ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2024, Vol. 56 ›› Issue (4): 469-481.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2024.00469

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


王福兴(), 黄宇, 张洋, 祝婉玲, 冷晓雪   

  1. 华中师范大学心理学院暨青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室, 武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2023-03-29 发布日期:2024-01-17 出版日期:2024-04-25
  • 通讯作者: 王福兴, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

Prompts affect learning-by-teaching process and learning outcome in multimedia learning

WANG Fuxing(), HUANG Yu, ZHANG Yang, ZHU Wanling, LENG Xiaoxue   

  1. Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior, School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
  • Received:2023-03-29 Online:2024-01-17 Published:2024-04-25


研究主要探讨了自我生成教学中不同类型的提示对学习效果和学习感知的影响。实验1发现自我生成教学的学习效果好于重复学习。实验2对比了图片、文字、关键词三种提示和无提示的效果。结果发现图片和关键词提示具有更好的学习效果。实验3设置了关键词提示组、生成提示组和无提示组。结果发现关键词提示和生成提示的保持成绩好于无提示, 生成提示的迁移成绩好于无提示。此外, 关键词提示和生成提示可以促进学习者产生更多的概念单元。结论认为: (1)在自我生成教学时获得图片提示能促进知识保持, 获得关键词提示能促进知识保持和迁移。(2)相比于被动获得提示, 学习者主动生成提示更能促进知识迁移。(3)概念单元数量在提示影响学习效果中起中介作用。

关键词: 自我生成教学, 提示, 检索练习, 关键词, 生成性学习


Learning by teaching is an important generative learning strategy which mainly promotes learners’ knowledge building in educational psychology. It refers to learners teach others what they have learned as the role of a teacher after learning the materials. However, learners cannot fully retrieve all concept units contained in learning materials in the retrieval activities of learning by teaching, which hinders learners’ active generation and final learning performance. According to the Retrieval Practice Theory (RPT) and Generative learning Theory (GLT), prompts can serve as a cue and activates learners' retrieval and generating activity. Therefore, the aim of current study was to explore the effects of different types of prompts on learning outcomes and subjective perceptions in learning by teaching.

In Experiment 1, fifty-six college students were randomly assigned to teaching group and control group. Participants in teaching group were told to explain the learning materials by making a lecture video, then complete a final exam. The control condition didn’t include teaching process. In Experiment 2, Participants were one hundred and fourteen college students that were randomly assigned to picture-prompt group, text-prompt group, keyword-prompt group and non-prompt group. Four conditions all include teaching process. The difference between conditions is whether there is a prompt when learners are teaching. In Experiment 3, to compare the effects of learners' passive reception and active generation of prompts, eighty-seven college students were randomly assigned to keyword-prompt group, generated-prompt group and non-prompt group.

The results showed that: (1) the retention and transfer test performance of the teaching group were better than that of the control group; (2) picture and keyword prompts could effectively improve learners' retention test scores, while keyword prompts could also improve learners' transfer test scores; (3) the retention test performance of the keyword-prompt group and the generated-prompt group were better than those of the non-prompt group, while the transfer test performance of the generated-prompt group were better than those of the non-prompt group; (4) Experiment 2 and Experiment 3 both found that the number of concept units plays a mediating role in the effect of prompts on learning performance.

The conclusions are as follows: (1) Providing picture prompts in the process of learning by teaching can promote knowledge retention, while providing keyword prompts can promote knowledge retention and transfer; (2) Compared to passively obtaining prompts, learners' active generation of prompts is more conducive to knowledge transfer. (3) The number of idea units generated by learners plays a mediating role in the effect of prompts on learning. Above all, the study verified the effectiveness of RPT and GLT in the process of learning by teaching in multimedia learning environment.

Key words: learning by teaching, prompts, retrieval practice, keyword, generative learning