ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B
主办:中国心理学会
   中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

心理学报 ›› 2021, Vol. 53 ›› Issue (7): 729-745.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2021.00729

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

中文阅读中无关言语效应的认知机制探究:眼动证据

吴三美1,2, 田良苏3, 陈家侨3, 陈广耀4(), 王敬欣1()   

  1. 1天津师范大学心理学部/心理与行为研究院, 天津 300387
    2广东农工商职业技术学院教务处, 广州 510507
    3华南师范大学心理学院, 广州 510631
    4暨南大学新闻与传播学院/媒体国家级实验教学示范中心, 广州 510632
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-14 出版日期:2021-07-25 发布日期:2021-05-24
  • 通讯作者: 陈广耀,王敬欣 E-mail:ccggyy86@163.com;wjxpsy@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学(81771823);教育部人文社会科学研究一般项目(20YJC190024);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(19JNQM04)

Exploring the cognitive mechanism of irrelevant speech effect in Chinese reading: Evidence from eye movements

WU Sanmei1,2, TIAN Liangsu3, CHEN Jiaqiao3, CHEN Guangyao4(), WANG Jingxin1()   

  1. 1Faculty of Psychology/Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387, China
    2Academic Affairs Department, Guangdong AIB Polytechnic College, Guangzhou 510507, China
    3School of Psychology, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
    4School of Journalism & Communication/National Media & Experimental Teaching Center, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
  • Received:2020-09-14 Online:2021-07-25 Published:2021-05-24
  • Contact: CHEN Guangyao,WANG Jingxin E-mail:ccggyy86@163.com;wjxpsy@126.com

摘要:

采用眼动追踪技术探讨中文阅读中无关言语效应的影响机制, 操纵了背景音的类型(有意义背景音、无意义背景音、无声), 通过3个实验考察其对简单句、复杂句、篇章阅读的影响。结果发现, 被试在无意义背景音条件下加工三类阅读材料时的眼动指标与无声条件相比差异均不显著; 但是, 在有意义背景音条件下, 被试在进行复杂句和篇章阅读时的眼动指标与无声条件相比差异显著, 而在简单句阅读中差异不显著。结果表明, 语义属性才是影响无关言语效应产生的关键因素, 其所起作用受到阅读任务难度的调节, 而对阅读过程的影响主要体现在晚期的词汇加工和语义整合阶段, 本研究结果支持了语义干扰假说。

关键词: 无关言语效应, 背景音, 阅读, 认知机制, 眼动

Abstract:

A wealth of research shows that irrelevant background speech can interfere with reading behavior. This effect is often described as the irrelevant speech effect (ISE). Two key theories have been proposed to account for this effect; namely, the Phonological-Interference Hypothesis and the Semantic-Interference Hypothesis. Few studies have investigated the irrelevant speech effect in Chinese reading. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms for the effect also remain unclear. Accordingly, with the present research we examined the irrelevant speech effect in Chinese using eye movement measures.
Three experiments were conducted to explore the effects of different kinds of background speech. Experiment 1 used simple sentences, Experiment 2 used complex sentence, and Experiment 3 used paragraphs. The participants in each experiment were skilled readers who were undergraduate recruited from the university, who read the sentence while their eye movements were recorded using an EyeLink 1000 eye-tracker (SR Research inc.). The three experiments used the same background speech conditions. In an unintelligible background speech condition, participants heard irrelevant speech in Spanish (which none of the participants could understand), while in an intelligible background speech condition, they heard irrelevant speech in Chinese. Finally, in third condition, the participants read in silence, with no background speech present.
The results showed no significant difference in key eye movement measures (total reading time, average fixation duration, number of fixations, number of regressions, total fixation time, and regression path reading time) for the silent compared to the unintelligible background speech condition across all three experiments. In Experiment 1, which used simple sentences as stimuli, there was also no significant difference between the silent and intelligible background speech condition. However, in Experiment 2, which used more complex sentences, normal reading was disrupted in the intelligible background speech condition compared to silence, revealing an ISE for these more difficult sentences. Compared with the silent condition, the intelligible background speech produced longer reading times and average fixation duration, more numbers of fixations and regressions, longer regression path reading time and longer total fixation times. Finally, Experiment 3 also produced evidence for an ISE, with longer total reading times, more fixations, and longer regression path reading times and total reading times in the intelligible background speech condition compared with silence.
To sum up, the results of the current three experiments suggest that: (1) unintelligible speech does not disrupt normal reading significantly, contrary to the Phonological-Interference Hypothesis; (2) intelligible background speech can disrupt the reading of complex (but not simpler) sentences and also paragraph reading, supporting the Semantic-Interference Hypothesis. Such findings suggest that irrelevant speech might disrupt later stages of lexical processing and semantic integration in reading, and that this effect is modulated by the difficulty of the reading task.

Key words: irrelevant speech effect, background speech, reading, cognitive mechanism, eye-movements

中图分类号: