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心理学报  2018, Vol. 50 Issue (10): 1071-1082    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01071
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语义关联的注意捕获——来自线索化范式的证据
王慧媛1,隋洁2,3(),张明4()
1长春师范大学心理学系, 长春 130032
2清华大学心理学系, 北京 100084
3 Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK
4苏州大学心理学系, 苏州 215123
Attentional capture is contingent on attentional control setting for semantic meaning: Evidence from modified spatial cueing paradigm
Hui-Yuan WANG1,Jie SUI2,3(),Ming ZHANG4()
1 Department of Psychology, Changchun Normal University, Changchun 130032, China
2 Department of Psychology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3 Department of Psychology, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY, UK
4 Department of Psychology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123, China
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摘要 

采用线索化范式, 操作性地建立线索和靶子的语义关联, 考察语义关联对注意捕获的影响。实验1采用特征线索意义靶子的形式, 建立某一特定语义水平的注意控制定势, 发现线索靶子语义一致时线索捕获注意, 线索靶子语义不一致时同样的线索失去捕获注意的能力。实验2随机呈现线索颜色和靶子汉字, 建立两种语义概念的注意控制定势, 发现所有的线索都出现了捕获效应, 而不论其在某一具体试次中是否与靶子意义一致。实验3交换了线索与靶子的属性及概念, 采用意义线索特征靶子的形式, 结果与实验1一致。这些结果表明, (1)语义关联的注意捕获符合关联性的无意注意定向假说, 刺激的捕获能力受当前的注意控制定势调节; (2)由语义概念激活的知觉表征在调节空间注意分配上与其自身相比形式相同, 但程度有所下降; (3)知觉特征水平的注意控制定势能够激活与其相应的语义概念, 使其吸引注意并调节空间注意分配; (4)知觉表征和语义概念的激活可能是双向的, 激活后在指导注意转移上表现出相同的特性。

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王慧媛
隋洁
张明
关键词 语义关联注意捕获注意控制定势线索化范式语义激活    
Abstract

Abstract It has been well documented that attentional capture is contingent on the features of attentional control settings; however, whether and how the semantic contingency between cue and target stimuli modulates spatial attention is poorly understood. Here, we tested this question with strict experiment designs by focusing on pure contingent attentional capture for the semantic meaning of feature attributes or semantic concept cues, and we then examined the nature of attentional control in human visual spatial performance.

A modified spatial cuing paradigm was employed in the current study. In Experiment 1, cues presented in red or green and targets were white Chinese characters “红” (meaning red) or “绿” (meaning green). We had participants discriminate the location of the gap of the target square in different cue-target blocks. Experiments 2 and 3 were identical to Experiment 1, except that in Experiment 2, cue property and target character were randomized, and the task was to discriminate the target as “红” or “绿”; Experiment 3 swapped the cue and target stimuli, where cues were Chinese characters in white and targets were presented in red or green.

The results showed that semantically congruent color cues exclusively captured attention when participants searched for a specific semantic meaning in Experiment 1. In contrast, cuing effects were observed in Experiment 2 in the two-color cue conditions when participants discriminated two Chinese characters, and the effects were independent of the semantic congruency of cue and target. Experiment 3 replicated the results in Experiment 1; cues with semantically congruent Chinese characters captured attention only when participants were required to search for a specific color.

It is concluded that (1) the effects of semantic attentional capture were modulated by attentional control setting, consistent with a contingent attentional orienting hypothesis; (2) the perceptional representation of stimuli activated by semantic concept modulated the processing of stimuli on the location of spatial attention, but the magnitude of the effect decreased; (3) the congruent semantic representation was activated by attentional control setting for perceptional feature and subsequently modulated the allocation of attention; and (4) activation of semantic concept and perceptional representation may be bidirectional and resemble each other in traits of attention shift guidance.

Key wordssemantic contingency    attentional capture    attentional control setting    modified spatial cuing paradigm    semantic activation
收稿日期: 2017-10-12      出版日期: 2018-08-23
中图分类号:  B842  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金(31371025);吉林省教育厅“十三五”社会科学项目(JJKH20181210SK);长春师范大学人文社会科学基金项目(长师大社科合字[2017] 001号)资助
引用本文:   
王慧媛,隋洁,张明. (2018). 语义关联的注意捕获——来自线索化范式的证据. 心理学报, 50(10): 1071-1082.
Hui-Yuan WANG,Jie SUI,Ming ZHANG. (2018). Attentional capture is contingent on attentional control setting for semantic meaning: Evidence from modified spatial cueing paradigm. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 50(10), 1071-1082.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2018.01071      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2018/V50/I10/1071
  实验1流程图 注:首先呈现注视屏500 ms, 然后呈现线索屏100 ms。存在两种颜色线索, 分别为红色和绿色, 线索位置随机。随后再次呈现注视屏100 ms, 最后呈现靶子屏1000 ms。靶子为白色的“红”字或“绿”字, 4个汉字位置随机。根据线索与靶子的组合情况, 实验共有4种条件, 对于每种条件线索颜色和靶子汉字均已确定。实验采用Block设计, 被试的任务是既快又准地判断当前Block内特定靶子字所在方框缺口的位置, 缺口左右随机。
因变量指标/线索有效性 “红”字靶子 “绿”字靶子
语义一致 语义不一致 语义一致 语义不一致
反应时(ms) 线索无效 816.5 (83.9) 784.6 (86.7) 840.3 (80.2) 827.9 (73.7)
线索有效 768.3 (83.8) 772.2 (69.3) 806.5 (70.1) 822.8 (84.2)
错误率(%) 线索无效 6.5 (4.9) 5.6 (4.2) 8.1 (7.3) 8.6 (9.1)
线索有效 5.3 (5.7) 5.4 (4.7) 5.7 (4.9) 7.1 (5.7)
  实验1中线索有效性、线索靶子语义一致性和靶子身份间各处理下的平均反应时及错误率(标准差)
  实验1中线索有效性和线索靶子语义一致性的交互作用 注:当线索靶子语义一致时, 线索无效条件下的反应时大于线索有效条件下的反应时; 当线索靶子语义不一致时, 线索无效条件下的反应时与线索有效条件下的反应时无差异。***表示p < 0.001, 下同
因变量指标/线索有效性 “红”字靶子 “绿”字靶子
语义一致 语义不一致 语义一致 语义不一致
反应时(ms) 线索无效 665.8 (106.2) 662.1 (102.8) 718.9 (120.6) 723.1 (123.0)
线索有效 636.7 (104.1) 641.6 (99.9) 692.4 (119.1) 698.4 (115.2)
错误率(%) 线索无效 8.5 (4.5) 6.9 (5.2) 5.9 (5.5) 6.4 (6.3)
线索有效 4.3 (4.3) 5.9 (6.3) 5.3 (6.2) 5.1 (6.2)
  实验2中有效性、线索靶子语义一致性和靶子身份间各处理下的平均反应时及错误率(标准差)
  实验3流程图 注:首先呈现注视屏500 ms, 然后呈现线索屏100 ms。线索是“红”字、“绿”字或“纱”字, 位置随机。随后再次呈现注视屏100 ms, 最后呈现靶子屏500 ms, 靶子为红色方框或绿色方框。根据线索与靶子的组合情况, 实验采用Block设计, 共有6种条件, 对于每种条件线索字和靶子颜色均已确定。被试的任务是既快又准地判断当前Block内特定颜色靶子框缺口的位置, 缺口左右随机。
因变量指标/线索有效性 红色靶子 绿色靶子
线索有效 线索无效 线索有效 线索无效
反应时(ms) 语义一致 509.0 (38.1) 484.0 (41.7) 534.7 (40.7) 511.9( 44.2)
语义不一致 500.5 (44.1) 498.1 (47.0) 526.1 (37.5) 528.1 (39.0)
语义无关 499.8 (42.9) 495.8 (51.4) 516.7 (33.0) 515.8 (35.4)
错误率(%) 语义一致 4.0 (2.8) 2.1 (2.8) 8.0 (6.3) 5.7 (7.5)
语义不一致 4.8 (4.7) 4.0 (4.4) 5.6 (4.5) 5.7 (5.8)
语义无关 4.1 (3.1) 5.0 (4.7) 5.8 (4.8) 7.1 (7.6)
  实验3中有效性、线索靶子语义一致性和靶子颜色间各处理下的平均反应时及错误率(标准差)
  实验3中线索有效性和语义一致性间的交互作用 注:语义一致条件下, 线索无效条件下的反应慢于线索有效条件下的反应; 语义不一致和语义无关条件下, 线索无效条件下的反应与线索有效条件下的反应无差异。
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