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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 20 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
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    主编特邀
    Special Issue on Psychological Science and New Culture Building
    SHI Zhan-Biao, et al.
    . 2012, 20 (4): 475-492.  
    Abstract   PDF (196KB) ( 869 )
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    博士论坛
    On-line Study on Chinese Word Recognition During Sentence Reading
    REN Gui-Qin;HAN Yu-Chang;LIU Ying
    . 2012, 20 (4): 493-503.  
    Abstract   PDF (301KB) ( 1088 )
    Visual word recognition and the effects of context on it have been a crucial issue in linguistic psychology and cognitive psychology. The eye-tracking method and event-related potentials are combined to examine the processes of Chinese word identification. In the six experiments, we investigated the activation of phonology and orthography during Chinese sentences reading by manipulating the constraint of sentence on the target words. In addition, we explored the resolution of ambiguous word in different biased sentence context. The results showed the influences of sentence context on word recognition and provided the example of combining eye-tracking method and ERP technology in language cognition.
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    研究构想
    The Brain Mechanism of Insight Induced by Heuristic Prototype in Invention
    LUO Jun-Long;QIN Yi-Gui;LI Wen-Fu;Zhu Hai-Xue;TIAN Yan;QIU Jiang;ZHANG Qing-Lin
    . 2012, 20 (4): 504-513.  
    Abstract   PDF (270KB) ( 1186 )
    Numerous cases have shown that insight appears to occur when inventions were induced by heuristic prototypes in the scientific community. From the Chinese legend of Luban invented the saw which drew inspiration from acrodont couch grass to the classical story of Watt invented the steam engine inspired by looking at a pot of boiling water, too many such cases suggested that ‘prototype heuristics’ might be an important way of thinking in inventions. However, the neural basis of creative thinking is still stuck in researches of solving unscientific problems due to the complexity of the processing of the scientific innovation. Based on the latest scientific inventions in which scientists drew inspiration from heuristic prototypes, our group of this project has complied the material database of creative problem for experiments. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP), the present project aims to explore the cognitive neural mechanisms of insight induced by heuristic prototype in invention. Specifically, we plan to investigate the cognitive neural basis of influences on heuristic prototypes, such as activation of prototype, application of heuristic information, catching inspiration under the problematic consciousness, prototype representation, motivation and emotional state, working situation of brain etc. So it has important theory significance to understand the essence of human creative thinking as well as practical significance to stimulate and nurture human creativity to carry out this project.
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    研究前沿
    The Cognitive Processing Models of Synesthesia and Its Neuropsychological Mechanisms
    LIU Si-Yun
    . 2012, 20 (4): 514-522.  
    Abstract   PDF (176KB) ( 1121 )
    Synesthesia is the simultaneous perception of different senses. There are strong synesthesia and weak synesthesia, with the former referring to explicit consciousness of a second sense perception and the latter to implicit feelings evoked by word descriptions of cross-modal sensories. Previous studies have found different types of strong synesthesia and provided evidence for many of these types by presenting various related activated brain areas. Reserachers attemped to explain the brain mechanisms of strong synesthesia by suggesting several corresponding theorietical models from the perspectives of either brain structure or cognitive processing. Furthermore, this article also reviewed the relationship between strong synesthesia and other cognitive processes (e.g., attention, memory, creation), discussed the current research status about weak synesthesia, and suggested the future research trend in synesthesia.
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    The Model and Measurement of Object-Spatial Image and Verbal Cognitive Style
    BAO Xu-Hui;HE Li-Guo;SHI Mei;YOU Xu-Qun
    . 2012, 20 (4): 523-531.  
    Abstract   PDF (175KB) ( 1079 )
    Visual imagery cognitive style was theoretically hypothesised as a unitary dimension in the traditional Verbal-Imagery cognitive style model, and the validity of various measurements designed based on that model were dissatisfied, which resulted in widely query to the Verbal –Imagery cognitive style. With the development of studies on cognitive processing of visual information, especially the understanding on functional and anatomical dissociation of visual object and spatial imagery, a new Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal (OSIV) cognitive style model was put forward, based on which, the corresponding measurement (Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire, OSIVQ) was developed and proved to be effectively supportive for the OSIV model with its good reliability and validity. The OSIV cognitive model extends the previous understanding of human cognitive styles and visual cognition. However, the two different imagery subsystems coexist in human imagery system, further investigation are needed addressing the reason for dissociation and interaction between object and spatial imagery, and also their relationships with visual attention resource.
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    An Overview of Current Studies about the Conflict Adaptation Effect
    LIU Pei-Duo;YANG Wen-Jing;TIAN Xia;CHEN An-Tao
    . 2012, 20 (4): 532-541.  
    Abstract   PDF (210KB) ( 1278 )
    The conflict adaptation effect (CAE) refers to the phenomenon that the interference effects are smaller following an incongruent stimulus than following a congruent one. Three theoretical accounts are developed to explain the mechanisms underlying CAE: conflict monitoring theory, feature integration account, and online learning account. Many studies have been conducted for CAE in these three fields (investigating the nature, domain and extent of the conflicts which induce CAE). Meanwhile, a few studies have been conducted investigating the influencing factors of CAE. In order to get a clear view of the CAE essence, future studies should combine the cognitive factors and non-cognitive factors to explore the influence factors of CAE. Furthermore, it is important to strengthen the neural mechanisms study.
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    Relationships Between Mathematical Ability and Decision Making: A Perspective of Individual Difference
    ZHOU Zheng;XIN Zi-Qiang
    . 2012, 20 (4): 542-551.  
    Abstract   PDF (228KB) ( 1412 )
    Though in similar conditions, different people make diversified decisions. Such variance may derive from different levels of mathematical ability, which includes numeracy, quantity representation, probability inference, and numerical heuristics. Researchers have adopted two distinguishing paradigms in order to take an insight to the influence of mathematical ability. The most commonly used paradigm is the correlation method through which mathematical ability is regarded as an external correlate factor of decision-making; the other is the component paradigm which is applied to identify specific mathematical ability components involved in a decision-making process. Debates of the recent research lie in not only the role of mathematical ability and general cognition in decision-making, but also whether mathematical ability consistently makes a positive contribution to decision-making. Dual-system theory and fuzzy-trace theory could offer a framework for the explanation of individual difference in decision-making. Further research should focus on clarifying the above-mentioned controversy, developing a more efficient research paradigm and an unified explanation framework, as well as discovering methods to help people improve decision performance.
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    The Effects of Deviant Peer Association on Juvenile Delinquency
    ZANG Gang-Shun
    . 2012, 20 (4): 552-560.  
    Abstract   PDF (226KB) ( 1357 )
    An understanding of the relationship between peers and delinquency is at the heart of delinquency research. Large amounts of empirical research support the idea claimed by learning theorists that deviant peer association promotes juvenile delinquency, and this prompt appears in juvenile offenders of different ages, different genders, different developmental trajectories and different delinquency types, even in many juvenile offenders group intervention programs of various kinds. To shed new light on this topic, future studies should choose juveniles from different cultural backgrounds as research objects, and adopt more longitudinal studies, comparative studies and experimental studies to further explore the group differences and the internal mechanisms of this influence, and develop effective intervention measures for it.
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    Employees’ Discretionary Work Behaviours in Organizations
    SUN Jian-Qun;DUAN Jin-Yun;TIAN Xiao-Ming
    . 2012, 20 (4): 561-574.  
    Abstract   PDF (339KB) ( 1315 )
    Discretionary work behavior (DWB) is a kind of spontaneous behavior beyond role norms, which includes two major research areas. One is extra-role behavior represented by organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), voice behavior, contextual performance and so on; the other is negative organizational behavior, such as counterproductive work behavior (CWB), silence behavior, deviant behavior, etc. The generation of DWB is the interactive result of individual and environment factors. The relationship between ‘OCB-CWB’ and ‘voice-silence’ are not negatively related and they can be transformed into each other under some circumstances. The present study proposed the transformation processes of the specific categories to the overall, adopted the affective events theory, compensatory ethics principles and cost-benefit analysis to explain the transformation processes.
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    Existing Evidence and Controversy of Subliminal Persuasion
    CHEN Zhen-Zhen;CAI Wei;ZHENG Yong
    . 2012, 20 (4): 575-583.  
    Abstract   PDF (151KB) ( 1124 )
    Subliminal persuasion refers to the use of subliminally presented stimuli, or messages presented to individuals beneath their level of conscious awareness, that are intended to influence their viewpoints, attitudes, or actions. Existing studies investigated the effect of subliminal persuasion from different perspectives, and resulted in a considerable controversy over whether subliminal persuasion actually works. The reasons of the controversy may lie in awareness, subliminal semantic activation, motivation and habit. Recent studies focus on exploring the key role which current motivation plays in this domain. For future studies, methods of promoting semantic activation and causing motivation should be improved, and the diversity of motivation categories should be mentioned. What’s more, the organic variable should be paid attention to, so as to explore new mechanisms.
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    Inaction Inertia: Causes, Conditions and Application
    LI Xiao-Ming;LI Xiao-Lin
    . 2012, 20 (4): 584-591.  
    Abstract   PDF (215KB) ( 1230 )
    Inaction inertia refers specifically to the tendency of a person who already has passed up a similar, more attractive opportunity to omit acting on a second, somewhat less desirable opportunity (even if it still represents a gain from one normal reference point). Firstly, the present work briefly introduced the concept, operational definition and research methods of inaction inertia. Secondly, the causes of inaction inertia were summarized into regret and valuation based on the former studies, and the relevant empirical researches were also displayed. Thirdly, the conditions of inducing inaction inertia and some application researches on marketing and stock market were discussed. Finally, the future study needs to emphasize the development of the research methods and exploring the causes of inaction inertia.
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    Psychological and Behavioral Characteristics of Problem Gamblers
    SHI Wen-Wen;WANG Bin;MA Hong-Yu;LUO Xiao-Bing;CAI Yu-Xuan
    . 2012, 20 (4): 592-597.  
    Abstract   PDF (162KB) ( 1033 )
    Problem gamblers refer to those lottery consumers who make destructive influences toward individuals, families and society caused by purchasing lottery. The previous studies of problem gamblers include demography variables, psychological characteristics, behavioral characteristics and intervention strategies. Besides, we consider that future studies should pay attention to some new variables and model of purchasing intention of problem gamblers, expanding case study and longitudinal research design, exploring mechanics of neurophysiology and improving prevention and intervention strategies.
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    Trade-off in Love: To Maintain or Restore Psychological Equity in the Process of Give and Take Among Romantic Partners
    LI Jian;LI Yi-Ming
    . 2012, 20 (4): 598-607.  
    Abstract   PDF (139KB) ( 1887 )
    Both lovers and psychologists are interested in how people give and take is good for their personal and relationship well-being in romantic relationships. Based on early classic theories such as social exchange and interdependence theory, give and take among romantic partners can be defined as romantic exchange, and a substantial number of studies have been conducted to explore its basic psychological processes. In recent years, psychologists proposed a new theory to explain the complicated psychological mechanisms of romantic exchange and this theory was supported by empirical research. All these theories and research findings provide strong evidences for us to understand the underlying principles, characteristics and influential factors of romantic exchange. Future studies can pay more attention to the role of emotion and the automatic and controlled process in romantic exchange.
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    The Understanding and Applying of the Active Imagination
    LI Bei-Rong;SONG Bin;SHEN He-Yong
    . 2012, 20 (4): 608-615.  
    Abstract   PDF (185KB) ( 1893 )
    Active Imagination is a unique clinical technique which was developed by the late Swiss psychiatrist C.G. Jung (1875-1961). This article generalizes the definition, practical conditions, application and arguments of and for active imagination. Active Imagination has been developed in many forms. It could be integrated into art therapy, body movement therapy, used in individual or group clinical work, as well as being applied in the understanding and working through the transference and counter-transference in clinical work or case supervision. Even though there are some theoretical disputes regarding active imagination, we suggest that it should be applied widely in practice based on its essential features. We further assert that this method can be further developed by fostering the integration and constructive dialogue between the technique and theory of analytical psychology and aspects of Chinese Culture.
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    研究方法
    Application of Computerized Adaptive Testing in Cognitive Diagnosis
    TANG Xiao-Juan;DING Shu-Liang;YU Zong-Huo
    . 2012, 20 (4): 616-626.  
    Abstract   PDF (287KB) ( 836 )
    Combining cognitive diagnosis with computerized adaptive testing, cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT) aims to more efficiently and more accurately diagnose examinees’ mastery status of a group of discretely defined skills, or attributes than paper & pencil tests. Because cognitive diagnosis involves in the concepts of attribute or knowledge state, CD-CAT is quite different from the ordinary CAT. In fact, the components of CD-CAT including the bank building, measurement model, starting rule, item selection strategy, stopping rule, and even the estimate method are very different from those of traditional CAT. In this paper, the researches and problems on these components of CD-CAT are discussed in details.
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    Development and Application of Multilevel Item Response Theory
    LIU Hui;JIAN Xiao-Zhu;ZHANG Min-Qiang;XIONG Yue-Xin
    . 2012, 20 (4): 627-632.  
    Abstract   PDF (145KB) ( 965 )
    Hierarchical linear model (HLM) is an advanced statistical method for analyzing hierarchical structure data, and item response theory (IRT) is a modern measurement theory for accurately estimating individual’s ability. Combining HLM and IRT brought about the development of multilevel item response theory (multilevel IRT), where ability parameter in item response model is treated as latent variable in HLM. Multilevel IRT can be used not only to obtain the values of item parameters and ability parameters of different levels, but also to estimate the regression coefficients and variance components more precisely. In this paper, the authors expound the developmental history of multilevel IRT, then evaluate the academic value of multilevel IRT from the perspectives of differential item functioning, test equating and school effectiveness research. Future research directions for multilevel IRT are discussed as well.
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