream were thought to be related with the Cognitive Simon effect and Visuomotor Simon effect, respectively.
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    Neuroaesthetics: Exploring Aesthetics and the Brain
    HUANG Zi-Lan;ZHANG Wei-Dong
    . 2012, 20 (5): 672-681.  
    Abstract   PDF (164KB) ( 2166 )
    Neuroaesthetics adopts the technology of neuroscience to explore the mechanisms of aesthetic experience. This paper describes the psychological principles and neural underpinnings of aesthetic experience in terms of cognitive processing. Previous research findings show that the functional brain areas related to aesthetic processing involve sensation, perception, motion, emotion and rewarding systems, and that the three main topics of neuroaethetics are truth-beauty, disembodied-embodied cognition and cognition-emotion. Moreover, future researches in neuroaesthetics should investigate the time course and dynamic properties of aesthetic experience, as well as the general principles of neuroaesthetics from the cross-artistic and cross-cultural perspectives.
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    Neurobiological Basis and Cognitive Mechanism of Altruistic Punishment
    LI Jia;CAI Qiang;HUANG Lu-Hua;WANG Nian-Er;ZHANG Yu-Ling
    . 2012, 20 (5): 682-689.  
    Abstract   PDF (155KB) ( 1525 )
    People often punish other individuals who behave negatively or uncooperatively to promote cooperation even when it comes at personal cost, and when there is no expectation of receiving any material returns. We define this behavior as altruistic punishment. Here, we review the summation of experimental paradigm, process of altruistic punishment evolution and generalizes inequity aversion, theory of mind and empathy to be key factors which induce the behaviors of altruism punishment from current empirical literatures. In addition, altruism punishment-related brain basis has been reviewed and the review also highlights this field’s possible future.
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    The Phenomenon of Shape Bias in Children’s Language Development and Its Cognitive Mechanism
    YE Pan-Qin;LI Fu-Hong;CHEN Qing-Fei;QIAO Jing; LI Hong
    . 2012, 20 (5): 690-697.  
    Abstract   PDF (167KB) ( 1288 )
    Shape bias, which is well known in language development of children, refers to the phenomenon that children tend to extend the name of target objects to test objects sharing the same shape. This phenomenon has been observed on the performance of three years old or even younger children in some paradigms, such as the words extension, category and inductive reasoning. Following studies have found that this phenomenon was modulated by various factors, including the attributes of stimulus, intention of designer, causal/comparative relation and social-pragmatic cues. There are two different theoretical explanations for the shape bias: the association view and conceptual view. However, until now, these theories haven’t been integrated yet. Future studies are necessary to further explore the neural mechanism of shape bias in terms of neurobiological approach, cross-cultural studies and special samples.
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    Entrepreneurial Motivation Research: Conceptual Structure, Influence Factors and Theoretical Models
    DUAN Jin-Yun;WANG Peng;ZHU Yue-Long
    . 2012, 20 (5): 698-704.  
    Abstract   PDF (226KB) ( 2111 )
    Entrepreneurial motivation refers to entrepreneurs’ psychological tendency that drives individual entrepreneurship, and it is the effective predictor of entrepreneurial behaviors. The article summarized the influencing factors of entrepreneurial motivation, which include the Big Five personality characteristics, self-efficacy, goals and environments factors, on the basis of introduction of concepts, structural models and measuring instruments of entrepreneurial motivation. Then the authors elucidated classical entrepreneurial motivation theories, containing pull and push theory, simple and complex theory, as well as the lately put forward theory of emancipation. Finally, the authors discussed the future directions about entrepreneurial motivation research.
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    Vocational Delay of Gratification
    WANG Zhong-Jun;LIU Yun-Juan;YUAN De-Yong
    . 2012, 20 (5): 705-714.  
    Abstract   PDF (264KB) ( 1218 )
    As an important component of self-regulation, the concept of vocational delay of gratification (VDOG) refers to the choice tendency to overcome the temptation of immediate gratification impulse in workplace to get higher career achievement and long-term career goals. VDOG provides a new perspective to explain career development. Foreign studies generally examine the factors related to VDOG as one dimension of work ethic, while in contemporary China, VDOG develops as a unique construct of organizational behavior. Although researchers, both at home and abroad, have explored some antecedents and consequences of VDOG based on individual, organizational and social level, the existing studies have not explored the topic thoroughly. Future research should indigenize the concept of VDOG, focus on concept development of VDOG, improve the measurement of VDOG, and do longitudinal research on VDOG’s mechanisms on individual’s career success.
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    Ego Depletion: Theory, Influencing Factors and Research Trend
    TAN Shu-Hua;XU Yan;WANG Fang;SONG Jing
    . 2012, 20 (5): 715-725.  
    Abstract   PDF (197KB) ( 2562 )
    Due to the self-activities, the mental energy is consumed and this mental energy consumption process is called ego depletion. Ego depletion causes many inadaptation problems. In recent years, the theory of ego depletion has developed in terms of many aspects, e.g. the fields of ego depletion, the duration and internal mechanism. The current investigation of factors affecting ego depletion focuses on cognition, emotion and personality traits. The applied research on results of ego depletion has become a new trend. The mechanism of ego depletion should be further investigated in the future, and some existing debates about the influencing factors and results of ego depletion need to be clarified. Moreover, measurement tools need further study in order to improve the ego depletion theory.
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    “Irrationality” in Justice Judgment: Processing Mechanisms, Main Forms and Influencing Factors
    HU Jin-Sheng;YE Chun;LI Xu;GAO Ting-Ting
    . 2012, 20 (5): 726-734.  
    Abstract   PDF (199KB) ( 1245 )
    Research of “irrational” justice judgment profits from insights of dual-process theory of social cognition, literatures in uncertainty management and moral psychology. Individual’s justice judgment process may incorporate two distinctive cognitive systems differ in structure and evolution. 6 main forms of irrationality are discerned: substitutability process, primacy effects, extreme judgment, compensation bias, innocent victim blaming and moral mandate effect. Apart from situational factors like uncertainty and threatening situation, individual differences in moral identity, belief in just world and emotional state also have great impact on different forms of irrationality. In conclusion, the existing body of knowledge about irrational justice judgment are from many different fields of study. An integrated theoretical explanation and combined influence of factors at different levels are called for in the future, including its evolutionary origin, neural bases, and how it interacts with rational processes. The third party perspective and social reality approach are proposed as the direction of the future research.
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    Theoretical Models, Influencing Factors and Coping Strategies of the Persuasion Effect
    MA Xiang-Yang;XU Fu-Ming;WU Xiu-Liang;PAN Jing;LI Tian
    . 2012, 20 (5): 735-744.  
    Abstract   PDF (166KB) ( 2160 )
    Persuasion effect was defined as a phenomenon that individual changes his attitude and behavioral decision when faced with persuasive information. This phenomenon has important application value and is universal in political elections, consumption and commercial advertising. The dual process model and self-validation hypothesis are two theoretical models of the persuasion effect, namely. The influential factors of persuasion effect include credibility of sources, emotions, message framing, social networks and issue involvement. The effective strategies of persuasion effect contain public commitment and self-control. The deficiencies existing in current research are discussed and the directions for future research on persuasion effect are suggested.
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    Critical Review on Psychological Studies on Moral Hypocrisy
    SHEN Wang-Bing;LIU Chang
    . 2012, 20 (5): 745-756.  
    Abstract   PDF (187KB) ( 2326 )
    Moral hypocrisy reflects the current direction on disengagement between moral cognition and moral behaviors. Prior studies indicated that some theories, including social learning theory, cognitive dissonance theory, social influence theory and the newly emerging dual-processing theory could be employed to interpret its generating mechanism in some sense. Other existing studies focused on its generality effect, self-deception strategies and influence factors. Furthermore, many researchers found that it shared a close relation with cognitive dissonance, and it may enhance people’s pro-social behaviors and organizations’ development. Studies in future seem to reexamine its effect in indigenous and cross cultures by reaction time and implicit measurement technologies.
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    研究方法
    Common Method Variance Effects and the Models of Statistical Approaches for Controlling It
    XIONG Hong-Xing;ZHANG Jing;YE Bao-Juan;ZHENG Xue;SUN Pei-Zhen
    . 2012, 20 (5): 757-769.  
    Abstract   PDF (532KB) ( 2920 )
    Common Method Variance (CMV) refers to the overlap in variance between two variables because of the type of measurement instrument used rather than representing a true relationship between the underlying constructs. Researchers should give careful consideration to CMV although it may not surely bias the conclusions about the relationships between measures. CMV effect is often created by using the same method — especially a survey — to measure each variable. Procedural design and statistical control solutions are provided to minimize its likelihood in studies. A statistical control technique is a good solution if it can separate construct varience, method varience and error, and distinguish method bias at the item level from method bias at the construct level, and takes account of Method×Trait interactions. Thus, method-factor approaches are better than partial correlation approaches. It’s very important to understand the model of every method-factor approache for selecting statistical remedies correctly for different types of research settings. Etimating evaluate the effect of CMV within specific research domains and the effect of CMV on empirical findings within a theoretical domain should be concerned for further research.
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    The Real-time Measurement of the Process of Person Construal Based on Mouse-tracking Technology
    ZHANG Xiao-Bin;ZUO Bin;XUE Meng-Jie;JIANG Wen;HOU Fei-Xiang
    . 2012, 20 (5): 770-781.  
    Abstract   PDF (465KB) ( 792 )
    The studies on person construal involving much automatic processing process investigate low level perceptional process of categorization and its mechanism. Based on the physiological principle that the movement of hand can reflect the mental process, mouse-tracking technology measures the mental process in real time by recording and analyzing the coordinates of the locus of the movement of mouse, and it is a new method of measuring mental process in real time. Based on the MouseTracker which is the latest version software of mouse-tracking technology, the studies found that social categories and stereotypes followed the principle of dynamic continuous activation. During the dynamic activation process, the categorization processing based on facial pigmentation took precedence over processing based on the facial shape. The cross-modal processes of social category followed the principles of dynamic integration. Dynamic interactive theory of person construal assumes that the perception of other people is accomplished by a dynamical system involving continuous interaction between social categories, stereotypes, high-level cognitive states, and the low-level processing of facial or vocal cues.
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    The Tree in the Projective Tests
    CAI Wei;TANG Yong-Long;WU Song;CHEN Zhen-Zhen
    . 2012, 20 (5): 782-790.  
    Abstract   PDF (220KB) ( 1461 )
    The tree is one of the common images used in the drawing test. The mainly analysis system of the tree in the projective test are the House–Tree–Person test and the Baumtest. But the manipulation and analysis methods of these two tests to tree are different. The tree–drawing test is valid and reliable. It reflects individual’s mental status and the interaction between a person and surroundings. It can test the pathological post–traumatic reactions, and distinguish special members from normal adults. For future studies, the tree–scar–trauma hypothesis should be further tested and improved its application in the field of disaster psychology. And the variety of culture should be considered, and the validity and standardization should be improved for developing the test. Let it play a big role in the clinical assessment and therapy.
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