ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2022, Vol. 54 ›› Issue (10): 1181-1192.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2022.01181

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


杨集梅1,2, 柴洁余2, 邱天龙2, 全小山2, 郑茂平3()   

  1. 1.西南大学心理学部, 重庆 400715
    2.安顺学院教育科学学院, 贵州 安顺 561000
    3.西南大学音乐学院, 重庆 400715
  • 收稿日期:2022-03-29 发布日期:2022-08-24 出版日期:2022-10-25
  • 通讯作者: 郑茂平
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金地区项目(31760283);教育部人文社会科学规划基金(19YJA190005);贵州省科技厅项目(黔科合LH字 [2017] 7061号);贵州省教育科学规划项目(2021B190)

Relationship between empathy and emotion recognition in Chinese national music: An event-related potential study evidence

YANG Jimei1,2, CHAI Jieyu2, QIU Tianlong2, QUAN Xiaoshan2, ZHENG Maoping3()   

  1. 1. Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
    2. School of Education Science, Anshun University, Anshun 561000, China
    3. School of Music, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
  • Received:2022-03-29 Online:2022-08-24 Published:2022-10-25
  • Contact: ZHENG Maoping


音乐情绪识别能力是利用音乐开展情绪调节的基本条件。传统的以五声音阶为基础的具有独特韵味的中国民族音乐反映了中国人独有的情感和价值观念, 在情绪调节和音乐治疗方面具有积极的作用, 是研究音乐情绪识别的有效音乐刺激。本研究采用跨通道情绪启动范式, 通过人际反应指针问卷筛选出高、低共情组被试各36人参加脑电实验, 考察共情能力对中国民族音乐情绪识别的影响。脑电数据显示, 在进行中国民族音乐情绪内隐识别时, 将宫调和羽调音乐作为启动刺激, 诱发了中期的P2、N400以及晚期正成分LPC (Late Positive Component)。低共情组P2和N400成分的波幅大于高共情组, 高共情组LPC成分的波幅大于低共情组。本研究第一次从电生理层面考察了不同共情能力的个体在进行中国民族音乐情绪识别时的神经反应差异。高低共情组在中国民族音乐情绪识别不同阶段的注意投入可能影响了其对音乐刺激的感受, 进而影响音乐情绪识别。

关键词: 音乐情绪识别, 中国民族音乐, 共情, 事件相关电位, 跨通道情绪启动


Musical emotion is an emotional response induced by musical stimulation. Music emotion recognition is a process in which individuals evaluate the emotions contained in or intended to be expressed in music. The ability to recognize musical emotions is one manifestation of the development of social cognition, which is also the premise of music appreciation and the basis of emotional regulation by music. If the emotional recognition ability of music is impaired, the aesthetic, spiritual, and practical values will be reduced, and the individual’s emotional understanding and communication will also be affected. Therefore, the factors related to music emotion recognition and how to improve the ability of individual music emotion recognition have become a concern for researchers in music psychology. The study found that personality’s “empathy” trait may be related to recognizing musical emotions. Empathy is the ability to perceive and experience other people’s emotional states accurately. Individuals with strong empathy are more susceptible to emotional infections and are more sensitive to emotions. Thus, from the perspective of musical psychological localization, this study investigated the possible influence of empathy differences on emotion recognition in Chinese national music. The hypotheses were as follows: first, in the emotional judgment stage, compared with the low empathy group, the high empathy group is more accurate in the recognition of musical emotion, easier to judge the consistency and inconsistency, and the amplitude of the P2 and N400 components are smaller. Second, in the stage of emotional meaning integration, the high empathy group processes the musical emotion more deeply and invests more attention resources, and the amplitude of the late positive component (LPC) is larger.

The cross-channel emotion-priming paradigm was used to study individuals with high and low empathy. The G*Power software was used to calculate the required sample size to achieve sufficient statistical power. The study had a mixed design, with a median effect (f = 0.25) and a significance level α = 0.05, requiring at least 12 participants per class to achieve an 80% statistical power level. In the early stages of the experiment, the Chinese revised Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI-C) was distributed online to recruit college students. Based on responses to 522 questionnaires, 72 college students with high and low empathy levels were chosen to participate in the electroencephalogram experiment. Before the experiment, all participants completed a basic information statistics form and signed an informed consent form. After the experiment, they were given course credit and experimental remuneration.

The behavioral results showed no significant difference in the response time and accuracy of emotion recognition between the high and low empathy groups. However, the response time of the high-empathy group was slightly lower than that of the low-empathy group, and the accuracy rate of the high-empathy group was higher than that of the low-empathy group under the emotional consistency condition for Gong-tone music. Contrastingly, there was no difference between the low-empathy groups under the two conditions. The event-related potential results showed that P2, N400, and LPC components were induced in the middle and late stages of Chinese national music emotion recognition. The amplitudes of P2 and N400 in the low-empathy group were more significant than those in the high-empathy group, and the amplitude of the LPC in the high-empathy group was more extensive than that in the low-empathy group.

According to our findings, in the emotion recognition process in Chinese national music, the high- and low-empathy groups showed differences in some electroencephalogram components. This shows that event-related potential technology can explore the differences between the two groups of participants in the time course of music emotion recognition. This study found three main components related to recognizing musical emotions: P2, N400, and LPC. P2 is an indicator of perceptual analysis of musical and emotional stimuli, N400 is more sensitive to the inconsistent effect of musical emotion, and LPC is an indicator of the later evaluation of the emotional significance of musical stimuli. The attentional involvement of high- and low-empathy groups in different stages of Chinese national music emotion recognition may affect the depth of processing emotional stimuli and music emotion recognition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the difference in neural responses of individuals with different levels of empathy in emotion recognition of Chinese national music from the electrophysiological level, which has important exploratory significance.

Key words: music emotion recognition, Chinese national music, empathy, event-related potential, cross-channel emotion priming paradigm