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CN 11-4766/R

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    Conceptual Framework
    The neuropsychological mechanism underlying the effect of volunteering on older adults’ cognitive function
    YU Jing, NIU Cheng-Cheng, XU Hong-Zhou, JIANG Hai-Xin, LIN Guo-Jun, WU Ke, XU Zi-Han
    2024, 32 (3):  413-420.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00413
    Abstract ( 274 )   HTML ( 6 )  
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    This project is a breakthrough from the traditional cognitive intervention in which older adults are the target of help, whereas the volunteering as an intervention approach treats older adults as the subjective for help. The project aims to advance understanding of the potential benefits of volunteering on older adults’ cognitive function and the underlying mechanisms. From the perspective of hot/cold dual-system: first, a large set of older volunteers will be sampled to calculate the “heat” of different volunteering types and to reveal the association between volunteering and cognitive function; second, a randomized controlled trial will be conducted to examine the effects of “hot” and “cold” volunteering on older adults’ cognitive function and the underlying neural basis, to reveal the causal relationship between volunteering and cognitive function, and to construct a dual-system neuropsychological model; third, we will explore individual differences of intervention effects and construct predictive models with machine learning classification and regression algorithms. Then, we will select volunteering type for individual and predict gains, in order to achieve personalized intervention. This project is centered on the mechanisms underlying volunteering-driven increases in older adults’ cognitive function. Through this work, researchers can determine how a real-setting activity like volunteering can best be used to protect age-related cognitive decline, increase older adults’ subjective initiative and the sustainability of intervention, contributing to the national strategic needs for active aging.

    First, the study will examine the relationship between volunteering and cognitive function in older volunteers. A large sample of older volunteers will be surveyed to calculate the “hotness” of different types of volunteering around three dimensions: cognitive, social, and physical activities (categorizing two different types of volunteering: “cold volunteering” and “hot volunteering”) and the “involvement” of different volunteering, including both the direction and quantity, and reveal the association between volunteering and cognitive function. Second, the study will explore the neuropsychological mechanism of volunteering to improve cognitive function in older adults through a randomized controlled trial, investigating the effects of different volunteering services on cognitive function and their underlying neurological bases. In addition, a dual-system neuropsychological model will be constructed to elucidate the causal relationship between volunteering and cognitive function. Finally, the study will explore individual differences in intervention effects and construct predictive models through machine learning algorithms to achieve personalized interventions.

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    Antecedents and double-edged sword effect of amoral management in organizations
    LIU Yan, LIU Qingqing, REN Lei
    2024, 32 (3):  421-432.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00421
    Abstract ( 195 )   HTML ( 6 )  
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    Why do leaders in the real world not respond to the ethical components of business situations? How do subordinates react to this kind of leadership style? This study focuses on amoral management to explore the above questions. Amoral management refers to a leader’s consistent failure to respond to issues that have ethical implications and demonstrate ethical requirements through communication, modeling, and reward and punishment to subordinates. Although this kind of leadership is the "majority" in management practice, previous research only focuses on moral leadership and immoral leadership, and relatively ignores to research on this moral "inaction" leadership style. This study proposes a research framework to explore the antecedents and the double-edged sword effects of amoral management.

    Study 1 explores the antecedents and generation mechanism of amoral management based on situational strength theory and individual-situation interactionist perspective. This study posits that leaders' individual characteristics of bottom-line mentality and moral decoupling, and contextual characteristics of organization competitive atmosphere and market competition directly expedite amoral management; organization competitive atmosphere and market competition respectively moderate the relationships between bottom-line mentality, moral decoupling and amoral management.

    Study 2 establishes an integrated model consisting of two double-edged sword models to explore the influence of amoral management based on social information processing theory. Firstly, this study explores the relationship between amoral management and subordinates' task performance under the context of leaders’ high-performance expectation. Specifically, this study posits that in the context of leaders’ high-performance expectation, amoral management may promote subordinates' work engagement and task performance through instrumental cognition of mental focus on performance; it may also hinder subordinates' work engagement and reduce their task performance through ethical cognition of ethical strain. Secondly, this study posits that within the context of high-performance expectation, amoral management might potentially facilitate subordinates’ expedient behavior through the mediating roles of mental focus on performance and ethical strain, though it may promote employee task performance.

    Study 3 explores the double-edged effects of amoral management from the perspective of market competition. Firstly, the study proposes that in situation of team perceived high leader bottom-line mentality, amoral management has an indirect positive relationship with team's customer service performance via team shared bottom line obligation; it may also indirectly facilitate team-oriented customer unethical behavior through team shared bottom line obligation. Secondly, this study proposes that when team members perceive a high leader bottom-line mentality, amoral management may enhance team customer service performance through team shared bottom line obligation, it may also facilitate team-oriented customer unethical behavior through reduced team role ethicality, presenting another manifestation of the double-edged sword effect.

    The theoretical contributions of this study are primarily as follows: Firstly, it fills the research gap of amoral management. While scholars have paid attention to amoral management for decades, empirical examinations of its antecedents and influences remain scarce. This study focusing on amoral management brings significant and innovative knowledge to the field of ethical-related leadership. Secondly, this study establishes a theoretical framework to explain the antecedents and generation mechanism of amoral management based on situational strength theory and the effects of amoral management from social information processing theory. On the one hand, this study identifies four important individual and contextual variables which are bottom-line mentality, moral decoupling, organization competitive atmosphere, and market competition and their interaction effects on amoral management to explain why managers are inclined to amoral management. On the other hand, this study explains how amoral management exerts its constructive and destructive effects on individual and team’s work performance through multiple instrumental-ethical cognition processes. Thirdly, this study delineates the situational conditions for amoral management to exert the influence from the perspectives of high-performance expectation and leader’s bottom-line mentality. It addresses the problem of ethical information ambiguity inherent in amoral management, illustrates that the moral "neutral" of amoral management has deferent effects depending on the context, which deepens our understanding of the complexity, diversity and comprehensiveness of the effects of amoral management. This study not only provides useful enlightenment for the theoretical exploration of amoral management, but also provides important practical guidance for the recruitment and training of enterprise managers.

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    Conceptual Frame
    Formation and consequences of employee time theft: A motivational perspective
    HU Biyun, MENG Liang
    2024, 32 (3):  433-450.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00433
    Abstract ( 212 )   HTML ( 7 )  
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    Employee time theft, where employees receive payment for unworked hours or exaggerate their working hours, is predominantly viewed as a negative workplace deviant behavior that can be costly to organizations. Given its prevalence and high cost, it has become an important topic in the field of organizational behavior in recent years. Despite its importance, scholars have not yet systematically explored the reasons why employees engage in time theft, and research on its impact is even scarcer. As such, scholars lack the ability to speak directly to managers about this crucial phenomenon.

    In this context, the first goal of this study is to examine time theft from employees’ perspectives, develop a theoretical model for time theft motives, explore specific motives using qualitative methods, and develop an instrument to measure them. This study suggests that employees may engage in time theft for not only self-oriented motives (e.g., money-making, pleasure-seeking) but also other-oriented (responding to others’ requests) and work-oriented reasons (efficiency promotion). The study collects employee time theft motives through open-ended questions and analyzes the motives based on grounded theory. Subsequently, it develops scales to assess each motive and examines their validity.

    Building upon the specific time theft motives, this study then aims to examine the impact of employee time theft from both the actor’s and the observer’s perspectives. From the actor’s perspective, drawing from self-perception theory (Bem, 1972), the effort-recovery model (Meijman & Mulder, 1998), and the social cognitive theory of morality (Bandura, 1991), this study examines whether employee time theft guided by different motives will differentially affect the actor’s felt obligation, emotional exhaustion, and guilt, leading to a differential impact on the actor’s task performance, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and creativity. From the observer’s perspective, drawing from affective event theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996) and attribution theory (Heider, 1958), this study explores how time theft affects the observer’s emotions (i.e., anger, compassion) and work behaviors (i.e., task performance, OCB, creativity, and counterproductive work behavior), depending on the observer’s attribution of the actor’s motives of time theft.

    Lastly, this study investigates how to decrease destructive time theft motives and its associated negative outcomes. Specifically, this study proposes that through the interventions of work meaningfulness and state mindfulness, employee time theft driven by self-oriented motives can be decreased, leading to higher levels of felt obligation and ultimately higher levels of task performance, OCB, and creativity.

    In sum, the goals of this study are to understand the phenomenon of time theft from employee perspectives, promote in-depth future research on time theft and workplace deviance, and inspire practitioners with respect to how to effectively manage employee time theft. This study provides several implications for theory and practice. At the theoretical level, this study constructs a theoretical model for time theft motives and establishes a framework for the impact of these motives. It tackles the gap in systematic investigation of the mechanisms underlying time theft and the scarcity of research examining its impact. By analyzing time theft motives, the study introduces a two-dimensional motive classification framework, providing a nuanced understanding of how different motives influence time theft behavior and broadening the understanding of work motivation and negative workplace behaviors. On the practical level, the study offers theoretical guidance for managers to address time theft issues more humanely and effectively. By delving into the impact of time theft driven by different motives on both actors and observers, the research becomes a valuable reference for enhancing employee motivation and performance. Additionally, the study conducts field experiments to explore effective interventions for time theft driven by negative motives. This practical aspect helps bridge the gap between academic research and managerial practices, offering actionable insights for organizations to handle time theft issues. Overall, the study contributes significantly to both theoretical and practical realms, facilitating a better understanding of complicated time theft dynamics.

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    Conceptual Framework
    Multi-stage impacts of artificial intelligence coaches on consumers’ long-term goal pursuit and its mechanism
    SHU Lifang, WANG Kui, WU Yueyan, CHEN Siyun
    2024, 32 (3):  451-464.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00451
    Abstract ( 250 )   HTML ( 7 )  
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    With the rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI), AI coaching is becoming widely used in intelligent education, smart fitness, and other fields. Given this backdrop, many new service forms have emerged, such as AI teachers and coaches. However, how do consumers’ attitudes towards AI coaching differ from those toward human guidance? Is AI coaching effective in helping consumers achieve long-term goals? What are the differences in consumers’ evaluations of AI coaching? This project explores the impact of AI coaching on consumers’ goal-seeking behavior from the dynamic perspective of goal management by combining the characteristics of AI coaching in terms of operability, feedback, and emotionality. This study was conducted in three stages: preselection, promotion, and evaluation.

    First, in the preselection stage, when the goal is set for the near (vs. distant) future, consumers choose AI coaching (vs. human guidance) more often. At this stage, consumers have a more concrete (vs. abstract) mindset, leading them to prefer the highly methodical and diverse characteristics of AI coaching. Additionally, the higher the degree of the coaching AI’s anthropomorphism, the weaker the difference in consumers’ preferences for using AI coaching (vs. human guidance) when they set goals for the near (vs. distant) future.

    Second, in the promotion stage, the effect of AI coaching (vs. human guidance) on improving consumers’ skills is modulated by their skill levels. Specifically, for consumers with higher level skills, more constructive criticism is needed. However, because of the limited ability of AI coaching to provide detailed negative feedback, highly skilled consumers cannot receive beneficial guidance for their shortcomings, resulting in lower performance improvement effects from AI coaching (vs. human guidance). However, for consumers with lower skill levels, there is no significant difference in the performance improvement effect between AI and human coaching on consumers’ goal pursuit. This is because when consumers' skills are low, they need more positive feedback, and both AI and human coaches can provide timely positive feedback to encourage consumers to continue pursuing their goals.

    Third, in the evaluation stage, after achieving the goal, consumers are less likely to share positive word-of-mouth evaluations about AI coaching compared to humans when the training guidance is successfully completed. This is because consumers have lower expectations for positive emotional returns from AI coaching than they do from human guidance. Thus, it is not worthwhile for these consumers to make recommendations through word-of-mouth or engage in other prosocial behaviors. Conversely, when the training guidance is unsuccessful, consumers are more likely to share negative word-of-mouth evaluations about AI coaching than of human guidance. This is because consumers have lower anticipated guilt when providing negative evaluations for AI coaching compared to human coaching.

    Overall, this study overcomes the bottlenecks of previous studies from three perspectives to conduct a theoretical construction. First, it focuses on previous studies’ one-time contact AI service scenarios and shifts attention to the impact of long-term cooperative relationships with AI coaching. Second, we overcome the simple passive contact scenarios between consumers and AI that have been explored in previous studies and explore consumer learning scenarios in which consumers learn specific skills from AI coaching. In addition, unlike existing research on AI coaching, which focuses on interactions with service providers, this project explores scenarios in which AI coaches interact directly with end consumers. Finally, in contrast to previous studies that mainly concentrated on the negative impacts of AI, we focused on the positive impacts of AI coaching on consumer well-being. Based on the dynamic perspective of goal management, this study explores how AI acts as a guide to help consumers pursue long-term goals in long-term cooperative relationships. Our anticipated findings will help companies achieve a win-win situation in technology implementation and commercial realization, effectively promoting the deep layout and rapid development of artificial intelligence in the intelligent education, smart fitness, and healthcare fields.

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    The effect of time pressure on individual work outcomes: A meta-analytic review
    YUAN Yue, WU Zhiming, XIE Qiushi
    2024, 32 (3):  465-485.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00465
    Abstract ( 216 )   HTML ( 7 )  
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    Considering the fact that time pressure is highly prevalent and significant in the workplace, academic researchers have delved deeply into the relationship between time pressure and employee performance or behavioral outcomes. While these studies have made substantial contributions to the time pressure literature, they have not yet arrived at a consistent conclusion. As such, determining the true impact of time pressure remains an open question. To address this, we conducted the first comprehensive meta-analysis on the effects of time pressure on individual work outcomes. This analysis encompassed a wide range of consequences, including job performance, innovative performance, prosocial behavior, and proactive behavior. By investigating the effects of time pressure through a meta-analytical lens, we were able to gain a better understanding of its impacts and develop appropriate coping strategies accordingly. Our findings offer valuable insights and recommendations for organizations seeking to effectively manage the time pressure experienced by their employees, ultimately aiming to enhance overall performance. This issue has become a topic of significant importance and concern in both theoretical and practical fields, with our study providing a crucial step forward in understanding the implications of time pressure in the workplace.

    Based on 82 independent samples from 78 studies with a total study sample of 25,056 participants, this study conducted a meta-analysis of the relationship between time pressure and employee outcomes (job performance, innovation performance, prosocial behavior, and proactive behavior) and examined the moderating effects of cultural differences (power distance, individualism-collectivism, and short-term-long-term orientation), team interdependence, and rating sources on the relationship. The results found that time pressure had a significant positive correlation with employee job performance, prosocial behavior, and proactive behavior, but the positive correlation with employee innovative performance was not significant. Furthermore, this study examined the moderating effects of cultural differences, team interdependence, and rating sources. The data results showed that, first, under the background of high power distance, collectivism, and long-term orientation, time pressure had a significant positive correlation with prosocial behavior; while under the background of low power distance, individualism, and short-term orientation, time pressure had a significant positive correlation with proactive behavior. Second, compared with low team interdependence, in the context of high team interdependence, time pressure showed a more positive correlation with job performance, innovative performance, and prosocial behavior. Finally, compared to other-evaluated data, time pressure had a more positive correlation with self-evaluated employee job performance and behavioral outcomes.

    This study makes significant theoretical contributions to the time pressure literature. First, the findings of this study enrich the existing research on the relationship between time pressure and employee outcomes. Although previous studies have mostly regarded time pressure as a challenge stressor and believed it to be a favorable factor for promoting individual and team achievements, our results suggest that time pressure does not always yield positive outcomes. Specifically, individual time pressure is beneficial for employees’ job performance, prosocial behavior, and proactive behavior, but its positive correlation with innovative performance is not significant, indicating that time pressure is not always assessed positively. Second, this study investigates the boundary conditions between time pressure and employee outcomes based on the stress appraisal theory. The mixed research conclusions on the relationship between time pressure and employee outcomes might be due to the varying degrees to which employees evaluate time pressure as challenging in different situations. This study identified several important boundary conditions, including cultural differences, team interdependence, and rating sources. These findings not only expand the application scope of the stress appraisal theory but also provide a more comprehensive and systematic reference for clarifying the boundary conditions between time pressure and employee outcomes. Therefore, this meta-analysis offers a comprehensive and reliable conclusion on the impact of time pressure and provides theoretical references and practical guidance for future research.

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    Regular Articles
    The causes of eye effect instability: Subjective and objective factors and psychological related mechanisms
    LEI Heya, HUANG Wenxin, CHEN Weicong, HONG Jinzhu, ZHENG Yan, HUANG Liang
    2024, 32 (3):  486-498.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00486
    Abstract ( 360 )   HTML ( 1 )  
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    The eye effect refers to the significant changes in people’s behavior when presented with direct eye cues. The eye cues have several positive effects, such as promoting people’s prosocial behavior, reducing antisocial behavior, and increasing self-awareness. However, these positive effects brought by eye cues are often unstable, and the eye effect has yet to emerge in many studies. Therefore, the current research analyzes the reasons for the instability of the eye effect both from the perspectives of factors and mechanisms. Moreover, we review the existing research on the eye effect and describe the different effects of eye cues. After that, we propose a path to improve the robustness of the eye effect.

    First of all, factors that lead to the instability of the eye effect include physiological characteristics of the eyes, emotion type, presentation time, direction of gaze, form of task interaction, number of people around, noise in the vicinity, self-awareness, group identity, and behavioral costs. Notably, to our knowledge, the current research first discusses the different categories of self-awareness in a unified framework. Specifically, it identifies the relationship between eye effect and self-awareness. In addition, we propose that the eye effect may be jointly influenced by individual trait self-consciousness and state self-consciousness and discuss the interactions between the two in detail.

    Second, in terms of psychological related mechanisms, reputation, and rule mechanisms can make the eye effect unstable. Specifically, the eye effect will be unstable if people’s reputation is not affected or they do not care about others’ evaluations. Furthermore, if people’s perceived norms are different from the actual norms, the eye cue will prompt the individual to comply with the self-perceived norms, resulting in inconsistent direction of behavior change and instability of the eye effect. Because the rule mechanism dominates when people pursue a good reputation and avoid normative social norms conflict.

    Third, the current research proposes a feasible solution to improve the robustness of the eye effect. Additionally, we propose practical scenarios in which the eye cues can be applied in people’s daily lives. We aimed to realize the social value of the eye effect and provide a low-cost, easy-to-use, simple, and efficient practical strategy for actively guiding individuals to maintain social harmony.

    Last but not least, the current research proposes several directions for the future research: First, future research could refine the types of eye cues to extend the study’s scope of application, as well as observe whether individual differences in the level of understanding of eye stimuli. Second, it is necessary to observe whether the expectation of future rewards or the fear of social punishment plays a dominant role in the eye effect in conjunction with individual differences. Third, future research may conduct longitudinal comparisons at different developmental stages of individuals to explore differences in the mechanisms behind the eye effect across developmental stages. Fourth, conducting field studies to improve the ecological validity of research in this area by incorporating cultural differences. Finally, combining cognitive neuroscience techniques to explore the emotions through which the eye cue works.

    In conclusion, by providing a fully integrated theoretical framework for the factors and psychological related mechanisms affecting the eye effect, the current research deepens the understanding of the eye effect and provides a valuable and feasible path for future research.

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    Multi-stage model of neurocognitive processing for vocal imitation
    HU Yanbing, JIANG Xiaoming
    2024, 32 (3):  499-513.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00499
    Abstract ( 115 )   HTML ( 2 )  
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    This article provides a comprehensive evaluation of the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying vocal imitation, approached from the speaker's perspective through a multi-stage model. Initially, we dissect this process by analyzing stages in two different models of vocal imitation, illuminating the unique aspects of this cognitive function. Subsequent sections revisit neuroimaging studies to demystify the neural networks underpinning vocal imitation, clarifying specific neural mechanisms which drive cognitive processing in this domain. The third part of the discussion hones in on individual capabilities like voice recognition ability, the skill to map vocal perception onto vocal organ motor commands, and the control over vocal organs. These elements are crucial for comprehending how various factors contribute to the process of vocal imitation.

    Firstly, we have clearly addressed the task irrelevant nature of vocal imitation. in a shadowing paradigm, neither the shadowing condition nor the tasks in stimulus-response consistency paradigms require speakers to imitate the voice of the target speaker. These paradigms provide measures of the cognitive processing of imitation through behavioral response indicators, suggesting that vocal imitation can work spontaneously. Under the imitation condition of the shadowing paradigm, speakers are asked to mimic the voice of the target speaker, revealing that vocal imitation can also be deliberately targeted at specific sounds. The spontaneity involved in vocal imitation differs between these paradigms: in stimulus-response consistency, it primarily manifests as automated reactions based on sensorimotor coupling, almost an automatic response triggered by stimuli. In contrast, the spontaneity in the shadowing paradigm is more about reproducing acoustic characteristics without explicit intent, meaning that speakers can accurately replicate the acoustic features of the target speaker even without a clear intention to imitate.

    Secondly, we have deepened our understanding of the neural pathways integral to the perception and vocal motor activities that support vocal imitation. This exploration encompasses key neural structures such as the superior temporal gyrus, arcuate fasciculus, inferior frontal gyrus, laryngeal motor cortex, and basal ganglia, all of which are crucial in the selection, coordination, and execution of motor sequences.

    Thirdly, the study further emphasizes the critical role of multimodal information in vocal imitation. It highlights how metrics, including the reproduction of acoustic features and the replication of vocal organ movements, are essential in delineating the intricate cognitive processes at play. This comprehensive examination not only sheds light on the complex neural mechanics underlying vocal imitation but also underscores the synergy between various sensory inputs and motor outputs in this sophisticated cognitive function.

    In conclusion, this article unravels the cognitive neural foundations of vocal imitation, discussing its definition, behavioral evidence, neural mechanisms, and the role of individual differences. It is proposed that successful vocal imitation relies on the replication of acoustic features and the corresponding movements of the vocal organs. Critically, three primary stages are involved in vocal imitation—perception, perceptual mapping to output, and actual vocal output—significantly impact the behavioral outcomes of this process. An in-depth analysis of these stages enhances our understanding of the complexities of vocal imitation and illustrates the collaboration of various cognitive models and neural foundations in this phenomenon. Future research should integrate vocal imitation studies with vocal disorders and intracranial electrode technology, aiming to decipher the causal links between brain functions and behaviors, and apply these insights to lifelong speech development, cognitive plasticity, and predictive processing in language communication.

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    The heterogeneity and boundary conditions of growth mindset effect
    JI Yuexin, LIU Chang, ZHAO Yue, WANG Dixin, HU Xiaoyong
    2024, 32 (3):  514-526.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00514
    Abstract ( 302 )   HTML ( 6 )  
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    Growth mindset, the belief that one’s abilities can be improved through effort and learning, has drawn much attention from researchers in personality, social and developmental psychology. They believe that mindsets shape individuals’ different meaning systems when facing challenges and setbacks, resulting in diverse achievement outcomes. Individuals with a growth mindset tend to pursue learning goals (rather than avoiding looking incompetent), attribute failure to controllable factors such as effort and strategy (rather than fixed low ability), and believe that their efforts in learning will lead to improvement. Therefore, a growth mindset can foster higher academic achievement. However, while numerous studies confirm that a growth mindset can considerably enhance students’ academic achievement, others indicate that its impact is small and complex. Meta-analytic results further reveal that the relationship between a growth mindset and academic achievement is highly heterogeneous, meaning that a growth mindset is effective in some situations but ineffective or detrimental in others.

    To account for this heterogeneity, researchers propose the mindset × context theory, which emphasizes that the effectiveness of a growth mindset depends on the context. They refer to the characteristics of the context that support the legitimacy and adaptability of a growth mindset as psychological affordances. This theory posits that teaching students a growth mindset is most effective in contexts that provide psychological affordances for it. In other words, effective interventions need to cultivate an adaptive belief system (plant high-quality seeds) in supportive situational features (fertile soil). This evidence contradicts the “mindsets alone” hypothesis, which holds that teaching students a growth mindset is sufficient and that students can benefit from it in almost any context, even unsupportive ones. Moreover, individuals’ mindsets are formed based on their experiences, which may be limited or biased, leading to a misalignment between mindset and actual circumstances, thereby affecting their performance. For some disadvantaged groups, they may become trapped in a self-defeating cycle. Changing the mindsets of these disadvantaged students through growth mindset interventions and situational resource support can effectively help them break the cycle and overcome challenges. Therefore, vulnerability and psychological affordances are two crucial boundary conditions for the effects of a growth mindset. When individuals face vulnerability (e.g., poor performance or challenging courses or school transitions) and the environment provides psychological affordances for students (e.g., classroom policies that offer opportunities for growth mindset actions), growth mindset interventions are more likely to have meaningful effects.

    The Mindset × Context theory has provided a new direction for the study of growth mindset. However, deriving meaningful conclusions from the heterogeneity of psychological phenomena is not an easy task, especially when it comes to real-world behaviors and policy-related outcomes. While the Mindset × Context theory offers a good framework for understanding the heterogeneity of the growth mindset effects, it does not offer a clear explanation of why psychological affordances can influence the effects of a growth mindset. Drawing on the existing empirical evidence, we contend that psychological availability affects individual academic achievement by moderating the relationship between mindset patterns and motivation and behavior patterns related to the meaning system, which in turn affects individual academic achievement. First, psychological affordances moderate the relationship between growth mindset and the meaning system. Participants’ growth mindset led to learning-oriented choices only when teachers provided information and opportunities to support growth mindset, and in the growth mindset teacher condition, participants who reported more growth mindset were more likely to choose a challenging assignment that enhanced learning rather than a simple review assignment; however, the relationship between the variables was not significant in the teacher fixed mindset condition. That is, psychological affordances (high academic achievement mobility, teacher growth mindset, etc.) enables growth mindset individuals (especially those with lower grades or those who are vulnerable when faced with difficult course or school transitions) to pursue learning goals (rather than avoid appearing incompetent); attribute failures to controllable factors, such as effort and strategy (rather than a fixed low level of competence); and believe that their efforts in learning will result in improvement, which in turn leads to higher academic achievement. In other words, the meaning system is a good theoretical solution to the why question that is not answered by the mindset × context theory. We hope that our model can inspire future research and practice on how to optimize the benefits of a growth mindset for students’ learning and development.

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    Trust dampening and trust promoting: A dual-pathway of trust calibration in human-robot interaction
    HUANG Xinyu, LI Ye
    2024, 32 (3):  527-542.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00527
    Abstract ( 267 )   HTML ( 4 )  
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    Trust is the foundation of human-robot cooperation. Due to the dynamic nature of trust, over-trust and under-trust may occur during human-robot interaction, eventually jeopardize human-robot trust (HRT). Maintaining an appropriate level of trust requires accurate calibration between individual perceived reliability and actual reliability. Previous research have investigated the causes of over-trust and under-trust in HRT, and provided corresponding trust calibration strategies. However, these studies are relatively scattered and the effectiveness of trust calibration strategies is still controversial. Besides most previous studies only focus on over-trust or under-trust, ignoring the necessity and importance of integrating over-trust, under-trust and trust calibration from the overall perspective. In this paper, we use the term “trust bias” to define the inappropriate trust level during human-robot interaction, which means the individual’ s trust towards the robot deviates from the calibration value due to the false estimation of the robot reliability. Trust bias contains both over-trust and under-trust. Second, we name the strategy to improve the low trust level as “trust promote” instead of “trust repair”. Because we believe that “trust repair” focuses more on improving the low trust level of individuals after the trust violation rather than improve the initial low trust level of individuals.

    Based on this, we starts with the causes of over-trust and under-trust in HRT, points out how robot-related, human-related and environmental factors affect HRT. Specifically, we conclude two main robot-related factors of trust bias: reliability and embodiment. So we suggest designers can improve the transparency of robot to calibrate people’s trust, by the way robot itself can also use some trust repair strategies such as apology, denial, commitment, blame and so on after trust level dropped down. For human-related trust bias factors, we think motivation, self-confidence, algorithm attitude (algorithm appreciation and algorithm aversion), mental models are main contributors. Corresponding, calibration requires human reach more contacts to robots in order to improve algorithm literacy, as well as lowing their expectation. Also, we claim people may fall into trust bias in some special situations while risky or time-pressure, so cognitive forcing training may be critical.

    We discuss the boundary conditions of the trust calibration strategy in HRT and set up a research agenda. Regarding of the measurement, we suggest researchers should not only focus on the people’s external trust attitude, but also focus on the people’s implicit trust attitude to better test the effectiveness and practicability of the calibration strategy. Taking trust inhibition as an example, in the future, we can not only test whether the dampening strategy is effective through the trust scale, but also explore whether the implicit trust level of people decreases after the trust dampening. In addition, future studies suggest further optimize the measurement of methods, develop high reliable scales to detect HRT.

    Secondly, since full trust calibration cycle often experiences three phases: trust building-trust growth / impaired-trust calibration. Previous HRT cognitive neural research focus on the first two stages. In the future, researchers can use physiological indicators to monitor the change process of individual trust neural activity from the beginning of trust establishment to the beginning of trust calibration in real time, and further reveal the dynamic development of individual trust from the physiological level.

    Third, the research of HRT focuses on humanoid robots and mechanized robots, while less attention is paid to the role of animal robots in the trust calibration, especially the “cute” animal robots. Cute robots may be able to change human’s biases to increase initial trust levels; After a trust violation, cute animal robots may also reduce trust levels more slowly and easier to repair. Future studies can examine the relationship between animal robots and trust.

    Fourth, some researchers have begun to pay attention to the changing development of the trust level of individuals in the group, rather than interacting with the robot alone. The human-robot trust level difference between Chinese and Western participants can be compared through cross-cultural methods and further investigate how to conduct trust calibration within the group. In addition, the difference and commonness between individual trust bias and group trust bias can be compared, and appropriate strategies for group trust bias calibration can be explored.

    Finally, the success of trust calibration also depends on individual factors, and there may be individual differences in the effectiveness of calibration strategies. In line with the popular approach, researchers are encouraged to model trust-related behaviors to calibrate trust in a personalized way.

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    Research Method
    The vignette in experimental vignette methodology: Current status and design strategies in managerial psychology research
    YU Jingting, WEI Xuhua, MA Yi’en
    2024, 32 (3):  543-556.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2024.00543
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    Experimental Vignette Methodology (EVM), as a advanced approach to enhancing both internal and ecological validity, involoves researchers manipulating independent variables and controlling confounding factors through the careful construction of realistic vignettes to assess dependent variables such as intentions, attitudes, and behaviors. In recent years, EVM has gained increasing popularity in managerial psychology research. However, many problems have arisen. First, some studies were actually based on the EVM, but utilize the term “contextual priming methodology”. What’s more, some vignettes in EVM have design issues, which can easily lead to framing effects, social desirability and false reactions. Unfortunatly, integrated recommendations for creating and validating vignettes are limited. These issues render the EVM susceptible to experimental material design challenges, effectiveness queries, and potential hindrances to its development in managerial psychology research. Thus, it is essential to give a brief introduction to EVM and focus on the topic of how to properly design and validate the vignette before its deployment in managerial psychology research.

    Based on the above considerations, this paper first introduced the definition and types of EVM. Additionally, we clarified the differences between EVM and contextual priming methodology in terms of method characteristics, scenario characteristics, manipulable variables, and commonly used techniques. Second, based on the three stages of pre-design, design and post-design, this study coded and analyzed 93 scenario experiments drawn from 20 major domestic and foreign management-related journals in the past five years (2019.01-2023.05). We sorted out the design issues and systematically summarized the design strategies existing in the present managerial psychology research. We found that the design issues were as follows: a lack of standardization in the design process; a lack of realism in the vignettes; little attention being paid to the evaluation of realism and content validity before vignettes were deployed; and a lack of widespread use of pretests..

    Given the design issues and strategies in the present managerial psychology research, this study adopted method application as the guiding principle and addressed the question of how to design the vignettes in EVM from the three stages of pre-design, design and post-design. During the pre-design phase, the focus was on determining whether EVM was the appropriate approach. We found that EVM is a suitable approach when researchers encountered ethical dilemmas, samples were difficult to obtain, and the varibales often manipulated were interaction relationships and related to the all parties involved in the interaction, such as behaviors, cognitions and emotions. The design stage was concerned with how to draft the vignettes consisting of backgroud module and manipulation material module. This process was divided into five sub-stages: determining the number of vignettes, drafting the vignettes, choosing the media, standardizing vignettes and enhancing vignettes’ realism. The post-design stage focused on evaluating whether the vignettes were clear, realistic, complete and effective. Methods such as realism evaluation scale, content validity index(CVI), and manipulation checks could be used to evaluate the validity of vignettes. If vignettes failed to meet standards or another scenario experiment was required, the researcher should return to the design stage to continuously modify or rewrite vignettes until they met criteria such as consistency with the research topic, accurate stimulation of variable levels, inclusion of necessary information, control of confounding factors, and presentation as fully immersive scenarios.

    Although the design strategies for the vignettes in EVM in the managerial psychology research have been systematically summarized from existing research, further enrichments are still needed. Specifically, future research could use incident technique and information technology, such as VR, to design the vignettes. Furthermore, vignettes with iterative decision are encouraged to be created. It is also important to note that the design process of vignettes is guided by theoretical principles. By doing so, it will enhance the applicability, richness and realism of vignettes.

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