ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (6): 555-564.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00555

• 研究报告 •    下一篇

基于干扰物特征的统计规则对注意抑制效应的影响

张帆, 王爱君(), 张明()   

  1. 苏州大学心理学系, 心理与行为科学研究中心, 苏州 215123
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-05 发布日期:2021-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 王爱君,张明 E-mail:psyzm@suda.edu.cn;ajwang@suda.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31871092);国家自然科学基金(31700939);江苏省基础研究计划(BK20170333)

The influence of feature-based statistical regularity of singletons on the attentional suppression effect

ZHANG Fan, WANG Aijun(), ZHANG Ming()   

  1. Department of Psychology, Research Center for Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China
  • Received:2020-08-05 Published:2021-04-25
  • Contact: WANG Aijun,ZHANG Ming E-mail:psyzm@suda.edu.cn;ajwang@suda.edu.cn

摘要:

采用经典的额外单例范式的变式, 通过操纵基于干扰物颜色的统计规则, 考察其对注意抑制效应的影响。结果发现:(1)当迫使被试采取特征探测策略时, 与无颜色独子的条件相比, 被试在所有呈现独子的条件中反应都显著较快; (2)与呈现低概率颜色独子条件相比, 呈现高概率颜色独子条件下被试的反应显著较快。研究表明, 统计规则对注意的影响不局限于刺激位置, 基于干扰物特征的统计规则也会影响注意抑制效应的大小。

关键词: 额外单例范式, 特征探测策略, 统计规则, 注意抑制效应

Abstract:

Statistical regularity refers to the regular presentation of stimuli implicit in a task. Previous studies have shown that statistical regularity based on location can affect the judgement of subsequent stimuli presented at that location. The effect of attentional capture would decrease when the distractor frequently appears in a certain location. However, comprehensive studies on whether statistical regularity based on features can modulate attention are lacking. The current study adopted a variant of the additional singleton paradigm to investigate the influence of feature-based statistical regularity of singletons on the attentional suppression effect.

Experiment 1 was a single-factor within-subject design, and the presentation of a colour singleton was manipulated (colour singleton absent vs. colour singleton present) to investigate the attentional suppression effect. During the task, the participants adopted a feature search strategy to search for a target of a specific shape (diamond or circle) and ignored the salient colour singleton. In half of the trials, all stimuli were the same colour (green or red); in the other half of the trials, one colour singleton was presented among the search sequences. Similar to Experiment 1, Experiment 2 was a single-factor within-subject design, but the statistical regularity of the singleton features was manipulated (colour singleton absent vs. low probability colour singleton present vs. high probability colour singleton present). In one-third of the trials, all stimuli were the same colour (colour singleton absent). In the trials in which a colour singleton was presented, the colour singleton frequently appeared in a specific colour (50%, called high probability colour); in the other half of the singleton-present trials, a colour singleton appeared in one of the three colours randomly (called low probability colour). The participants were asked to respond by pressing the keyboard as quickly and accurately as possible in both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2.

Based on the reaction times, the results showed that (1) in Experiment 1, when the participants were forced to adopt the feature search strategy, they responded significantly faster in the colour singleton-present trials than in the colour singleton-absent trials; (2) in Experiment 2, regardless of whether there was a high or low probability colour condition, the participants responded significantly faster when the colour singleton was present than when it was absent; (3) compared with the low probability colour condition, the high probability colour condition corresponded to significantly faster responses.

These results suggest that the influence of statistical regularity on attention is not confined to location, and feature-based statistical regularity of singletons can also modulate the attentional suppression effect.

Key words: additional singleton paradigm, feature search strategy, statistical regularities, attentional suppression effect

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