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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    Conceptual Framework
    Cognitive neural mechanisms underlying the impact of oxytocin on conditioned fear processing
    FENG Pan, ZHAO Hengyue, JIANG Yumeng, ZHANG Yuetong, FENG Tingyong
    2024, 32 (4):  557-567.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00557
    Abstract ( 994 )   HTML ( 37 )  
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    Fear is an emotion closely related to evolution and is of great value to human survival and adaptation. Excessive fear may lead to the development of pathological fears such as phobias, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorders. Oxytocin as a potential pharmacological agent is significant in the intervention and treatment of various pathological fears. Against this backdrop, this study takes oxytocin as a starting point to illustrate its cognitive neural mechanisms during fear acquisition, memory consolidation and reconsolidation, as well as extinction processes, offering a novel perspective for understanding and intervening pathological fears.

    The project comprises four studies, each corresponding to a stage of fear: acquisition, consolidation, reconsolidation, and extinction. Study 1 focuses on the impact of oxytocin on conditioned fear acquisition, utilizing task-based fMRI technology to investigate the cognitive neural basis of oxytocin in fear acquisition. This study not only expands our cognition of neural networks related to fear acquisition and extinction but also emphasizes the regulatory role of oxytocin in this process, providing support for constructing and refining neural network models of emotional fear processing.

    Studies 2 and 3 shift attentions to the consolidation and reconsolidation processes of fear memories, aiming to explore the neural basis of oxytocin affecting fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation using resting-state fMRI technology. The consolidation and reconsolidation process of fear memory were explored by pre- and post-measuring resting-state fMRI, oxytocin/placebo administration and simulating the memory consolidation and reconsolidation process. This research offers a new perspective for a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying memory consolidation and reconsolidation.

    Study 4 proposes to use task-state fMRI techniques to investigate the neural basis of oxytocin's influence on fear extinction. Using Psycho-physiological interactions (PPI) and dynamic causal modeling, we will examine how oxytocin affects the neural response patterns of conditioned fear extinction, focusing on its effects on the fear extinction network (Amygdala, Hippocampus, vmPFC, dlPFC, vlPFC, nucleus). Hippocampus, vmPFC, dlPFC, vlPFC, nucleus accumbens (NAc) and PAG brain regions); and mediation analysis or modeling to examine how oxytocin affects subjective and objective fear levels through the fear extinction network.

    Significantly, individual differences, especially the relationship between trait anxiety and emotional fear processing, are incorporated into this study. By investigating individuals with high and low trait anxiety, the study explores whether oxytocin's influence on fear processing differs between these two groups. This finding provides new possibilities for individualized treatment, challenging the current one-size-fits-all approach in anxiety interventions. It theoretically supports the development of more precise intervention strategies for individuals with different levels of trait anxiety.

    Finally, the paper underscores the importance of translating research findings into clinical psychiatric studies. By systematically studying the specific role of oxytocin in cognitive neural mechanisms, a scientific foundation is provided for intervening in pathological fear symptoms. This innovative point highlights the potential applications of oxytocin in disorders such as social anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder while offers a clearer theoretical basis for the precise application of oxytocin and new horizons as well as new ideas for the subsequent personalized treatment and intervention of pathological fear at the same time.

    In conclusion, this study, centered around oxytocin, deeply investigates its cognitive neural mechanisms during fear acquisition, memory consolidation and reconsolidation, and extinction processes. Through the comprehensive application of task-based and resting-state magnetic resonance imaging technologies, it deepens our understanding of cognitive neural mechanisms, providing new research directions for the clinical treatment of pathological fears. This innovative research supports individualized treatment and precise pharmacological interventions, opening new avenues for future research and intervention strategies.

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    Entrepreneur’s resource-induced coping heuristic and resource evolution in the context of loss
    LI Yanni, WANG Shudan, LIU Yi
    2024, 32 (4):  568-578.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00568
    Abstract ( 331 )   HTML ( 11 )  
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    The entrepreneurial journey, characterized by uncertainty and risk, poses challenges to startups, impacting the outcomes of invested resources and potentially resulting in losses. Successful entrepreneurial initiatives emphasize the significance of studying resource restructuring in the face of losses for the development of new ventures. However, diverse growth trajectories are observed among startups following resource restructuring. A critical analysis of existing research reveals that resource evolution, characterized by bricolage and optimization, is pivotal in understanding the challenges associated with resource restructuring. Therefore, elucidating the influencing factors and mechanisms of resource evolution holds vital importance for startups coping with resource losses.

    Despite the growing emphasis on the role of resource evolution in academia, there is a scarcity of research specifically addressing loss scenarios in the entrepreneurial domain. Furthermore, discussions on the essential preconditions, triggering mechanisms, primary pathways, and effectual mechanisms of resource evolution are notably lacking. Regarding the antecedent factors influencing resource evolution, existing research predominantly focuses on organizational and environmental factors, neglecting the cognitive processes behind entrepreneurs' adoption of resource evolution behaviors. This study explores the relationship between entrepreneurs' resource loss-induced evolution behaviors and their underlying cognitive processes. The introduction of resource-induced coping heuristics as a cognitive characteristic of entrepreneurs examines the different resource evolution behaviors exhibited during the process of opportunity development, constructing a comprehensive theoretical model of the resource evolution process. This not only deepens the understanding of the role played by resource-induced coping heuristics as an explanatory mechanism for resource evolution paths but also broadens the impact boundaries and applicability of the resource evolution process from a cognitive perspective.

    For the effect mechanism of resource evolution, under similar cognitive logics, different boundary conditions can influence the outcomes of resource evolution behaviors for new startups. The exploration of boundary conditions for resource evolution effects is still in its early stages, primarily focusing on the moderating role of the environment. However, there is a lack of further deconstruction of environmental dimensions in related research. This study investigates the moderating effects of external environmental dynamism and abundance on the relationship between resource evolution behaviors and post-loss performance through a combined approach of questionnaire surveys and secondary data coding. Furthermore, as entrepreneurial behaviors are argued to be determined by the interpretations of the entrepreneurial team about the environment, the study suggests that the shared cognition at different levels within the entrepreneurial team plays a moderating role in the relationship between bricolage and post-loss performance. Hence, this research posits that team members' cognitive processing of knowledge and information also influences the effects of resource evolution behaviors. The introduction of the team transactive memory system, a shared cognition achieved through encoding, storing, and retrieving information and knowledge across different domains, examines its role in the relationship between resource evolution and post-loss performance. The study evaluates the impact of the team transactive memory system based on its expertise, reliability, and coordination dimensions, employing a combined approach of questionnaire surveys and secondary data coding to explore its role in the relationship between resource evolution and post-loss performance.

    In conclusion, this study systematically reveals the law of resource evolution of new ventures under the situation of loss, and constructs a theoretical model under the guidance of the logical line of "cognition-behavior-result". The research mainly focuses on two issues: "How to carry out resource evolution under loss situation" and "How to play a role in resource evolution under loss situation". The specific contents are as follows: Study one identifies the main path of resource evolution under loss situation driven by entrepreneur resource-induced coping heuristics, excavates the resource evolution process under different types of opportunity development, and clarifies the role of opportunity development in the process of resource evolution; Study two investigates the boundary conditions that affect the effect of resource evolution, and analyzes how to optimize the effect of resource evolution from the internal and external environment.

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    Female social entrepreneurship: A research proposal on identity strategies, legitimacy acquisition, and performance impact
    DENG Wei, SONG Rui, ZHOU Wen-xin
    2024, 32 (4):  579-593.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00579
    Abstract ( 761 )   HTML ( 30 )  
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    Identity strategy plays a pivotal role in addressing two paramount challenges faced by female social entrepreneurs: gaining legitimacy and improving entrepreneurial performance. Despite its recognized importance, there remains a notable dearth of research into the nuanced interplay between female social entrepreneurs’ identity strategies and legitimacy acquisition. Furthermore, the mechanisms through which identity integration contributes to enhancing social entrepreneurial performance remain underexplored. Filling this gap is essential for a comprehensive understanding of the intricate dynamics at play in the realm of female social entrepreneurship.

    In response, this study adopts a progressive logic of “identity strategy - legitimacy acquisition - performance impact” and conducts three sub-studies: Study 1 adopts experimental conjoint analysis to explore how women strategically leverage multiple identities, shaping a distinct self-cognition that guides their decisions to enter female social entrepreneurship. Utilizing fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), study 2 identifies configurations of identity strategies that contribute to both the success and failure of legitimacy acquisition among female social entrepreneurs. Study 3 delves into the mechanisms through which identity integration affects female social entrepreneurial performance. It unveils the mediating role of legitimacy and the moderating influence of social bricolage.

    This study contributions to the literature on entrepreneurial identity, entrepreneurial legitimacy, and female social entrepreneurship:

    First, it enhances the understanding of entrepreneurial identity by revealing how identity strategy can elucidate variations in entrepreneurs’ behaviors and outcomes. Notably, there is a scarcity of research addressing the impact of identity on women’s social entrepreneurial decisions, behaviors, and outcomes. This study bridges this gap by establishing female social entrepreneurs’ identity strategy as the fundamental starting point. It constructs a comprehensive research framework that delineates the influence of female social entrepreneurs’ identity strategy on their decision-making, legitimacy acquisition, and social entrepreneurial performance. Consequently, it sheds light on the previously obscure process of female social entrepreneurs’ identity strategy and its tangible effectiveness.

    Second, this study deepens our understanding of how women strategically employ multiple identities to gain legitimacy. By emphasizing women’s participation in institutional pluralism, this study breaks through the limitation of previous studies that focus only on legitimacy conferred by a single stakeholder group. Based on the institutional logic perspective, this paper subdivides female social entrepreneurs' legitimacy into internal legitimacy from internal stakeholders (e.g., family members, friends, employees, volunteers) and external legitimacy from external stakeholders (e.g., business partners, customers, beneficiary groups, the public). Additionally, the study advances the field by exploring diverse configurations of both successful legitimacy acquisition and the often-overlooked aspect of legitimacy loss, overcoming the previous focus on acquisition success alone.

    Third, this study surpasses the conventional “gender comparison” research framework to reveal the underlying reasons for the differences in perceptions, behaviors, and performance among female social entrepreneurs. Existing research typically assumes, from a “gender comparison” standpoint, that women are inherently more suitable for social entrepreneurship and may outperform men, yet empirical evidence supporting these assumptions is lacking. In contrast, this study delves into the heterogeneity among female social entrepreneurs, contending that identity serves as the micro-foundation for variations in entrepreneurial decision-making, behavior, and performance. The study introduces identity integration as the independent variable, with legitimacy as a mediating variable and social bricolage as a moderating variable. This intricate framework elucidates the underlying mechanisms shaping differences in entrepreneurial behavior and performance among female social entrepreneurs, moving beyond simplistic gender-based comparisons.

    This study yields vital practical implications:

    First, this study aids potential female social entrepreneurs in navigating the “identity paradox,” forming a clearer self-cognition, reducing the uncertainties associated with entrepreneurship, and bolstering confidence in social entrepreneurial endeavors. The study’s impact extends beyond individual empowerment, contributing significantly to resolving employment challenges for women. Furthermore, its broader practical influence resonates in the creation of more jobs, the promotion of socio-economic development, and the overall improvement of women’s societal status.

    Second, this study offers valuable guidance for female social entrepreneurs in bridging the “legitimacy gap.” It guides them to rationally manage their identity to respond to multiple stakeholders’ demands, successfully obtain legitimacy, and improve entrepreneurial success rate. The study delves into the communication dynamics employed by female social entrepreneurs with various stakeholders to secure legitimacy through identity strategy. Furthermore, it scrutinizes the configurations of identity strategies leading to both legitimacy gain (success) and loss of legitimacy (failure). The study’s findings furnish practical references, providing insights on “what to do” and “what not to do” for female social entrepreneurs seeking to optimize their legitimacy and entrepreneurial outcomes.

    Third, this study provides practical guidance on women’s roles as change makers and social innovators, rather than as recipients, through which female social entrepreneurship can realize a social mission while ensuring business sustainability. In contrast to the prevalent perception of women as a vulnerable group in need of assistance, this study accentuates the agency of female social entrepreneurs in driving more equitable and sustainable socio-economic development. It encourages women to leverage social entrepreneurship as a means to address societal disparities, thereby enhancing the inclusiveness and comprehensiveness of social development as a whole.

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    How do employees respond to enterprise digital transformation?A research proposal from stress-based theoretical perspective
    ZHOU Qiwei, LI Qian, LIANG Shuang
    2024, 32 (4):  594-615.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00594
    Abstract ( 625 )   HTML ( 56 )  
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    Digital transformation has emerged as a critical factor in driving high-quality enterprise development. However, many companies encounter internal challenges, such as a lack of employee support and passive cooperation during the process of digital transformation. Current research on enterprise digital transformation primarily concentrates on the macro-strategic level, while the impact of digital transformation on employees has not been sufficiently explored. Therefore, our study takes a micro-level perspective within the organization and employs the Process Theories of Occupational Stress. We view digital transformation as a “stressor” and aim to investigate the different responses of employees to it and the underlying mechanisms.

    First, we investigate the “stressor” by utilizing Grounded Theory to uncover how employees perceive and identify stressors during digital transformation. Second, we explore the “stress outcome” by examining the impact of digital transformation on employees’ work performance and its dynamic changes over time based on the Transition Processes framework. Third, we investigate the “stress experience” from both cognitive and emotional perspectives. We explore the mechanisms, boundary conditions, and subsequent consequences of employees’ different responses (support or resistance) to digital transformation.

    This study contributes to the HRM research in the context of enterprise digital transformation in the following three aspects. First, it employs the theoretical lens of “stress” and draws upon the Process Theories of Occupational Stress, to explore employees’ stress experiences and outcomes precipitated by the “stressor” of digital transformation. It provides a new perspective for understanding the mechanisms underlying employees’ dual-reactive responses to digital transformation. As issues related to enterprise digital transformation are dynamic, complex, and evolving, adopting the stress perspective as a theoretical framework and analytical tool enables a precise delineation of the research domain. It aids in formulating well-defined research questions, highlights research focuses, contributes to theory development, and enhance the explanatory power of conclusions.

    Second, this study proposes a dual-reactive theoretical framework, linking enterprise digital transformation to employees’ roles as either “supporters” or “resisters”. This expands the research scope and enriches the research content pertaining to enterprise digital transformation in the micro-management domain. Previous studies have typically adopted a perspective of human-technology interaction to discuss the impact of specific digital technology applications on individual employees or human resource management within organizations. By viewing the overall perceptions and extent of enterprise digital transformation as a “stressor”, this study unifies enterprise digital strategy and employee stress within the same theoretical framework. This provides a theoretical foundation and empirical evidence for exploring the dual-reactive responses of employees to enterprise digital transformation. In this way, this study links strategic digital transformation choices at the organizational level with employee behavioral responses and outcomes (job performance and withdrawal behavior) at the individual level. It offers concrete evidence that verify the effective role of enterprise digital transformation at the individual employee level, thereby laying a foundational groundwork for further studies focused on understanding enterprise digital transformation from an individual perspective.

    Third, from both cognitive and emotional perspectives, this study further reveals the underlying mechanisms, boundary conditions, and subsequent outcomes of employees’ dual-reactive responses to digital transformation at both individual and daily work levels. Building upon the attention given to stressors and stress outcomes in the Process Theories of Occupational Stress, this study delves into the formation of various stress experiences among employees and explores the moderating roles of technological features and individual attitudes. By highlighting employees’ emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses in the context of digital transformation, this paper responds to the call for integrating employees with digital technologies. Furthermore, it explores methods and pathways for driving enterprise digital transformation from an employee management perspective.

    In summary, this study deepens our understanding of how digital transformation affects employees. By examining the micro-level dynamics within organizations, it uncovers key factors that shape employees’ responses to digital transformation. These insights can guide organizations in effectively navigating the challenges associated with digital transformation and fostering a supportive environment where employees can adapt to and excel in the digital age.

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    Regular Articles
    The role of the left Angular Gyrus in lexical-semantic processing
    ZHANG Xiangyang, WANG Xiaojuan, YANG Jianfeng
    2024, 32 (4):  616-626.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00616
    Abstract ( 376 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    The left Angular Gyrus (LAG) is a critical brain region for semantic processing in the cognitive neuroscience of language. Increasing attention has been paid to the function of LAG in lexical-semantic processing since its function has not been consistently understood.

    Anatomically, the LAG is located at the junction of the temporal, occipital, and parietal lobes, with extensive white matter fiber bundles, determining that it may integrate information across regions. Researchers have proposed the LAG as the “convergence zone” in semantic representation and processing, as it engaged in high-level semantic representation, conjunctive representation of modalities and feature information, semantic relationship representation, and semantic integration processing. It is also involved in various semantic tasks and stimuli types, suggesting a high-level semantic representation function.

    Evidence suggests that the LAG may be responsible for connecting and integrating conceptual multimodal features into a complete semantic representation. On the one hand, patients with LAG impairment exhibit multimodal semantic defects. On the other hand, LAG was observed on the semantic contrast for different word categories when manipulating the modality-specific features of words, indicating its function for cross modal conjunctive representation. At larger scales of phrase-level processing, the LAG integrates individual concepts into coherent semantic combinations. Its function of semantic integration also received support from its sensitive activation for semantic relationships. The LAG is involved in the category system organized based on semantic feature similarity and the theme system organized based on the co-occurrence relationship of events or scenes, which reflect the integrated processing of overlapping semantic feature information.

    However, there are still debates about the function of LAG in semantic representation and processing. Firstly, the Embodied Abstraction theory of semantic processing proposes LAG as the hub region for semantic processing, while the Hub and Spokes model proposes that the hub region appears to be in the anterior temporal lobe. The mixed theory model recently seeks reconciliation, proposing both the LAG and the anterior temporal lobe as high-level hubs at different semantic processing stages. The LAG is a multimodal brain area that integrates low-level specific modal information while retaining related modality information. In contrast, the anterior temporal lobe is a higher-level amodal brain region that integrates semantic modal information into higher-level abstract representations without retaining modality-specific information. Secondly, inconsistent findings exist regarding LAG's role in semantic executive control processing, necessitating further exploration. Finally, regarding the function of LAG in the default mode network (DMN), opinions differ on whether LAG serves as a hub for semantic processing or is influenced solely by task difficulty. One view is that the DMN's LAG is a semantic processing hub region. Another view denies the semantic processing role of the LAG in the DMN and believes that task difficulty may cause the semantic effect of the LAG. The third multifunctional view is that the LAG may support semantic processing and general task difficulty.

    The LAG exhibits broad activation in lexical-semantic processing, and its function is extensively debated. One possible reason is that there are structurally and functionally distinct sub-regions within the LAG, and another possibility is that the LAG serves as a cross-system connector, supporting multiple aspects of semantic processing. Therefore, future studies should comprehensively consider LAG’s anatomical basis and connections with a wide range of brain regions and conduct in-depth and detailed discussions on the function of the LAG sub-region.

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    The effect of maternal attachment styles on the cognitive processes of maternal sensitivity
    YUE Jiaying, LIU Xinyi, ZHANG Mengke, CHEN Xu
    2024, 32 (4):  627-638.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00627
    Abstract ( 802 )   HTML ( 41 )  
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    A central hypothesis of attachment theory is that mothers' own attachment styles influence their sensitivity to children in ways that are important for their well-being and development. Previous studies based on the attachment theory have proved the influence of attachment on maternal sensitivity. However, these influences mainly manifest in maternal parenting behaviors, ignoring the relationship between attachment styles and cognitive processes in maternal sensitivity. That is, it remains unclear whether attachment styles exhibit different mechanisms and characteristics during the various cognitive stages of maternal sensitivity. Thus, the mechanism underlying the associations between attachment style and the cognitive processes of maternal sensitivity should be further elucidated to help clarify how attachment style affects maternal sensitivity. The social information processing model of maternal sensitivity integrates crucial cognitive structures and cognitive processes related to maternal sensitivity and divides the cognitive processes of maternal sensitivity into four stages. From the perspective of the social information processing model, we reviewed individual differences related to attachment styles at all four stages of maternal sensitivity: emotional perception, maternal attribution, motivational response, and response selection. Specifically, in the emotional perception stage, the influence of attachment style on maternal sensitivity was primarily manifested in the patterns of attention to the infant's face. Mothers with secure attachments prefer security-based strategies that are related to higher attention sensitivity. At the same time, both anxious and avoidant attachment in mothers were related to lower attention sensitivity. Considering that mothers with anxiety and avoidance attachments prefer different strategies (such as hyperactivating or deactivating), they tend to exhibit distinct attention patterns toward their infants' faces. At the maternal attribution stage, mothers with different attachment style had varying internal working models that subsequently influenced their expectations of others. Secure-attachment mothers with positive internal working models were more likely to make appropriate attributions, whereas insecure-attachment mothers with negative internal working models were more likely to make inappropriate attributions. During the motivational response stage, mothers with different attachment styles had different internal working models and gradually developed caregiving representations for themselves and their infants. Secure-attachment mothers have positive caregiving representations associated with higher levels of caregiving motivation and infant-oriented goals. Compared to mothers with secure attachment, mothers with anxious and avoidant attachment had negative caregiving representations, which resulted in lower levels of caring motivation and more self-oriented goals. However, one study suggested that individuals with anxious attachment may have mixed craving goals. In other words, individuals with anxious attachment not only care about others' welfare but also desire to receive love and dependency in intimate relationships. In the response selection stage, Mothers with different attachment styles have varying parenting behavior preferences. Most studies have found that mothers with secure attachment tend to prefer positive parenting behaviors, whereas mothers with insecure attachment tend to prefer negative parenting behaviors such as intrusive or monitoring behaviors. In general, attachment influences many factors in the processes of maternal sensitivity. The Social Information Processing of maternal sensitivity provides a theoretical framework for integrating pivotal cognitive structures and processes related to maternal sensitivity. This framework may help to clarify how internal working models affect the cognitive processes of maternal sensitivity. However, several key issues remain to be resolved. Future research should further investigate the influence of attachment styles on the cognitive processes of maternal sensitivity from a temporal perspective. Additionally, research should explore the joint influence of multiple cognitive structures on cognitive processes related to maternal sensitivity. Furthermore, attention should be paid to the role of environmental factors in attachment styles and the cognitive processes of maternal sensitivity. Finally, future research should explore the dual influence of attachment style on the cognitive and emotional processes of maternal sensitivity.

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    The impact of interpersonal synchronization on autistic children’s cooperative behavior and its intervention promotion
    CHEN Yan, LI Jing
    2024, 32 (4):  639-653.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00639
    Abstract ( 717 )   HTML ( 25 )  
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    The primary goal of cooperation is to integrate into society and is an important component of constructive social interactions. Interpersonal synchronization requires individuals to coordinate their time and activities with one another, which is regarded as the basis of societal evolution. Through interpersonal synchronization, typically developing children can automatically coordinate their individual behavior and create cooperative communication with others. Due to impairments in goal understanding, social monitoring, executive function, and action expectations, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties with interpersonal synchronization. The investigation of interpersonal synchronization and its relationship with social function might shed light on the underlying bases of impaired cooperative behavior in children with ASD.

    We discussed the development and application of cooperative skills in both typically developing children and autistic children in this article. Previous research has shown that children with ASD exhibit poor cooperative skills due to their social functioning deficit, although they do not differ from typically developing children in certain cooperative activities involving strategic thinking. There are several possible explanations for impaired interpersonal synchronization in children with ASD. Neural synchronization abnormalities hinder their ability to synchronize their brains with others’; children with ASD have difficulties in organizing timing and keeping up with others; children with ASD lacks kills in athletics, which limits their ability to form motor synchronization. A few studies have implemented interpersonal synchronous therapies to help children with ASD who struggle with social functioning. It was found that interpersonal synchronous intervention can activate the neural system, improve joint attention, increase good emotional experiences, and improve motor perception in autistic children, all of which facilitates cooperative behavior. In addtion, interpersonal synchronization is considered as a potential early diagnostic sign for children with ASD. Therefore, it can also be used as a treatment for early autism intervention.

    The major innovations of the present paper are as follows:

    1. By analyzing and exploring the ability components involved in the process of cooperation and interpersonal synchronization in children with autism, we found that there are common key ability components between interpersonal synchronization and cooperation, such as joint attention, cognitive empathy, temporal synchronization, motor perception, motor planning, and motor execution. Figure 2 shows the vital components of interpersonal synchronization and cooperation.

    2. The current review focused on the three elements of atypical interpersonal synchronization that influence cooperative behavior in autistic children: neuronal synchronization, temporal synchronization, and motor synchronization. We demonstrated how the process of interpersonal synchronization influences cooperative behavior by analyzing the atypical interpersonal synchronization elements in dyadic cooperation in autism (see Figure 3). As time goes by, typically developing children can coordinate themselves and their peers to determine common goals, form interpersonal synchronization, and complete cooperative tasks successfully. However, children with ASD have abnormalities in information input, integration and output, resulting in interpersonal synchronization disorders during cooperation, which is therefore difficult to form a closed-loop cooperation between individuals. Owing to neurophysiological abnormalities, ASD children have difficulties in joint attention and cognitive empathy, which make them hard to identify partners in cooperation and reach agreement with peers on goals sharing. Children with ASD also have difficulties in the fundamental components of interpersonal synchronization, such as time and motor synchronization, which is a challenge for them to carry out joint activities with peer. In addition, from the perspective of environmental factors, the type of task, the ability and cooperation degree of partners, environmental disturbances and social occasions may also affect the cooperative performance of children with ASD.

    3. Behavioral synchronization frequently results from neuronal synchronization, which both guides and precedes behavioral synchronization. Through behavioral synchronization training to increase brain synchronization, interpersonal synchronization intervention aims to improve general social abilities. Based on this paper’s analysis of empirical research, interpersonal synchronization interventions have a facilitating impact on cooperative abilities, such as neurophysiology, joint attention, perceptual movement, and pleasant emotions. These findings provide positive evidence that it is possible to encourage cooperative behaviors in autistic children by ways of interpersonal synchrony.

    4. The article emphasized the fact that interpersonal synchronization is still limited to straightforward instructions and one-off situations. In order to provide theoretical guidance for stepped interpersonal synchronization intervention in children with ASD, future research should concentrate more on interactive synchronization based on ecological scenarios, from basic scenario instruction synchronization to complex open social scenarios with multiple perceptual interactions.

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    Smokers’ “bulletproof vest”: The formation mechanism and interventions of self-exempting beliefs
    CHEN Haide, YANG Yixing, ZHENG Enjin, FAN Yumeng, GAO Lingfeng
    2024, 32 (4):  654-663.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00654
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    Self-exempting beliefs are defined as beliefs that individuals who perform a certain behavior can use to exempt themselves from risk despite possessing information about the risk of that behavior. The self-reported beliefs of smokers have a significant impact on smoking cessation and smoking behavior. Previous studies have used cognitive dissonance theory to explain the process by which smokers develop self-exempting beliefs. However, these studies have overlooked the specificity of self-exempting beliefs. Smokers’ self-exempting beliefs primarily involve individuals’ belief that they are exempt from the harms of smoking. Smokers who maintain other types of rationalization beliefs about smoking argue against the view that smoking is harmful. However, smokers who hold self-exempting beliefs focus on themselves. They may acknowledge the objective fact that smoking is harmful to health, but they seek more evidence to deny that they are at risk f smoking. Through this approach, smokers alleviate the cognitive dissonance caused by the inconsistency between their smoking behavior and their perception of the dangers of smoking.

    This paper proposes a three-stage model for the formation of self-exempting beliefs among smokers. This model involves three processes: cognitive dissonance and rationalization, highlighting self-specificity, and belief competition and stability. Specifically, self-exempting beliefs first develop through the cognitive dissonance of smokers, which drives their rationalization process. Subsequently, smokers adopt various forms of rationalizations. They consider themselves unique compared to others and choose self-exempting beliefs for rationalization to alleviate the discomfort caused by cognitive dissonance. Finally, after repeated verification, self-exempting beliefs such as "I can avoid the harm of smoking" are solidified; they become habitual and "bulletproof". Based on these phenomena, interventions for smokers' self-exempting beliefs can be implemented through measures such as hypocrisy induction, motivational interviewing, and question-based smoking warning messages. According to the characteristics of cognitive dissonance and rationalization, interventions involving hypocrisy induction and motivational interviewing can help smokers maintain harmful cognitions about smoking and change their smoking behavior. Based on the process of highlighting self-specificity, question-based smoking warning messages can help smokers enhance their perception of the harm of smoking.

    Future research should focus on the following four aspects. First, it is necessary to conduct localized research on self-exempting beliefs based on the characteristics of Chinese smokers. Considering the specificity and cultural differences involved in self-exempting beliefs, it is important to conduct more empirical research on self-exempting beliefs in China. In addition, researchers need to develop localized tools for measuring self-exempting beliefs. Second, future research should explore the mechanism by which smokers' self-exempting beliefs affect their willingness to quit smoking. Researchers should consider potential moderating and mediating variables, such as expected outcomes, identity, or cultural values. Cognitive neural technology could be used to further explore the relationship between self-exempting beliefs and smoking cessation behavior. Third, it is necessary to examine the influencing factors in the formation of self-exempting beliefs, which can help researchers intervene in these beliefs. By exploring the role of individual characteristics and environmental factors, the theoretical framework for the formation of self-exempting beliefs could be further improved. Finally, intervention measures targeting the self-exempting beliefs of smokers should be developed, and their effectiveness should be tested in the real world. Researchers can combine multiple interventions to encourage smokers to quit smoking, such as using virtual reality technology to increase smokers' awareness of the dangers of smoking. For policy-makers, it is necessary to adjust smoking control policies based on the characteristics of self-exemption beliefs.

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    Intervention strategies for health rumors: An overview based on the information lifecycle theory
    LYU Xiaokang, LIU Xin, YANG Tingting, FU Chunye
    2024, 32 (4):  664-676.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00664
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    The proliferation of health rumors in online spaces has reached alarming levels, contributing to heightened societal panic, erosion of trust, and compromising public safety. Navigating this challenge has become increasingly intricate, especially given the pervasive influence of social media. Existing research in health rumor management has predominantly focused on bolstering organizational and policy structures, neglecting a nuanced exploration of individual differences in information processing. A comprehensive examination from a psychological standpoint could offer invaluable insights into the intricate mechanisms that drive the dissemination of health rumors. Such an analysis may pave the way for the development of a cohesive and integrated framework to effectively combat the rampant spread of health rumors, considering both organizational and individual dynamics. An interdisciplinary approach that combines psychological insights with existing organizational strategies are suggested to holistically address the multifaceted challenges posed by health rumors in the digital age.

    Understanding the propagation of health rumors involves examining two dimensions: information and information processing subjects. At the information level, emotionally charged presentation styles and causal narrative structures in health rumors make the public vulnerable to contagion. On the individual level, variations in emotional experiences, self-awareness, and belief contribute to the dissemination of health rumors. These factors often interact, creating a socially pervasive issue that is difficult to curb. Unraveling these driving factors requires exploring emotional involvement and cognitive processing.

    The factors influencing individuals’ inclination to share health rumors can be elucidated through the lens of behavioral decision theory. According to this theory, individual decisions to engage in specific behaviors are guided by two systems: one driven by emotional impulses and the other linked to reasoning and executive functions. The former operates with rapid responses driven by emotions, while the latter relies on slow, controlled cognition. These two systems don't operate in parallel, and individuals exhibit specific biases when utilizing them, influencing their decision-making. Considering health rumors as a distinct category of health information, individual responses are also shaped by habitual decision-making behaviors. Developing corresponding intervention strategies requires a thorough understanding of these driving factors and potential conflicts within human dual-system processing, aiming for substantive and precise interventions.

    Drawing from the Information Lifecycle Theory, employing different management methods and coping strategies for information with unique characteristics at various stages can optimize information value throughout the lifecycle. This approach, known as the lifecycle approach, conceptualizes the subject of investigation as a complete life process from formation to extinction, akin to a biological lifecycle. To apply this method, research subjects must meet two conditions: possessing life characteristics and finite existence. Health rumors, with their dynamic process from generation to decline, naturally align with the developmental patterns of a lifecycle, meeting the conditions for theoretical analysis and practical application. Considering the comprehensive synthesis and compatibility of existing intervention measures, this paper adopts a three-stage classification method for health rumors. It breaks down the dissemination process into the generation stage, evaluation stage, and dissemination stage, systematically summarizing and analyzing intervention strategies for health rumors at different stages. Primary intervention methods include prevention during the generation stage, emphasizing psychological inoculation and enhancing health literacy; the evaluation stage, focusing on individual subjective agency, including attention to information accuracy and promotion of analytical processing; and the dissemination stage, achieving precision debunking by increasing the credibility of refutation information, effectively using refutation texts, and regulating individual emotional states. This categorized intervention strategy aids relevant parties in promptly identifying measures applicable at different stages, reducing time and trial-and-error costs, and provides a framework reference for developing and validating precise intervention techniques for health rumors.

    Nevertheless, existing preventive measures exhibit certain limitations. Specifically, the classification of health rumor types lacks sufficient detail, and there is a notable absence of nuanced differentiation in psychological characteristics among distinct susceptible groups, with targeted processing measures yet to be explored. Future research endeavors should focus on pioneering governance strategies for health rumors, adopting the perspective of the information lifecycle and exploring intervention methods tailored to diverse types and susceptible populations. Additionally, there is a need to consolidate and validate the real-world application effects of various strategies, leveraging insights from behavioral science and online platforms to establish a sustainable mechanism for effectively intervening in health rumors.

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    Solitude and its effect and psychological mechanisms in the marketing field
    HOU Jiawen, LIU Fengjun, MENG Lu
    2024, 32 (4):  677-688.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00677
    Abstract ( 737 )   HTML ( 60 )  
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    With the change of social structure and economic development, the phenomenon of population urbanization and migrant working has led to the rapid growth of the number of solitary people. Solitude has become a normal part of life for most people, which promoting the rapid rise of the “Single Economy”. Many scholars from psychology, neurology and marketing begin to focus on the impact of solitude on individual’s decision-making strategies and consumption behavior, they want to explore the individual’s psychological and behavioral performance, and consumers’ consumption attitudes and product preference when solitude. For both businesses and researchers, they need to understand what differences exist in consumers’ emotional and psychological experiences based on different motivations for solitude behavior, and what changes these differences may have on consumer behavior. In this study, we first review the definition, motivation and type of solitude: solitude refers to a state in which individuals do not interact socially with others, and it can be divided into two types: positive solitude (voluntary solitude) and negative solitude (involuntary solitude) based on internal and external motivations. Although the concepts of solitude, loneliness and social exclusion/social isolation are similar in some respects: social exclusion/social isolation is one of the causes of negative solitude (involuntary solitude), and loneliness is one of the negative emotions that individuals experience when in a state of solitude/social exclusion/social isolation. However, these three concepts are fundamentally different in terms of connotations, emotional responses and causes, and do not constitute either a sufficient or a necessary condition for each other. Solitude is a neutral concept that refers to a objectively behavioral state; loneliness is a subjectively perceived negative emotion, not only generated by the individual in the state of involuntary solitude, but also represents the subjective feeling of the individual from the unsatisfied and lower-than-expected quantity and quality of the social network, and feelings of the lack of social connection and companionship; social exclusion/social isolation reflects an individual’s social status and is a manifestation of an individual’s inability to participate in normal social activities due to social blockage or disengagement caused by the breakdown of social relationships.

    Then, we probe into the inducing factors of solitude from internal factors and external factors: internal factors mainly refer to the individual’s own personality traits and subjective willingness, they choose to cut all the social connections with the outside world in a time; while external factors mainly refers to the influence of other people and the external environment, which mainly including poor interpersonal relationships, the individual’s work and life environment that leads to unsatisfied social needs, and the influence of the socio-cultural environment. Then, we propose the impact of solitude on consumer behavior from the two aspects of internal motivation and external motivation: Individuals do not have social needs when they are in positive solitude (voluntary solitude), they will pay more attention to satisfy their internal needs, with self-satisfaction and self-pleasure, self-improvement and self-realization as the main consumption motivation, and prefer to carry out consumption behaviors without social attributes, i.e., without interacting with other people, such as purchasing miniature products, singing and improving themselves through offline mini-gallery, mini-fitness barn, independent bookstore, single-person theaters, or online APP to realize singing, reading, painting, fitness, movie watching and other forms of self-pleasure and enhancement. Individuals want to create social interactions and establish social connections through linking up with the external environment or others when they are in negative solitude (involuntary solitude), so they take the establishment of social connections and emotional support as their main consumption motivation, and prefer consumption scenes or product types with social attributes, such as interactive experience-type consumption, ritual consumption, etc., as well as the creation of virtual socialization through human-computer interactions and online communities. To satisfy social needs, they also purchase corresponding items to seek a sense of security and belonging, establish emotional ties, or avoid interpersonal experiences based on self-protection mechanisms when socializing. As a result, a theoretical framework of consumer solitary behavior and its psychological mechanism is constructed based on the two types of positive solitude and negative solitude. Finally, future research directions in the marketing field are prospected: on the one hand, based on the background of the Internet era, future literature should focus on the characteristics of the “Singles Economy” from the perspectives of economic development and industrial change; on the other hand, combining with the consumption value and behavioral habits of young people, and based on the new consumption areas such as social media, online consumption, customized consumption, ceremonial consumption, and minimalist consumption, future literature should explore the differences in the mindsets, decision-making strategies and consumption behaviors of consumers in different type of solitude.

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    Cognitive superiority of athletic sports expert and its formation mechanisms: A perspective from automaticity and abstraction
    CHU Xin-Yu, WANG Ze-Jun
    2024, 32 (4):  689-699.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00689
    Abstract ( 567 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    At present, the mechanism by which athletic sports expert acquires and transfers, refines and updates their professional knowledge and skills through long-term training has not been clearly elaborated. Based on the expert-novice paradigm, the cognitive superiority of athletic sports expert from the perspective of representation learning is mainly embodied in attention superiority and memory superiority, and the key reasons for the cognitive superiority are the automaticity and abstraction of the knowledge and skills of athletic sports expert. Although the knowledge superiority of competitive sports expert is manifested in both procedural knowledge and declarative knowledge, skill learning is more manifested in the automatic extraction of procedural memory. The characteristics of automaticity and deliberate practice partly explain how athletes extract and update professional knowledge and skills from long-term training, while the abstract representation helps athletes acquire and transfer professional knowledge and skills. Moreover, the abstract representation is not only reflected in the schema stored in the expert’s long-term memory system, but also shows that the expert pay more attention to the overall characteristics of the stimulus information, which has the overall perceptual superiority, such as the memorization of the board by the Go master and the recognition of the stance pattern by the football player.

    Then, from the perspective of generative model, the abstract representation mechanism of competitive sports expert’s knowledge and skills is discussed. In particular, the latest research results of Bayesian cognitive model and deep generative model are used for reference, and the mechanism of competitive sports expert’s acquisition and transfer of professional knowledge and skills from long-term training is deeply discussed, so as to construct a more complete competitive sports expert knowledge system. Research based on Bayesian cognitive model shows that the information contained in the motor schema of the expert is more abstract than that of the novice, which is speculated to be because the abstract task representation is conducive to the acquisition and transfer of professional knowledge and skills. The core motor schema stored in the expert memory is reconstructed by deliberate practice under different task rules in order to better match the characteristics of the task, which may help athletes to form high-level special skills closely related to the task rules. As a result, the abstraction of knowledge representation mechanism of athletic sports expert is discussed from the perspective of generative model, which provides a new theoretical basis for understanding the cognitive superiority of athletic sports expert and helping them break through the cognitive limitations.

    It is interesting that, from the perspective of feature representation theory, athletes compress the information in similar task situations through long-term training and competition, extract semantic features to construct core motor schema and store them in long-term memory, and then generate specific motor program based on core motor schema in new tasks. From the perspective of prototype theory, if the expected goal is not achieved, the athlete then compares the executed exercise program with the best action example representation in memory according to the feedback execution error, and improves the motor program.

    In recent years, with the wide application of neuroscience technology, such as EEG, near infrared, functional magnetic resonance imaging, etc., the research on the cognitive superiority of competitive sports expert has accumulated a lot of cognitive neural evidence, and researchers have also made a lot of active exploration in the embodied cognitive view of motor skill acquisition. To sum up, the existing studies have explored the automaticity characteristics and abstract representation of the knowledge and skills of competitive sports expert from the aspects of cognitive neural evidence and embodied cognition theory. In the future, sports psychologists should make more use of the technical means of neuroscience and the theoretical basis of cognitive psychology to understand the formation mechanism of cognitive superiority of competitive sports expert more deeply and comprehensively.

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    Research Method
    Estimating test reliability of intensive longitudinal studies: Perspectives on multilevel structure and dynamic nature
    LUO Xiaohui, LIU Hongyun
    2024, 32 (4):  700-714.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00700
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    Intensive longitudinal data are increasingly used in empirical research in psychology and other social sciences. While such data provide a wealth of information for exploring the dynamics of variables, they also pose challenges for estimating the reliability of tests used in intensive longitudinal studies. A large number of previous intensive longitudinal studies have failed to reasonably and adequately assess the reliability of their tests. Earlier reliability estimation methods drawn from cross-sectional studies or based on generalizability theory (GT) have many limitations and are not applicable to intensive longitudinal data. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to systematically introduce the reliability estimation methods suitable for intensive longitudinal studies and to provide methodological guidance for applied researchers.

    Intensive longitudinal data have two main characteristics: multilevel structure and dynamic nature. The multilevel structure refers to the data structure of multiple repeated measures (level 1) nested within individuals (level 2); and the dynamic nature refers to the temporal dependency between consecutive observations. From the perspective of multilevel structure and dynamic nature, we first introduce two reliability estimation methods that consider one of these two characteristics. The reliability estimation method focusing on the multilevel structure is based on multilevel confirmatory factor analysis (MCFA). It can estimate test reliability at the between- and within-person levels separately. However, this method does not take into account individual differences in reliability and temporal dependency between consecutive observations in intensive longitudinal data. The reliability estimation method focusing on the dynamic nature is based on dynamic factor analysis (DFA). It establishes a dynamic factor model for each individual, and includes autoregressive processes to reflect the dynamic nature of intensive longitudinal data. It can estimate person-specific reliabilities, helping researchers to better understand individual differences in test reliability. However, this method confounds the trait and state components of observed scores, which may lead to biased estimates of person-specific reliabilities. In addition, it cannot estimate between-person reliabilities.

    Considering the limitations of the above two methods, we next present another reliability estimation method (i.e., a method based on dynamic structural equation modeling (DSEM)) that integrates the multilevel structure and dynamic nature of intensive longitudinal data. This method builds factor models at the between- and within-person levels to estimate reliabilities at both levels, and includes autoregressive processes to reflect the temporal dependency between consecutive observations. It also allows for random effects of model parameters (e.g., factor loadings and autoregressive effects) to enable estimation of person-specific reliabilities. In summary, this method can simultaneously reflect the multilevel structure and dynamic nature of intensive longitudinal data, and examine individual differences in test reliability, which helps researchers to better estimate and understand reliability in intensive longitudinal studies.

    Finally, we demonstrate and compare three reliability estimation methods with empirical data on daily procrastination. We summarize and discuss the main features and applicable contexts of these methods, and recommend researchers to examine the reliability of each item and consider individual differences in test reliability in intensive longitudinal studies. We also provide practical suggestions on how to better report reliabilities in applied research. Future research could explore the reliability estimation methods based on other models, and should also pay more attention to the testing and reporting of test reliability in intensive longitudinal studies.

    This paper provides a systematic review of reliability estimation methods in intensive longitudinal studies from the perspectives of multilevel structure and dynamic nature. We illustrate the differences between the methods in estimating three types of reliabilities (i.e., between-person reliabilities, within-person reliabilities, and person-specific reliabilities), and interpret the reliability results at both the item and scale levels, which helps researchers to understand and evaluate the test reliability in intensive longitudinal studies more comprehensively. In addition, by analyzing and comparing the main features of different methods, we point out the contexts in which they are applicable and provide practical suggestions for estimating and reporting reliability in intensive longitudinal studies.

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