ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (10): 1442-1453.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.01442

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  1. (1天津商业大学心理系, 天津 300134) (2 东北师范大学心理学院, 长春 130024) (3天津师范大学心理与行为研究院, 天津 300074)
  • 收稿日期:2014-01-10 出版日期:2014-10-25 发布日期:2014-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 白学军, E-mail:; 刘丽, E-mail:

The Effect of Top-down Attentional Control Setting on Attentional Capture

LIU Li1; LI Yun1; LI Lihong2; BAI Xuejun3   

  1. (1 Department of Psychology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China) (2 School of Psychology, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China) (3 Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300074, China)
  • Received:2014-01-10 Online:2014-10-25 Published:2014-10-25
  • Contact: BAI Xuejun, E-mail:; LIU Li, E-mail:
  • Supported by:



采用经典前线索范式的变式, 通过100%有效的提示考察了自上而下的注意控制定势在注意捕获中的作用。实验1要求被试在整个实验中只搜索一个固定颜色的目标, 但是通过在每个试次前对目标进行提示加强注意控制定势的强度。实验2通过在每个试次中变化要搜索的目标颜色使被试必须建立两个更强的注意控制定势。实验结果一致表明和目标颜色相匹配的线索捕获了注意, 而和目标颜色无关的线索被抑制; 实验2的捕获效应和抑制效应都显著大于实验1; 对无关冲突线索和无关中性线索的注意抑制效应没有差异, 抑制效应显著小于捕获效应。研究表明自上而下的注意控制定势通过把注意从和目标不匹配的特征位置转移发挥作用, 支持注意转移假说; 对匹配线索的捕获和对无关线索的抑制运用了同一加工系统, 抑制作为捕获的附加产品出现, 两者都可以作为注意捕获的指标。

关键词: 注意捕获, 注意控制定势, 相倚捕获假说, 简单过滤说, 注意转移假说


The issue of how top-down modulation of Attentional Control Setting (ACS) occurs has been controversial. According to the simple filtering account, involuntary attentional captures do not occur when the cues do not match the top-down setting. The cues are filtered out under this condition, which results in a nonspatial filtering cost. However, according to the attentional disengagement account, all salient stimuli capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner, ACS modulates when the attention shifts away from an item which has captured attention. The key difference between the two accounts is that the former assumes irrelevant cues can’t capture attention and that the latter believes irrelevant cues can be suppressed. It is believed that the studies supporting the former did not involve strong ACS and that the results were not fully explained by the top-down ACS. When participants could or were forced to establish strong ACSs, suppression effects of irrelevant cues would appear. The present study was designed to explore the mechanisms involved in the attentional capture phenomenon using a variant of the classic precuing paradigm. In Experiment 1, each participant looked for the same target color (red or green) throughout the entire experiment. At the beginning of each trial, a prompt announcing the color of the target would appear. It is believed that the use of prompt would make ACS not fluctuate during the experiment; therefore, the participants would maintain a strong ACS level. In Experiment 2, every participant looked for a random sequence of target colors (red and green) which changed unpredictably on a trial-by-trial basis. Under such circumstance, the participants had to process the prompt with the target color in each trial so that they could find the relevant color in the target and respond correctly. The results demonstrated that (1) in both experiments, it was found that matched cues resulted in pronounced attention capturing effect, that irrelevant cues were suppressed and that the suppression effects were significantly smaller than the capture effects, (2) the capture effects of matched cues and the suppression effects of irrelevant cues in Experiment 2 were significantly larger than those in Experiment 1, (3) there was no significant difference between the suppression effects induced by irrelevant distractor-color cues and those induced by irrelevant neutral-color cues, It was concluded that (1) ACS operated through disengagement of attention from the location of a property that did not match ACS, which was followed by suppression of processing at that location, which supported the attentional disengagement account, (2) the capture of matched cues and the suppression of irrelevant cues used the same processing system; suppression of irrelevant features occurred as a by-product of facilitative ACSs, both of which were indicators for attentional capture.

Key words: attentional capture, attentional control setting, contingent capture account, simple filtering account, attentional disengagement account

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