ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 1998, Vol. 30 ›› Issue (4): 409-417.

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  1. 北京大学心理学系!北京,100871
  • 出版日期:1998-12-25 发布日期:1998-12-25
  • 通讯作者: 王垒


Wang Lei(Department of Psychology,Peking Universiy,Beijing 100871)   

  • Published:1998-12-25 Online:1998-12-25

摘要: 为了动态化地分析人格的结构。研究一采用个体性自由命名描述法考察人格的动态内容。150名大学生分别用10个词描述实际的自我、理想的自我、应该的自我。词频统计反映了不同自我的内容特点。研究二采用常模化限定性描述法考察人格的结构特点。用研究一的高频词制成实际、理想、应该的自我同表。200名大学生用7点量表分别评定各词表中的每个词适合描述相应的自我的程度。结果表明,实际的自我有5个因素,解释47.1%的变异,4个为双极;理想、应该的自我均为3个单极因素,各解释42.3%、41.9%的变异;理想的自我与应该的自我的内容和结构有很大相似。研究认为人格结构有模式特性和内涵特性;内涵特性受文化影响,是人格机能的承担者。不同的人格(自我)成分相互对比,形成人格的动力关系,具有影响动机、情绪和行为的机能。

关键词: 自我, 人格, 动态结构, 人格机能, 大学生

Abstract: The current research was mined to dynamically study the structure of personality. Study I adopted the ideographic method to investigate dynamic contents of personality. One hundred and fifty college students were asked to choose 10 words to descnbe each of their actual-,ideal- and ought-selves.The word frequency analysis revealed the features of different selves. Study II adopted nomothetic method to investigate the structure of personality.The high frequency word lists of actual-,ideal-and ought-self from Stlldy I were used as testing materials.Two hundred college students were asked to rate to what extent each word was appropriate to describe the respective *This study is sponsored by J.Jacobs Foundation“Young Investigator Programme”and Peking University Natural Science Foundation.selves on a 7-point scale with“1’representing extremely inappropriate while“7” representing completely appropriate. Factor analysis showed that there were 5 factors in actual-self explaining 47.1% vanance while 3 factors were revealed in both ideal-and ought-selves explaining 42.3%and 41.9%variance respectively.All factors in actual-self were bi-polar except for emotionality while all factors in ideal- and ought-selves were mono-polar.The ideal-self and ought-self were quite similar both in the content and in the structure.A theory ot dynamic stmcture and mnctions of personality was then proposed to state that the personality structure had its pattern feature and content feature, the latter, influenced by culture, is the main actor of personality function. The different selves as the personality components interact to each other to form a dynamic relanonshlp pattern of personality that has the function of influencing emotion,motivation and behavior.

Key words: self personality, dynamic structure, personality function, college student