ISSN 0439-755X
CN 11-1911/B

心理学报 ›› 2023, Vol. 55 ›› Issue (7): 1074-1086.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2023.01074

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇


程亚华1, 冯瑶2, 李宜逊3, 马嘉琪2, 沈岚岚2, 张文建2, 伍新春4,5, 冯秋迪6()   

  1. 1上海政法学院政府管理学院, 上海 201701
    2宁波大学心理学系暨研究所, 群体行为与社会心理服务中心, 浙江 宁波 315211
    3香港教育大学幼儿教育学系, 香港 999077
    4北京师范大学心理学部, 应用实验心理北京市重点实验室, 儿童阅读与学习研究院, 北京 100875
    5北京师范大学(珠海校区)应用心理学院, 广东 珠海 519087
    6上海政法学院警务学院, 上海 201701
  • 收稿日期:2022-06-07 发布日期:2023-04-21 出版日期:2023-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 冯秋迪, E-mail:
  • 基金资助:

The developmental trajectory of oral vocabulary knowledge and its predictive effects on reading abilities among Chinese primary school students: A latent growth model

CHENG Yahua1, FENG Yao2, LI Yixun3, MA Jiaqi2, SHEN Lanlan2, ZHANG Wenjian2, WU Xinchun4,5, FENG Qiudi6()   

  1. 1School of Government, Shanghai University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 201701, China
    2Center of Group Behavior and Social Psychological Service, Department of Psychology, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China
    3Department of Early Childhood Education, The Education University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
    4Institute of Children’s Reading and Learning, Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    5School of Applied Psychology, Beijing Normal University at Zhuhai, Zhuhai 519087, China
    6School of Policing Studies, Shanghai University of Political Science and Law, Shanghai 201701, China
  • Received:2022-06-07 Online:2023-04-21 Published:2023-07-25


对149名小学一年级汉语儿童的口语词汇知识进行历时6年8次的追踪测试, 采用潜变量增长模型探索了小学儿童口语词汇知识的发展轨迹, 并在控制相关变量后, 考察了口语词汇知识的起始水平和发展速度对儿童六年级时阅读能力的预测作用。结果发现:(1)小学儿童的口语词汇知识呈持续地非线性增长, 其中三年级和五年级是儿童口语词汇知识发展的快速增长时期, 儿童之间的个体差异表现出差异稳定的发展模式; (2)控制一般认知能力和相关阅读认知技能后, 口语词汇知识的起始水平和发展速度均可显著预测六年级时的阅读准确性、阅读流畅性及阅读理解, 且对阅读准确性和阅读理解的预测比对阅读流畅性的预测更强; 相对于起始水平, 口语词汇知识的发展速度对阅读能力的预测作用更强。

关键词: 口语词汇知识, 阅读准确性, 阅读流畅性, 阅读理解, 潜变量增长模型


Oral language serves as the foundation for reading development. A growing body of studies has pointed to the close connection between children’s oral vocabulary knowledge and their reading abilities. To advance reading research and literacy education, it is vital to clarify the developmental trajectory of oral vocabulary knowledge in relation to reading abilities over children’s reading development. However, most existing research on this topic focused on either the starting point or the product of children’s oral vocabulary knowledge, instead of the developmental trajectory over an extended period of time. To fill in this gap, the present study sought to reveal the developmental trajectory of oral vocabulary knowledge and its association with reading abilities among Chinese children across elementary grades.

This work recruited 149 Mandarin-Chinese-speaking, typically developing children from Mainland China, and they were followed up for six years from Grades 1 to 6. All participants were tested on a battery of reading-related tests for eight times (Time 1 to Time 8), and 117 children completed all tests from T1 to T8, thus in the final pool. Five testing time points had a 6-month interval (Time 1 to Time 5 were from the Fall semester of Grade 1 to the Fall semester of Grade3), and the subsequent three time points had a one-year interval (T6 to T8 were in the Fall semester from Grades 4 to 6). Children were assessed on their non-verbal IQ, phonological awareness (PA), morphological awareness (MA), orthographic awareness (OA), and rapid automatized naming (RAN) at Time 1, oral vocabulary knowledge from Time 1 to Time 8, and reading accuracy, reading fluency and reading comprehension at Time 8.

Latent growth modeling was conducted to examine: (1) the developmental trajectory of children’s oral vocabulary knowledge over time and (2) the predictive effects of the initial level (Time 1) and growth rates (Times 1-8) of oral vocabulary knowledge on reading accuracy, reading fluency, and reading comprehension at Time 8 while controlling for IQ, PA, MA, OA, and RAN measured at Time 1. Children’s oral vocabulary knowledge appeared to improve significantly, consistently over grades, and children’s initial levels of oral vocabulary knowledge did not seem to be linked to their growth rates over the years. The results of the conditional latent growth modeling showed that oral vocabulary knowledge made a significant, direct contribution to reading abilities, reading accuracy (initial status: B = 0.35, p< 0.001; growth rates: B = 0.40, p< 0.001), reading fluency (initial status: B = 0.23, p= 0.037; growth rates: B = 0.27, p= 0.003), and reading comprehension (initial status: B = 0.39, p< 0.001; growth rates: B = 0.48, p< 0.001). Overall, initial status and growth rates of oral vocabulary knowledge were stronger predictors of reading accuracy and reading comprehension than that of reading fluency, and the growth rate was a stronger predictor of reading abilities than the initial status.

Our findings elucidate the developmental changes in children’s oral vocabulary knowledge, as well as clarify their unique, significant predictive power of reading abilities (reading accuracy, reading fluency, and reading comprehension) in Chinese children from Grades 1 to 6. The findings shed light on the necessity of providing vocabulary learning opportunities for primary school children over their reading development.

Key words: oral vocabulary knowledge, reading accuracy, reading fluency, reading comprehension, latent growth modeling