ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2014, Vol. 46 ›› Issue (6): 777-790.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2014.00777

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

红色和蓝色对中国汉族大学生情绪的启动效应

王婷婷;王瑞明;王靖;吴小文;莫雷;杨力   

  1. (华南师范大学心理应用研究中心, 广州 510631)
  • 收稿日期:2013-09-29 出版日期:2014-06-30 发布日期:2014-06-30
  • 通讯作者: 莫雷
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目(31170997)和国家基础科学人才培养基金(J1310031)资助。

The Priming Effects of Red and Blue on the Emotion of Chinese

WANG Tingting;WANG Ruiming;WANG Jing;WU Xiaowen;MO Lei;YANG Li   

  1. (Center for Studies of Psychological Application, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China)
  • Received:2013-09-29 Online:2014-06-30 Published:2014-06-30
  • Contact: MO Lei

摘要:

通过3个实验探讨红色和蓝色对中国汉族大学生的情绪意义。实验1采用限制联想法考察红色和蓝色的情绪意义。实验2、实验3采用启动范式, 分别考察在知觉水平和概念水平上红色和蓝色对情绪的启动效应。结果发现:(1)知觉水平:在唤醒度和优势度上, 红色知觉引发了高唤醒、高优势情绪, 蓝色知觉引发了低唤醒、低优势情绪, 这与国外研究基本一致; 但在愉悦度上, 红色知觉既能引发高愉悦情绪, 也能引发低愉悦情绪, 而蓝色知觉只引发了高愉悦情绪, 这体现出本土化特点。(2)概念水平:在唤醒度和愉悦度上, 红色概念引发了高唤醒、高优势情绪, 蓝色概念引发了低唤醒、低优势情绪, 这与知觉水平基本一致; 但在愉悦度上, 红色概念只启动了高愉悦情绪, 而蓝色概念同时启动了高愉悦和低愉悦的情绪, 这与知觉水平不一致。本研究表明:(1)红色和蓝色对中国汉族大学生情绪引发的特点主要表现在愉悦度上; (2)颜色知觉和颜色概念对情绪的引发机制可能具有如下特点:颜色知觉对情绪的三维度具有直接的引发作用; 而颜色概念对情绪唤醒度和优势度的引发是以颜色知觉为中介, 对愉悦度的引发则是以社会文化为原因。本研究探讨了红色和蓝色对中国汉族大学生情绪的作用, 对红色和蓝色在中国社会环境中的应用具有一定的实际价值; 同时, 直接比较并剖析了颜色知觉与概念对情绪的引发特点, 对于揭示二者对情绪引发的内部机制具有一定的理论意义。

关键词: 颜色, 情绪, 知觉, 概念, 唤醒度, 优势度, 愉悦度

Abstract:

Color plays a key role in influencing the minds and behaviours of both animals and humans. A large amount of research has been done to investigate the effects of color on emotion, and most has focused on red and blue. Previous studies showed that, on the arousal dimension, red was more arousing than blue; while on the dominance dimension, red could enhance more dominance than blue. However, on the pleasure dimension, the results were very conflicting. According to the color theorists and the study of Mehta and Zhu (2009), the conflicting in early studies might due to the cultural difference, which is an important environment factor for people to form color-emotion learned associations during experiences. To further investigate this question, current study mainly focused on two questions: 1) whether red and blue has different influence on Chinese’s emotion? 2) Whether the effects of color perception and color concept on emotion were consistent? Three experiments were performed to examine the effects of red and blue on the emotion of Chinese. About thirty undergraduates were selected to participate in each experiment. Experiment 1 explored the emotional meaning of red and blue with an explicit color association test. Participants were asked to write down five emotion words when they saw the colored square or color words (‘red’ or ‘blue’). Experiment 2 and 3 explored the priming effect of red and blue with an implicit priming paradigm. Experiment 2 examined the different effects of red and blue on emotion at the perception level. Experiment 3 examined the different effects of red and blue on emotion at the concept level. Experiment 1 showed that in the four conditions, participants could induce both positive and negative emotional associations. However, the negative emotional associations were induced much less in the conditions of blue perception and red concept than in the conditions of red perception and blue concept. Experiment 2 showed that red perception induced high arousal, high dominance, high pleasure and low pleasure emotion; while blue perception induced low arousal, low dominance, and high pleasure emotion. Experiment 3 showed that red concept induced high arousal, high dominance, and high pleasure emotion; while blue concept induced low arousal, low dominance, high pleasure and low pleasure emotion. The effects of red and blue concept were consistent with the effects of perception on arousal and dominance, but inconsistent with the effects of perception on pleasure. The present findings revealed that for Chinese, red perception could induce high arousal, high dominance, high pleasure and low pleasure emotion, whereas blue perception induced low arousal, low dominance, and high pleasure emotion; red concept could induce high arousal, high dominance, and high pleasure emotion, whereas blue concept could induce low arousal, low dominance, high pleasure and low pleasure emotion. The effects of color perception and color concept were consistent in arousal and dominance, but inconsistent in valence.

Key words: color, emotion, perception, concept, arousal, dominance, pleasure