ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R

心理科学进展 ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (5): 769-782.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00769

• 研究前沿 • 上一篇    下一篇


成美霞, 匡子翌, 冷晓雪, 张洋, 王福兴()   

  1. 青少年网络心理与行为教育部重点实验室暨华中师范大学心理学院, 武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2022-06-30 出版日期:2023-05-15 发布日期:2023-02-13
  • 通讯作者: 王福兴
  • 基金资助:

Can learning by non-interactive teaching promote learning?

CHENG Meixia, KUANG Ziyi, LENG Xiaoxue, ZHANG Yang, WANG Fuxing()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Adolescent Cyberpsychology and Behavior, Ministry of Education, and School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
  • Received:2022-06-30 Online:2023-05-15 Published:2023-02-13
  • Contact: WANG Fuxing


自我生成教学(Learning by non-interactive teaching)指学习者在知识学习过程中转换角色, 将自己所学知识以知识传授者角色讲解给其他人听。提取练习假设、生成性学习假设和社会临场感假设分别从记忆巩固、生成性认知加工和社会临场感视角对学习者自我生成教学的积极作用进行了解释。汇总相关研究发现, 自我生成教学的不同实施方式促进学习的效果不同, 其中, 以有教者形象的口头形式(如:视频)自我生成教学相比于重复学习、提取练习等简单学习任务可以有效提高学习者的即时理解、即时迁移、延迟理解和延迟迁移成绩, 可能是更优的实施方式。而以无教者形象的口头形式(如:仅语音)或书面形式(如:文本)自我生成教学对学习成绩的积极影响较微弱。多媒体学习认知理论可能补充解释不同实施方式促进效果的差异。自我生成教学的学习者还可以体验到更高的动机和愉悦感并愿意在教学时投入更多的心理努力。未来研究需要在检验并整合理论、确定边界条件、优化自我生成教学等方面进一步探讨。

关键词: 自我生成教学, 生成性学习, 社会临场感, 提取练习, 元认知加工


As a generative learning activity, learning by non-interactive teaching refers to learners play the role of teachers and teach what they have learned to others, and the activity is designed to help learners actively engage in knowledge building and improve their academic performance. For example, learners face a video camera to explain the learning material to imaginary, non-present peers in their minds (i.e., recording an instructional video). Given the vastly different ways in which learning by non-interactive teaching was implemented (e.g., video, audio, and text), the effectiveness of learning by non-interactive teaching in facilitating learning might be different. By summarizing the relevant studies, it was found that learning by non-interactive teaching in oral form with a tutor figure (e.g. video) was more effective in improving learner’s performance (d immediate comprehension = 0.56, d delayed comprehension = 0.63, d immediate transfer = 0.35, and d delayed transfer = 0.76) compared with simple learning activities such as restudy and retrieval practice, which was probably a better implementation. Learning by non-interactive teaching in oral form (e.g. audio only, d immediate comprehension = 0.09 and d immediate transfer = 0.02) or written form (e.g. text, d immediate comprehension = -0.16, d delayed comprehension = 0.39, d immediate transfer = 0.08, and d delayed transfer = 0.19) without a tutor figure had a smaller positive effect on learning outcomes. Learners with non-interactive teaching also experienced higher motivation (d = 0.44) and enjoyment (d = 0.76) and were willing to invest more mental effort (d = 0.47). The retrieval practice hypothesis and the generative learning hypothesis focused on different subcomponents of cognitive processing (e.g., retrieval, generation, or monitoring) to explain the positive effects of learning by non-interactive teaching on learning, respectively. The social presence hypothesis emphasized that social presence might facilitate whole cognitive processing and thus improved learning. Our results supported these three hypotheses to some extent. In addition, the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML) may provide a supplementary explanation for differences in the effectiveness of different implementations of learning by non-interactive teaching. On the one hand, learning by non-interactive teaching (e.g., video) might successfully create teaching situation that stimulated a moderate sense of social presence and leaded learners to be more engaged and think more deeply about the material, i.e., increased their essential processing and generative processing, and thus facilitated learning. On the other hand, learning by non-interactive teaching (e.g., text) might distract learners from focusing too much on the typos, the standardization and rigorousness of written language, i.e., increased their extraneous processing. Due to the inherently high demands for processing capacity in generative activities, too much extraneous processing might cause learners' limited processing capacity being insufficient for adequate essential processing and generative processing, which in turn impaired learning. While learning by non-interactive teaching in the audio-only format might neither successfully facilitate learning with essential processing and generative processing because of the weaker teaching situation created, nor hinder learning with extraneous processing because of the automated spoken language. Research is needed to test and integrate theories, identify boundary conditions, and enhance the effectiveness of learning by non-interactive teaching in the future.

Key words: learning by non-interactive teaching, generative learning, social presence, retrieval practice, metacognitive processing