ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (6): 791-806.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00791

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

小学低年级儿童的等值分数概念发展及干预

辛自强;韩玉蕾   

  1. (1中央财经大学社会发展学院心理学系, 北京 100081) (2北京市房山区考试中心, 北京 102412)
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-28 出版日期:2014-06-30 发布日期:2014-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 辛自强
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(30970909)资助。

The Developmental and Interventional Research on Lower Graders' Concept of Equivalent Fraction

XIN Ziqiang;HAN Yulei   

  1. (1 Department of Psychology at School of Social Development, Central University of Finance and Economics, Beijing 100081, China) (2 Educational Examination Center of Fangshan District of Beijing, Beijing 102412, China)
  • Received:2013-05-28 Online:2014-06-30 Published:2014-06-30
  • Contact: XIN Ziqiang

摘要:

等值分数概念的发展要以相对量概念和乘法思维为基础。实验1将小学一至三年级儿童等值分数概念的发展划分为3个阶段:整体量概念、数量化的相对量概念、正式的等值分数概念, 结果表明一年级儿童尚未获得数量化的相对量概念, 二年级儿童尚未发展起成熟的乘法思维。基于此, 依据最近发展区原理设计了干预实验。实验2的干预方法是在一年级儿童的整体量概念基础上促进其数量化的相对量概念的发展, 实验3的干预方法是通过熟悉的任务情境来促进二年级儿童对乘法关系的实际意义的理解, 从而促进其乘法思维的发展。这些干预方法达到了预期效果, 为开展等值分数的早期教学提供了借鉴。

关键词: 等值分数, 相对量概念, 乘法思维, 策略, 干预

Abstract:

Equivalent fractions are fractions with the same numerical value, and the concept of which is built on the development of the relative-amount concept and multiplicative thinking. Previous studies have found that young children can solve non-symbolic equivalent fraction problems in an intuitive, global way, yet they often incorrectly make absolute-value judgments on problems involving discrete quantities. Boyer et al’s (2008) study suggested that it was due to an overextension of numerical equivalence concepts to proportional equivalence problems, but they did not make further analysis on the qualitative differences of concepts on equivalent fractions at lower grades of elementary school, nor did they explore the development process of the concept, while it is of great significance for guiding the early mathematical instruction. Our study examined first- through third-grade students’ operative thinking levels, and summarized the developmental pattern of the concept. Moreover, based on the principle of the zone of proximal development, two interventional experiments were carried out to improve first- and second-graders’ conceptual levels of equivalent fraction. Study 1 examined the operative thinking levels of first- through third-graders by employing the orange juice concentration matching task and analyzing their accurate rates and strategies in continuous, discrete and blended conditions, and on these grounds, we proposed a three-stage model for the development of equivalent fraction concept: the first stage is named the global-quantity concept, the second stage is the quantitative relative-amount concept, and the third stage is the formal concept of equivalent fraction. First-grade children, in the transitional period between the first to the second stage, have not yet formed the stable relative-amount concept; Second-grade children, in the transitional period between the second to the third stage, have developed a more mature relative-amount concept, but their multiplicative thinking has not yet developed. Study 2 verified the effectiveness of using children’s success on proportional problems involving continuous amounts to scaffold their performance on proportional problems involving discrete sets, which promoted the development of first-graders’ quantitative relative-amount concept. Study 3 brought the corresponding multiple-relationship between two dimensions in a certain situation to children’s attention, which improved second-graders’ levels of multiplicative thinking. In conclusion, this study proposed a three-stage model of the development of equivalent fraction concept, and further verified the model by two interventional experiments. The results proved the effectiveness of promoting first-graders’ quantitative relative-amount concept by using the intuitive global-quantity concept, as well as the significance of improving second-graders’ levels of multiplicative thinking by bringing the corresponding multiple-relationship between two dimensions to children’s attention.

Key words: equivalent fractions, relative-amount concept, multiplicative thinking, strategy, intervention