ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2020, Vol. 52 ›› Issue (12): 1393-1406.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2020.01393

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


孙岩(), 吕娇娇, 兰帆, 张丽娜   

  1. 辽宁师范大学心理学院, 大连 116029
  • 收稿日期:2019-10-16 发布日期:2020-10-26 出版日期:2020-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 孙岩
  • 基金资助:
    * 辽宁省教育厅项目(WJ2019015)

Emotion regulation strategy of self-focused and situation-focused reappraisal and their impact on subsequent cognitive control

SUN Yan(), LV Jiaojiao, LAN Fan, ZHANG Lina   

  1. School of Psychology, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, China
  • Received:2019-10-16 Online:2020-10-26 Published:2020-12-25
  • Contact: SUN Yan


认知重评作为高度适应性的情绪调节策略, 是否消耗随后任务所需的认知资源仍存在争议。以往研究把重评作为单一策略研究, 并未区分重评亚型对这一问题进行探索。本研究采用情绪调节与认知控制结合的任务, 考察自我关注和情境关注两种重评亚型调节情绪的效果, 以及对随后认知控制的影响是否存在差异。结果发现两种重评策略都能有效调节情绪, 但调节效果存在差异。从行为角度看, 与中性刺激相比, 负性刺激会引发更高的负性情绪水平, 对随后冲突任务的认知控制能力更差。进一步从神经机制水平来看, 增加负性情绪可能会进一步消耗随后任务可用的认知资源, 与自我关注重评相比, 采用情境关注重评降低负性情绪后, 对随后冲突任务的认知控制能力更强。说明两种重评亚型并不同质, 不仅在调节情绪的效果上存在差异, 而且会引发不同的认知控制后果; 同时, 负性情绪水平越高, 认知控制能力可能会越差。

关键词: 情绪调节策略, 自我关注重评, 情境关注重评, 认知控制, 事件相关电位


It is important to explore the relationship between emotional regulation and cognitive control for a better understanding of diseases involving emotional control failure. Cognitive reappraisal is the most effective and commonly used emotional regulation strategy to improve individual emotional state. Will it consume cognitive resources needed for subsequent cognitive control tasks? The results of previous studies on this issue are not consistent. The reason may be that previous studies treated reappraisal as a single strategy, and did not distinguish sub-types of reappraisal to explore this issue. Reappraisal can be divided into self-focused and situation-focused reappraisal. According to previous studies, this two reappraisal strategies may have different effects on subsequent cognitive control tasks. However, there is no direct experimental comparison of this issue has been explored.
In this study, self-focused reappraisal (n = 23) and situation-focused reappraisal (n = 26) were used to investigate whether attempts to increase or decrease negative emotions had different effects on subsequent cognitive control tasks. All participants completed a cross-combination paradigm of cognitive reappraisal and Stroop task. Event-related potential (ERP) was used to assess the effectiveness of the regulated emotion (late positive potential, LPP) during the reappraisal phase, as well as to assess the cognitive resource (P300) and cognitive control (sustained potential: SP) during the Stroop task.
The results showed that both reappraisal strategies could effectively regulate emotion at the level of subjective reporting. In addition, on the level of arousal, increase negative > view negative > decrease negative > watch neutral, as opposite to the valence rating. Furthermore, EEG results of the reappraisal stage showed that self-focused reappraisal will trigger larger LPP amplitude than situation-focused reappraisal whether it increases or decreases negative emotions. This proved that situation-focused reappraisal was more effective than self-focused reappraisal when negative emotions decreased. On the contrary, self-focused reappraisal Emotions was more effective than situation-focused reappraisal when negative emotions increased. Compared with the three emotional regulation conditions that appear in negative stimulus pictures, the interference scores of accuracy rate for viewing neutral picture conditions were significantly greater. While, compared with the other three emotional regulation conditions, the P300 interference score of increases negative emotional conditions was significantly smaller. The result of situation-focused reappraisal inconsistent condition SP amplitude minus the consistent condition difference was higher than the self-focused reappraisal. It could be considered the SP amplitude interference score of situation-focused reappraisal was more positive than that of self-focused reappraisal.
In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that (1) self-focused reappraisal and situation-focused reappraisal can effectively regulate emotions, while the regulate effects were different; (2) compared to neutral stimuli, negative stimuli trigger higher levels of negative emotions and subsequent poorer cognitive control of conflicting tasks from a behavioral perspective; (3) compared with watching and reducing negative emotions, increasing negative emotions may further deplete the available cognitive resources for subsequent tasks at the level of neural mechanisms. Furthermore, situational focus reappraisal had a greater impact on cognitive control of subsequent conflict tasks after decreasing negative emotions than self-focus reappraisal.

Key words: emotion regulation, self-focused and situation-focused reappraisal, cognitive control, event-related potential