ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Research Method
    Using word embeddings to investigate human psychology: Methods and applications
    BAO Han-Wu-Shuang, WANG Zi-Xi, CHENG Xi, SU Zhan, YANG Ying, ZHANG Guang-Yao, WANG Bo, CAI Hua-Jian
    2023, 31 (6):  887-904.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00887
    Abstract ( 1410 )   HTML ( 29 )  
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    As a fundamental technique in natural language processing (NLP), word embedding quantifies a word as a low-dimensional, dense, and continuous numeric vector (i.e., word vector). This process is based on machine learning algorithms such as neural networks, through which semantic features of a word can be extracted automatically. There are two types of word embeddings: static and dynamic. Static word embeddings aggregate all contextual information of a word in an entire corpus into a fixed vectorized representation. The static word embeddings can be obtained by predicting the surrounding words given a word or vice versa (Word2Vec and FastText) or by predicting the probability of co-occurrence of multiple words (GloVe) in large-scale text corpora. Dynamic or contextualized word embeddings, in contrast, derive a word vector based on a specific context, which can be generated through pre-trained language models such as ELMo, GPT, and BERT. Theoretically, the dimensions of a word vector reflect the pattern of how the word can be predicted in contexts; however, they also connote substantial semantic information of the word. Therefore, word embeddings can be used to analyze semantic meanings of text.
    In recent years, word embeddings have been increasingly applied to study human psychology. In doing this, word embeddings have been used in various ways, including the raw vectors of word embeddings, vector sums or differences, absolute or relative semantic similarity and distance. So far, the Word Embedding Association Test (WEAT) has received the most attention. Based on word embeddings, psychologists have explored a wide range of topics, including human semantic processing, cognitive judgment, divergent thinking, social biases and stereotypes, and sociocultural changes at the societal or population level. Particularly, the WEAT has been widely used to investigate attitudes, stereotypes, social biases, the relationship between culture and psychology, as well as their origin, development, and cross-temporal changes.
    As a novel methodology, word embeddings offer several unique advantages over traditional approaches in psychology, including lower research costs, higher sample representativeness, stronger objectivity of analysis, and more replicable results. Nonetheless, word embeddings also have limitations, such as their inability to capture deeper psychological processes, limited generalizability of conclusions, and dubious reliability and validity. Future research using word embeddings should address these limitations by (1) distinguishing between implicit and explicit components of social cognition, (2) training fine-grained word vectors in terms of time and region to facilitate cross-temporal and cross-cultural research, and (3) applying contextualized word embeddings and large pre-trained language models such as GPT and BERT. To enhance the application of word embeddings in psychological research, we have developed the R package “PsychWordVec”, an integrated word embedding toolkit for researchers to study human psychology in natural language.

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    Conceptual Framework
    The mechanism of emotion processing and intention inference in social anxiety disorder based on biological motion
    PENG Yujia, WANG Yuxi, LU Di
    2023, 31 (6):  905-914.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00905
    Abstract ( 713 )   HTML ( 39 )  
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    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is among the most common anxiety disorders. SAD is marked by overwhelming fear and avoidance of social scenarios, which debilitates patients’ daily function. Due to the heterogeneous and co-morbid nature of psychiatric disorders, traditional clinical diagnosis methods based on subjective reports and guidelines of DSM and ICD are facing serious challenges, such as misdiagnosis and underdiagnosis. Hence, research is urgently in need to promote the understanding of the psychological and neurobiological mechanisms underlying the clinical symptoms of psychiatric disorders, and to also promote the use of objective biomarkers, such as behavioral and brain activity patterns, to diagnose and predict psychiatric disorders. Nowadays, mood and anxiety disorders are among the most prevalent mental illnesses worldwide that lead to serious outcomes. SAD lies at the intersection of mood and anxiety disorders, offering an opportunity to unfold the mechanisms underlying comorbid mental disorders. SAD is closely associated with abnormal functioning of social cognition. With negative cognitive biases being the representative characteristic, subjects with SAD may demonstrate deficits in both emotional processing and intention inference in social contexts. However, existing evidence in the field cannot readily unify the two important perspectives, emotional processing and social intention inference underlying SAD. The field also lacks effective predictive models of SAD clinical symptoms based on multi-dimensional neurobiological data.
    Given these challenges, the current project aims to systematically investigate the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying emotion processing and intention inference in subjects with high social anxiety traits. Based on the classic biological motion paradigm, we will use a combination of behavioral experiments, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), clinical measurements of self-report questionnaires, computational modeling, and machine learning algorithms to investigate the negative cognitive bias in SAD. We aim to reveal the underlying unique and shared cognitive neural mechanisms of emotional processing and intention inference, also to establish predictive models of SAD clinical symptoms based on multi-modal data. The current project consists of three experiments. Experiment one will systematically examine the emotional processing of SAD through an emotion judgment task, based on tasks of both the classic emotional biological motion and facial expression recognition. Experiment two will investigate behavioral characteristics and neural mechanisms of SAD in social intention inference through a social interaction judgment task, based on dyad biological motions and facial expression recognition. Biological motions are selected as one of the main testing stimuli in the current study, because they contain rich information of both emotions and social intentions and may be an important source of information for socially anxious people to judge the emotions and intentions of others given their avoidance of facial areas. Therefore, integrating experimental paradigms of biological motions and facial expressions can facilitate the examination of the cognitive biases of emotion recognition and intention inference in social anxiety. Experiment three will integrate the behavioral and neuroimaging data in the previous two experiments to investigate the shared mechanisms of cognitive bias in emotion processing and social intention inference. We aim to examine the link between multimodal data and to investigate the corresponding mechanisms of SAD subtypes and build predictive models.
    The project has the prospect to reveal the psychopathology underlying SAD, as well as to examine the association between behavioral and neuroimaging data underlying mental disorders. The current study also has the promise to reveal the role of multimodal data for objective classification and prediction of clinical symptoms. We aim to promote objective classification and prediction of mental disorders based on multimodal data. The efforts may facilitate the realization of the “Health China 2030” plan, which proposed the goal stated as “by 2030, the level of prevention and treatment of common mental disorders and identification of psychological and behavioral problems will be significantly improved”.

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    Original article
    The antecedents and consequences of team constructive deviation: A routine-evolution perspective
    SUN Jianqun, YE Wenjuan, LI Rui, TIAN Xiaoming
    2023, 31 (6):  932-943.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00932
    Abstract ( 299 )   HTML ( 17 )  
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    Organizational routines can provide stability and efficiency for enterprise development, but sometimes they become worthless or even become outdated longer because they cannot adapt to the environment. Constructive deviance is a bottom-up driving force for organizational routine innovation and change from employees, but the existing research is still very lacking on this topic. At the same time, the essential nature of the normative challenge makes it difficult for constructive deviance to unfold at the individual level. In view of this, this project focuses on the team constructive deviance. Based on developing the relevant behavior scale and event list, the project integrates event system theory and group cognitive-affective dual-process, using the research methods of interview, time-lagged design and experiment to explore the antecedents and outcomes of team constructive deviance in the context of organizational rigidity.
    Specifically, the study includes: (1) developing a team constructive deviance scale and an event inventory to lay the foundation for subsequent research; (2) examining how the events of rigidity in organizational routines contributes to team constructive deviance by inducing team normative conflict and team psychological discomfort, as well as the moderating role of environmental uncertainty and team cohesion in the above process; (3) exploring the inverted U-shaped relationship between team constructive deviance and organizational routine updating to inquire into the "degree" of constructive team deviance and the mediating role of bystander team reflexivity and bystander team activating moods in the above process and the moderating role of inter-team differences perception.
    The research results not only advance the previous research on constructive deviance, but also provide inspiration for exploring the black box process of organizational routine evolution. The specific theoretical contributions are as follows: First, the proposal of team constructive deviance. Team constructive deviance contains interactive elements that are not present in individual-level constructive deviance, which originate from the mutual imprinting of team members in terms of identity or identification, and mutual infection and influence in terms of emotion and cognition. These processes and mechanisms lead to the existence of shared strong or weak constructive deviance in teams. Further, exploring and developing structural models and measurement tools of team constructive deviance in local companies can provide us with a more comprehensive understanding of constructive deviance and is expected to provide new breakthroughs in theoretical and empirical research on constructive deviance. Second, team constructive deviance is used to gain insight into the process of organizational routine evolution. Using team constructive deviance as a key element in dissecting the process of organizational routine evolution helps to identify and shape the bottom-up routine change driving force of routine evolution, which effectively complements the previous top-down routine evolution driving approach and innovatively constructs a docking study between micro-level and macro-level. Third, event system theory and team cognitive-affective dual-path model. The forming and influencing process of team constructive deviance in the process of organizational routine evolution relies on the role of situational events and follows the process of “situational events - team cognition-emotion dual-path - team behavior decision”. The event perspective and the process model of team cognition-emotion dual-path proposed in this study are effective extensions of previous studies that focused on traits such as individual stability characteristics, leadership styles, and group characteristics. In addition, this study also considers situational and entity characteristics based on the process model, which provides useful insights for subsequent research on the mixture of traits and processes.

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    Conceptual Framework
    From idea generation to idea implementation: The effects of team pay-for-performance on team innovation
    ZHOU Kong, ZHOU Xuan, YING Xueqing
    2023, 31 (6):  944-957.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00944
    Abstract ( 462 )   HTML ( 24 )  
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    Companies increasingly adopt team pay-for-performance (PFP) as an important compensation strategy to motivate employees. While prior research has largely focused on the effects of team PFP on team performance, ignoring its potential influences on team innovation. Theoretically, team PFP will influence team identification, collaboration, and emotion, which are all important potential factors impacting team innovation. However, our knowledge of the relationship between team PFP and team innovation is limited. Given the important role of team innovation in building organizational competitiveness, this paper proposes a theoretical model linking team PFP and team innovation. Specifically, following the “generations of employee creative ideas—generations of team creative ideas—implementation of team creative ideas” process, this paper first theorizes how team PFP influences generations of employees’ creative ideas via team knowledge sharing and positive affect. It proposes that team PFP can increase employees’ cognitive flexibility via knowledge sharing and positive affect of team members, enhancing employees’ creativity. Additionally, the positive influences of team PFP will be more pronounced for teams with high cognitive diversity. Then, this paper focuses on generations of team creative ideas, and theorizes how team PFP affects team creativity through idea selections and integrations. Finally, this paper discusses how team PFP helps to improve the implementation of team creative ideas via resource utilization efficiency and conflict management, as well as the theoretical boundary role of team diversity in the above process.
    This paper aims to contribute to the PFP and innovation literature in four ways. First, it enriches the PFP literature by theorizing the effectiveness of team PFP. Prior research has largely focused on the effectiveness of individual PFP while ignoring the influences of team PFP. Team PFP has become an increasingly important strategic motivational tool for facilitating team success. More importantly, team PFP fundamentally differs from individual PFP and is theoretically related to team innovation. By theorizing the effects and underlying mechanism of team PFP on team innovation, this paper enhances our understanding of the effectiveness of team PFP, which also complements prior research focusing on individual PFP.
    Second, this paper provides new perspectives to the team PFP literature. Prior research has examined the impacts of team PFP using expectation theory and equity theory, which cannot fully explain the relationship between team PFP and team innovation. Team interaction, cognitions, and emotions are important factors explaining how teams’ innovation differs. This paper introduces team goal clarity, risk preference, emotion, and conflict management as underlying mechanisms linking team PFP and team innovation. By introducing new perspectives, this paper greatly enriches our understanding of the influence mechanisms of team PFP.
    Third, this paper contributes to the relationship between employee creativity and team creativity. The first step in team innovation is the generation of creative ideas that often come from employees’ creativity. However, prior research has largely ignored how employees’ creative ideas emerge from the team’s creative ideas. Team members will pay different attention to and support different creative ideas from other members. This paper proposes that team PFP can foster the emergence of team creativity by increasing team goal clarity and risk preference. By revealing the emergence process, this paper can contribute to our understanding of the antecedents of team creativity.
    Four, this paper provides an integrated framework for the process of team innovation. It not only theorizes how team PFP influences team creative ideas implementation from the cognitive and emotional perspectives but also emphasizes the team requirements for team creative idea implementation from the team resource and conflict perspectives. These integrated theoretical constructions will greatly increase our comprehensive understanding of the generation and implementation of team creative ideas in organizations. Finally, this paper also provides some practical implications for compensation strategy makers and managers to improve team innovation.

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    Model construction and sample size planning for mixed-effects location-scale models
    LIU Yue, FANG Fan, LIU Hongyun, LEI Yi
    2023, 31 (6):  958-969.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00958
    Abstract ( 424 )   HTML ( 9 )  
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    With the development of data-collection technics and increasing complexity of study designs, nested data widely exists in psychological research. Linear mixed-effects models, unfortunately with an unreasonable hypothesis that the residual variances are homogenous, are generally used in nested data analysis. Meanwhile, Mixed-Effects Location-Scale Models (MELSM) has become more and more popular, because they can handle heterogenous residual variances and are able to add predictors for the two substructures (i.e., mean structure denoted as location model and variance structure denoted as scale model) in different levels. MELSM can avoid estimation bias due to inappropriate assumptions of homogenous variance and explore the relationship among traits and simultaneously investigate the inter- and intra-individual variability, as well as their explanatory variables. This study, aims at developing the methods of model construction and sample size planning for MELSM, using simulated studies and empirical studies. In detail, the main contents of this project are as follows. Study 1 focuses on comparing and selecting candidate models based on Bayesian fit indices to construct MELSM, taking into consideration the estimated method for complicated models. We propose that model selection for location model and scale model can be completed sequentially. Study 2 explores the method of sample size planning for MELSM, according to both power analysis (based on Monte Carlo simulation) and the accuracy in parameter estimation analysis (based on the credible interval of the posterior distribution). Adequate sample size is required for both the power and the accuracy in parameter estimation. Study 3 extends the sample size planning method for MELSM to better frame the considerations of uncertainty. By specifying the prior distribution of effect sizes, repeating sampling and selecting model based on the robust Bayesian fit index suggested by Study 1, three main sources of uncertainty can be well controlled: the uncertainty due to unknown population effect size, sampling variability and model approximation. With the simulated study results, we are able to provide reliable Bayesian fit indices for MELSM construction, and summary the process of sample size planning for MELSM in both determinate and uncertain situations. Moreover, Study 4 illustrates the application of MELSM in two empirical psychological studies and verifies the operability of the conclusions of the simulated studies in practice. The unique contribution of this paper is to further promote the methods of model construction and sample size planning for MELSM, as well as provide methodological foundation for researchers. In addition, we plan to integrate the functions above to develop a user-friendly R package for MELSM and provide a basis for promotion and application of MELSM, which help researchers make sample size planning, model construction and parameter estimation for MELSM easily, according to their specification. If these statistical models are widely implemented, the reproducibility and replicability of psychological studies will be enhanced finally.

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    The bilingual advantage effect on executive control and its moderators: Evidence from meta-analysis
    LI Ying, ZHAO Hongyu, ZHANG Mujun, FAN Zixuan, WANG Yue
    2023, 31 (6):  970-987.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00970
    Abstract ( 1059 )   HTML ( 37 )  
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    The advantage of executive control brought by bilingual experience has long attracted much attention. However, the theoretical explanation and specific performance of the bilingual advantage are inconsistent. Some studies suggest that only some components of executive control exist bilingual advantage effect, which is conditional or there is no bilingual advantage effect on executive control. The present study suggests that the contradicted results of previous studies are probably due to an incongruent division on the components of executive control, especially confusing the concepts and task paradigms of interference control and response inhibition. In order to further clarify the internal mechanism of the bilingual advantage effect on executive control and identify which components of the executive control have a bilingual advantage, the current study distinguished interference control and response inhibition from traditional classification of inhibitory control and mainly focused on the bilingual advantage effect of interference control, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. At the same time, neglected variables such as age and language family, which were added to the study as moderators for the first time, as well as sample size, the proficiency of a second language, the acquisition age of a second language, and socioeconomic status were also included as moderating variables to explore their respective influences on the bilingual advantage effect of executive control.
    Finally, the meta-analysis of 102 works of literature found that the bilingual advantage of executive control was marginally significant (g = 0.11), but the bilingual advantage disappeared after controlling for publication bias. Furthermore, the bilingual advantage of the interference control component was marginally significant (g = 0.08) without significant modulating effect. The bilingual advantage of the response inhibition component was significant (g = 0.21), and was moderated by proficiency of a second language. That is to say, the skilled bilinguals were more likely to show bilingual advantage compared to non-proficient bilinguals. Nevertheless, the bilingual advantage effect disappeared after controlling for publication bias. At the same time, the cognitive flexibility component was moderated by age and publication year. To be more specific, a bilingual advantage was found in child bilinguals while not in adult bilinguals, and there was a more significant result of the bilingual advantage in recent publication years. In addition, whether native and second languages belong to the same language family also influenced the bilingual advantage effect on executive control to some extent. Different language families had larger effect size than the same language family, and response inhibition showed a bilingual advantage when the native and second language belonged to different language families. This suggests language family is an important moderating variable that has been overlooked in previous studies. Future research should further explore the influence of the distance between the native and second language on the bilingual advantage of executive control.
    In summary, this study not only found a bilingual advantage effect on executive control, but more importantly, tested the need to separate interference control and response inhibition from traditional inhibitory control. After separation, a stable bilingual advantage effect was found only for the interference control component, and an unstable bilingual advantage effect was found for the response inhibition component. Given that no study has yet hypothesized a bilingual advantage effect on interference control component alone, the findings provide new ideas and certain references for future exploration in the related field. Moreover, in explaining whether bilingual experience can lead to generalized cognitive advantage, the specific effects of language characteristics and the language using subjects, on different cognitive components of executive control should be fully considered.

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    HPA axis dysfunction in women with premenstrual syndrome: A meta-analysis based on cortisol levels
    ZHANG Ting, ZHANG Kelin, ZHOU Renlai
    2023, 31 (6):  988-1001.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00988
    Abstract ( 537 )   HTML ( 18 )  
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    HPA axis (Hypothalamic - Pituitary - Adrenal, HPA) dysfunction determines the formation or deterioration of stress-related emotional disorders. As a special stress-related disease, premenstrual syndrome (PMS) appears before menstruation and disappears after menstruation. This stable and explosive phenomenon reflects acute stress. On the other hand, the premenstrual discomfort symptoms are considered chronic stress, which may last about 30 years. In order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the pathological mechanisms of PMS, we relied on two types of the activity patterns of HPA axis, namely activity patterns at the baseline level and activity patterns after experimental manipulations on stress levels. The current meta-analysis study included 32 studies (total sample size N = 1280) from 1990 to 2021. We investigated the difference of cortisol levels in luteal phase and follicular phase between PMS women and controls. In addition, we investigated the moderating roles of the cortisol measurement method, cortisol measurement time, PMS/PMDD sample size, and diagnostic type. Because of age-related changes in female hormone secretion and regional differences in menstruation attitude, we further investigated the moderating roles of age and area.
    We found that the cortisol of PMS individuals in the luteal phase was significantly lower than that of the controls at the baseline level. This effect was moderated by the time of cortisol measurement. At follicular stage, there was no significant difference in cortisol content between PMS women and controls. Similarly, in the experimental studies manipulating stress levels, the cortisol content of PMS women in the luteal phase was significantly lower than that of the controls, but the two groups did not differ in the cortisol content of the follicular phase. The moderating roles of cortisol measurement method, PMS/PMDD sample size, diagnostic type, age and area were not significant.
    The findings suggested that the persistent changes of the HPA axis and blunted reactivity of HPA axis to pressure might be pathological mechanisms of PMS. The inactivation of the HPA axis at the baseline reflected the lasting change of the neurobiological system due to long-term ineffective activation, while the inactivation of the HPA axis in the experimental studies directly showed blunted reaction to subsequent stressors. Blunted baseline cortisol response may be a risk factor to the development of PMS. Thus, future studies need to further clarify the role of blunted baseline cortisol response on the occurrence of PMS using a longitudinal design.
    In addition, the results of the follicular phase were unstable in both the baseline and experimental studies, influenced by depression history and trauma experience.
    The study responds to the controversy of the existing research findings on the topic and provides a deeper understanding for the pathological mechanisms of PMS. Based on the findings of this study, the roles of the time effect of cortisol measurement and stress regulation strategies should be considered in future research.

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    Regular Articles
    Distributed representation of semantics in the human brain: Evidence from studies using natural language processing techniques
    JIANG Jiahao, ZHAO Guoyu, MA Yingbo, DING Guosheng, LIU Lanfang
    2023, 31 (6):  1002-1019.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01002
    Abstract ( 713 )   HTML ( 18 )  
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    How semantics are represented in human brains is a central issue in cognitive neuroscience. Previous studies typically detect semantic information by manipulating the properties of stimuli or task demands, or by asking a group of participants to judge the stimuli according to several given dimensions or features. Despite having brought valuable insights into the neurobiology of language, these approaches have some limitations. First, the experimental approach may only provide a coarse depiction of semantic properties, while human judgment is time-consuming and the results may vary substantially across subjects. Second, the conventional approach has difficulty quantifying the effect of context on word meaning. Third, the conventional approach is unable to extract the topic information of discourses, the semantic relations between the different parts of a discourse, or the semantic distance between discourses.
    The recently-developed natural language processing (NLP) techniques provide a useful tool that may overcome the above-mentioned limitations. Grounded on the distributional hypothesis of semantics, NLP models represent meanings of words, sentences, or documents in the form of computable vectors, which can be derived from word-word or word-document co-occurrence relationships, and neural networks trained on language tasks.
    Recent studies have applied NLP techniques to model the semantics of stimuli and mapped the semantic vectors onto brain activities through representational similarity analyses or linear regression. Those studies have mainly examined how the brain (i) represents word semantics; (ii) integrates context information and represents sentence-level meanings; and (iii) represents the topic information and the semantic structure of discourses. Besides, a few studies have applied NLP to untangle sentences’ syntactic and semantic information and looked for their respective neural representations. A consistent finding across those studies is that, the representation of semantic information of words, sentences and discourses, as well as the syntactic information, seems to recruit a widely distributed network covering the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortices. This observation is in contrast to the results from conventional imaging studies and lesions studies which typically report localized neural correlates for language processing. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that NLP language models trained on large-scale text corpus may have captured multiple aspects of semantic information, while the conventional experimental approach may selectively activate a (or several) specific aspects of semantics and therefore only a small part of the brain can be detected.
    Though NLP techniques provide a powerful tool to quantify semantic information, they still face some limitations when being applied to investigate semantic representations in the brain. Firstly, embeddings from NLP models (especially those from a deep neural network) are uninterpretable. Secondly, models differ from each other in training material, network architecture, amount of parameters, training tasks and so on, which may lead to potential discrepancies among research results. Finally, model training procedures differ from how humans learn language and semantics, and the inner computational and processing mechanism may also be fundamentally different between NLP models and the human brain. Therefore, researchers need to select a proper model based on research questions, test the validity of models with experimental designs, and interpret results carefully. In the future, it is promising to (i) adopt more informational semantic representation methods such as knowledge-graph and multimodal models; (ii) apply NLP models to assess the language ability of patients; (iii) improve the interpretability and performance of models taking advantages of cognitive neuroscience findings about how human process language.

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    The influence of rapid automatized naming on reading and its mechanism
    GUO Yanshuo, MA Xiaofeng, PAN Keyu, ZHANG Huan
    2023, 31 (6):  1020-1029.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01020
    Abstract ( 602 )   HTML ( 24 )  
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    Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an important predictor of reading. However, why and how RAN predicts reading remains controversial. Some researchers believe that the essence of reading is to recognize individual words in text in rapid succession, Individual word recognition rate can predict the fluency of sequential text reading through phonological awareness, orthography and processing speed. Therefore, individual word processing efficiency dominated the effect of RAN on reading. Other studies have found that Single word reading efficiency cannot fully explain individual differences in the process of serial reading. readers process multiple words during fluent reading in a "cascade" of processing, which is why RAN predicts reading. Therefore, There is no consensus on the mechanism by which RAN predicts reading. This paper analyzes existing studies and finds that they have not focused on the moderating effect of Visual Attention Span (VAS) on lexical processing, which may lead to inconsistent conclusions on the underlying mechanism of RAN in predicting reading. Readers with low VAS level recognized a limited number of orthographic units and read individual words one by one in discrete form during reading, so the relationship between RAN and reading was dominated by individual word processing efficiency; Readers with high VAS regard words as a whole unit and carry out parallel processing among multiple words in sequence. This "cascade" processing dominates the relationship between RAN and reading. However, due to the stable correlation between RAN and reading, many researchers extend the efficiency of single word processing to continuous text reading, believing that reading is the rapid and automatic reading of single words in succession. The researchers did not notice that in early reading, the reader's discrete RAN was closely correlated with the serial RAN, and that in serial reading, the reader was also engaged in rapid single-word reading. In adulthood, the reader's discrete RAN is independent of the serial RAN, and discrete and serial reading are not the same. Although some researchers noticed this later, but they still did not further pay attention to the fact that the lexical processing modes of readers at different stages correspond to different levels of VAS. With the potential changes of readers' VAS, their continuous reading modes are also changing. In addition, the selected subjects in previous studies were screened for basic reading ability, They all have basic reading skills. RAN materials were all high-frequency words or words with short characters, The VAS of the subjects was sufficient to support the “sight word reading” of these high-frequency short words. Therefore, although the subjects had different levels of VAS, they were similar in reading performance. By analyzing existing studies, we found that the level of readers' VAS seemed to explain the discrepancy in the conclusions on the relationship between RAN and reading. Future studies should focus on individual differences in VAS during reading, organically integrate different theories, and further explore the relationship between RAN and reading as well as the influence of VAS at different levels on it. To improve the reasons for RAN prediction of reading and related theories, Enriching the theory of nonverbal interventions for developmental dyslexia.

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    Meaning in precision: Mechanisms and interventions of negative emotional granularity
    YE Weihao, YU Meiqi, ZHANG Lihui, GAO Qi, FU Mingzhu, LU Jiamei
    2023, 31 (6):  1030-1043.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01030
    Abstract ( 629 )   HTML ( 23 )  
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    Emotional granularity refers to the ability to make a fine distinction between similar emotional states, and can be divided into positive and negative emotional granularity based on the valence of differentiated emotions. The ability to carefully perceive and distinguish the rich complexity of negative emotional experiences has been found to have a profound impact on individuals’ physical and mental health. Negative emotional granularity has been shown to play an important role in enhancing well-being and reducing psychopathological symptoms such as depression and anxiety.
    In view of its mechanisms, in cognitive level, negative emotional granularity can exert positive impacts on individuals by facilitating the adaptability and effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies and maintaining individuals’ emotional stability by improving interpersonal emotional skills, it can also serve as a protective factor for internalizing and externalizing problems. Specifically, negative emotional granularity reduces the use of maladaptive emotion regulation strategies such as rumination and avoidance, and promotes the use of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. At the individual level, negative emotional granularity may maintain emotional stability through the selectivity and effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies, thereby promoting the physical and mental health of individuals. At the social level, negative emotional granularity is closely related to interpersonal emotional skills, which are also important for individuals' physical and mental health. In addition to maintaining short-term emotional stability, negative emotional granularity is also beneficial for long-term social adjustment, as negative emotional granularity can moderate the negative reactions caused by negative emotions and reduce the possibility of internalizing and externalizing problems. At the neurophysiological level, negative emotional granularity in the autonomic nervous system, can modulate the activity of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems and contribute to the maintenance of the one’s homeostasis. In the central nervous system, negative emotional granularity may facilitate changes in the activation patterns of neural networks related to emotional concepts, making it easier for individuals to achieve homeostasis in stressful situations.
    The major interventions related to negative emotional granularity include feeling words training and mindfulness-based interventions. Based on the conceptual act theory of emotion, negative emotional granularity depends on the development of emotion concepts. We propose that feeling words are linked to the emotion concepts that people use to conceptualize their affective experiences and transform them into refined, granular emotional experiences. Based on the theory of constructed emotion, negative emotional granularity is based on the individual's construction of past emotional experiences. Mindfulness-based interventions actively train individuals to bring their attention on their internal mental states, and to stay with them (regardless of their valence) without evaluating or striving to change them. This shift in perspective might improve the ability to identify mental states and might increase individuals’ negative emotional granularity.
    Future research should further improve the measurement accuracy of negative emotional granularity. More studies are needed to explore the dynamic change of negative emotional granularity from the person-centered perspective, expand its investigation, and focus on comparing the mechanisms of positive and negative emotional granularity.

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    Effect of doctors’ and patients’ individual characteristics on shared decision-making and its psychological mechanism: A perspective from implicit prototype theory
    YUAN Xianger, ZHAO Ruiwen, ZHU Dongqing
    2023, 31 (6):  1044-1054.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01044
    Abstract ( 335 )   HTML ( 9 )  
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    Doctor-patient shared decision-making (SDM) is widely advocated as ideal for making medical decisions because it is believed to yield good results. Previous researchers have summarized the influencing factors of SDM from various perspectives; however, they have not systematically focused on the psychological mechanism of how these factors operate. Based on implicit leadership and followership prototypes, this paper introduces the perspective of implicit prototypes in doctor-patient SDM and proposes implicit SDM prototypes of doctors and patients for themselves and their counterparts. The implicit SDM prototype of doctors and patients is a set of cognitive schemas that they develop about “their own or their counterparts’ SDM behaviors,” which reflect the extent to which they expect themselves or their counterparts to exhibit SDM behaviors. Moreover, doctors and patients do not have the same implicit SDM prototypes for themselves or their counterparts and, hence, have different expectations about whether the patient or doctor needs to engage in SDM.
    This paper clarifies the implicit prototype psychological pathways in which individual characteristics affect SDM (individual characteristics of doctors and patients → their potential psychological states → their implicit SDM prototypes → their SDM). Individual characteristics may influence the psychological states of doctors and patients, their implicit SDM prototypes, and their SDM.
    Dividing the four implicit SDM prototype psychological paths, this paper reviews the previous studies that have focused on the effect of individual characteristics of doctors and patients on SDM. First, studies focusing on the effect of the individual characteristics of doctors and patients on SDM have found that patients’ and doctors’ characteristics influence SDM by seeking advantages and avoiding disadvantages, such as emotions, outcomes, and interpersonal feedback or experienced power states. This paper proposes that patients’ and doctors’ motivations and experienced power states may influence SDM through their implicit SDM prototypes for themselves. Second, studies focusing on the effect of individual characteristics of doctors and patients on their counterparts’ SDM have found that doctors’ medical service and interaction characteristics with patients influence patients’ SDM through the relative deprivation and psychological empowerment experienced by patients and that patients’ individual characteristics influence doctors’ SDM through their heuristic cognitive judgments of patients. This paper proposes that the relative deprivation and psychological empowerment experienced by patients may influence their SDM through their implicit SDM prototypes for doctors. Doctors’ heuristic cognitive judgments of patients may influence their SDM through their implicit SDM prototypes for patients.
    Finally, according to the implicit SDM prototype research framework, several potential topics are discussed for future studies, including but not limited to exploring individual characteristics of doctors and patients that influence SDM, investigating the potential psychological states of doctors and patients influenced by their individual characteristics, testing the role of doctors’ and patients’ implicit SDM prototypes, and focusing on the moderators of the effect of individual characteristics of doctors and patients.

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    Contextual effect of social comparison and social evaluation: Insights from the perspective of joint evaluation
    HE Tingting, WANG Yiman, CHEN Wenfeng
    2023, 31 (6):  1055-1067.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01055
    Abstract ( 600 )   HTML ( 36 )  
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    Preference reversal of joint evaluation is well known in the field of decision-making. The Generalized Evaluability Theory (GET), as a theory for preference reversal with the strongest explanatory power, emphasizes the role of the mode of evaluation (i.e., the presence or absence of contextual information) in the decision-making process. The theoretical models for the contextual effect of social comparison and social evaluation, e.g., the Inclusion/Exclusion Model (IEM), also emphasizes the role of contextual information (especially the similarity between context and target) in the evaluation process. Analogous to preference reversal, the contextual effect can also be explained as a kind of "decision preference" (upward assimilation and downward contrast) and its "reversal" (upward contrast and downward assimilation). Taken as analogous concepts, preference reversal and contextual effect are first introduced and compared, and then contextual effect is explained and extended from the new perspective of joint evaluation. Future research should pay attention to the following aspects to deepen the understanding of the contextual effect and promote the theoretical integration and practical implications of these two fields.
    First, how to measure contextual effects. Previous studies usually measured the contextual effects as the relative difference of the target evaluations among different contexts, which might lead to a contrary conclusion. Similar to the fact that preference reversal is concluded from the difference between joint and separate evaluations, future research on contextual effect should also take the baseline condition (i. e., the target is evaluated separately) into account. This is to avoid the inapposite measure of contextual effects of social comparison and social evaluation.
    Second, what factors influence contextual effects. Inspired from the contextual factors of preference reversal effects of joint evaluations, future research may pay more attention to the target-context similarity for various evaluation dimensions of social comparison and social evaluation.
    Third, the contextual effect may be extended to cross-dimensional domains. It is common for cross-dimensional trade-offs in decision-making during joint evaluations. Thus, the cross-dimensional contextual effects should not be rare in social comparison and social evaluation. Specifically, the cross-dimensional domains may be manifested as followings: 1) context and target are cross-dimensional, 2) target evaluation on one dimension (e.g., trustworthiness) is impacted by the ingroup/outgroup relationships between the evaluator and target resulted from another feature (e.g., race), and 3) contextual effects are modulated by the relevance between the contextual dimension and the target dimension, and so on.
    Finally, the contextual effect can be linked into practical applications. Decision-making is common in practical context, and the new perspective of joint evaluation can provide insights for the decision-making dilemma related to contextual effects, in particular when the target and the context are extremely similar leading to a hard prediction of the occurrence of the assimilation effect. Besides, based on the perspective of joint evaluation, multidimensional criteria in real situations such as interviews should be evaluated separately to minimize the adverse impact of contextual assimilation and contrast, when it is more difficult to evaluate the key criterion than the less important criterion. Therefore, the perspective of joint evaluation can inspire the application of contextual effect in a wider range of evaluation and decision-making situations in the future.

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    Effects of social essentialism on prejudice and its mechanisms
    BAO Shiyue, ZHANG Jing, JI Yuexin, HU Xiaoyong
    2023, 31 (6):  1068-1077.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01068
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    Social essentialism is an intuitive theory about social categories. It is a biological attribution of differences in social categories. It implies that members of one social category share unobservable intrinsic characteristics that determine their membership and generate observable similarities between them. Studies show that social essentialism increases racial, gender, and class prejudice, but also reduces prejudice against obese people, homosexuals, and criminals. Why are there domain differences in the impact of social essentialism on prejudice? The causal discounting theory holds that people weigh the possibility of multiple candidate causal explanations perceived in the process of explaining group differences. When a given causal explanation is considered more likely, other causal explanations are automatically regarded as unlikely, that is, the possibility of alternative causal explanations is discounted. The causal discounting theory, however, fails to distinguish between social categories that promote prejudices and those that reduce prejudices, nor does it explain the internal logic of causal discounting in a process of social essentialism that leads to different prejudice outcomes. Attribution theory can provide further insight into these questions.
    Specifically, a major difference between social categories is whether group members are able to join or leave them. Based on this criterion, social categories can be classified into two categories: forced social categories and chosen social categories. Forced social categories result in significant social status differences between groups, and people often need to explain why one group has a lower status than another. However, in the chosen social categories, the stigma of groups is more prominent, so it is often necessary to explain why a group holds a stigmatized identity. More importantly,in forced social categories where stability cues are strong (e.g. race, gender, and class), social essentialism leads people to believe that differences between groups are difficult to change, thus increasing prejudice by discounting environmental explanations. In chosen social categories where controllability cues are strong (e.g. obesity, homosexuality, criminals), social essentialism leads people to believe that the stigmatized identities of some group members are uncontrollable, thus reducing prejudice by discounting chosen explanations.
    Future research on social essentialism could focus on the following aspects in order to yield more practical value. Firstly, it is necessary to clarify social essentialist beliefs, describe how each component relates to prejudice, and analyze these relationships across different social domains in order to gain a deeper understanding. In addition, future research should examine the mechanisms behind social essentialism's influence on prejudice in greater depth. It is mainly because social essentialism's influence on prejudice can be complex, and it will not increase or decrease prejudice on its own; also, the current research on this mechanism is primarily based on causal discount theory, so future research should examine the internal mechanisms of this effect in greater detail. Finally, future research should focus on developing practical and effective interventions that can maximize the positive effects of social essentialism while eliminating its negative effects. The main reason for this is that these interventions are helpful in reducing intergroup conflict, eliminating prejudice, and fostering harmony in society. In order to reduce prejudice in the future, there needs to be vigorous development of relevant and effective intervention programs that target social essentialism.

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    The influence of loneliness on consumption behavior and its theoretical explanations
    LI Ting, KONG Xiangbo, WANG Fenghua
    2023, 31 (6):  1078-1093.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01078
    Abstract ( 1364 )   HTML ( 56 )  
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    Loneliness has become an increasingly common social phenomenon that is widespread at all ages and has an impact on people's daily lives in modern societies. Loneliness is a painful emotional experience that individuals subjectively perceive when the quality of intimate or social relationships does not meet ideal expectations or when they cannot satisfy their need to belong. Recent research findings regarding the impact of loneliness on consumption behavior have contributed greatly to the field of consumer behavior. However, the results of existing research are inconsistent and it is still unclear how loneliness affects consumption behavior. As a consequence, the field of consumer behavior is rather constrained in terms of research development and marketing strategy. In light of the importance of loneliness in the field of consumer behavior, this article systematically reviews the research findings of the influence of loneliness on consumption behavior in order to solve the above problems.
    First of all, this article summarizes and generalizes the widely used manipulation methods (including the feedback-evoked method, recall-evoked method, imagination-evoked method, and cue-evoked method) and measurement tools (i.e., the UCLA loneliness scale) for loneliness. Secondly, this article summarizes the effects of loneliness on consumption behavior from four aspects, including compensatory consumption behavior, avoidance consumption behavior, irrational consumption behavior, and uniqueness consumption behavior, respectively. Thirdly, this article analyzes and sorts out the triggering mechanisms and situational factors of loneliness-induced consumption behaviors, respectively. According to the Evolutionary Theory of Loneliness, this article contends that, the psychological needs (e.g., seeking social connection, restoring a sense of control, and seeking a sense of meaning in life) activated by transiently lonely consumers, who are influenced by the approach motive for restoring self-difference, will induce compensatory consumption behaviors. The social avoidance tendency activated by chronically lonely consumers, who are influenced by the avoidance motive for self-preservation in the short term, will induce avoidance consumption behaviors. At the same time, constant vigilance for social threats and the negative emotions it produces (e.g., anxiety) due to social avoidance may deplete lonely consumers’ self-regulatory resources, which will induce irrational consumption behaviors. The need for uniqueness activated by chronically lonely consumers, who are influenced by the avoidance motive for self-preservation in the long term, will induce uniqueness consumption behavior. In addition, loneliness motivates consumers to induce these above consumption behaviors will be influenced by factors such as consumers' intimacy status, marketing strategies, product attributes, and consumption contexts. Finally, the article explains the influence mechanisms of loneliness on various types of consumption behaviors based on different perspectives such as social surrogacy theory, sense of control theory, compensatory consumption behavior theory, self-regulation theory, and personality trait theory.
    Although many valuable results have been obtained from existing research on the effects of loneliness on consumer behavior, there are still some key issues that need to be addressed by future research. This article proposes that future research shall pay more attention to the impact of loneliness on altruistic consumption behavior (e.g., examining the effects of loneliness on pro-social consumption behavior or sustainable consumption behavior), the differential effects of type and degree of loneliness on consumption behavior (e.g., examining the differential effects of transient and chronic loneliness on consumption behavior), the potential moderators of loneliness-induced consumption behavior (e.g., exploring the boundary variables of loneliness-induced consumption behavior in terms of consumers' physiological activities, personality traits, and social characteristics), the internal mechanisms of loneliness-induced consumption behavior (e.g., attempting to explore the internal mechanisms of loneliness-induced consumption behavior from the cognitive-emotional dual processing path), as well as the reverse impact of consumption behavior on loneliness (e.g., clarifying the differential effects of consumption behavior on individual loneliness in the short and long term).

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    The power of circulation: The impact of reciprocal relationship on consumer behavior
    SUN Jin, YANG Jingshu
    2023, 31 (6):  1094-1108.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01094
    Abstract ( 649 )   HTML ( 19 )  
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    Reciprocity reflects the resource circulation between “giving” and “reciprocating”, which widely exists in the consumption field in various forms. Previous studies largely focus on reciprocity’s impact in scopes of anthropology, sociology, economics and organizational behavior. However, the relationship between reciprocity and consumer behavior has not been systematically reviewed. Therefore, the current research aims to build a consumers behavioral response model to reciprocal relationships. From perspectives of reciprocal exchange, equivalence principle and moral norm, the framework shows that reciprocal relationships can affect three dimensions of consumers’ response - subject, nature and level of behavior. Transitivity is reciprocity’s first feature. As a binary relationship, reciprocal relationships not only affect cooperators’ decision-making in existing relationships, but also predict the attitude and behavior of third parties outside the relationship. The double-edged sword is reciprocity’s second feature. As an equivalent exchange, the valence of reciprocity does not decide the positive and negative nature of consumers' responses. Positive reciprocity may lead to negative outcomes, and negative reciprocity may have positive effects. Asymmetry is reciprocity’s third feature. Even though the nature of consumers’ responses is congruent with reciprocity’s valence, reciprocal relationships may generate asymmetric responses in quantity and quality. The research further found that (un)conscious decision-making, result-/deontology-orientation, and social exchange respectively play the underlying mechanisms of transitivity, double-edged sword and asymmetry. These underlying mechanisms are based on theories of cultural learning, goal contagion, intertemporal decision-making, moral consistency/balance and equal exchange. Finally, the framework summarizes social and individual factors moderating the relationship between reciprocity and consumer behavior. Social factors include culture, communication context and other exchange forms, and individual factors include demographic variables, personality traits and cognitive state.
    The conceptual framework offers several limitations, which may help future researchers to extend this line of research. Future research should explore the antecedents related to reciprocity and the change of their weights from two systems of internal and external dynamics. The subject, nature and level of consumers’ response should be integrated by longitudinal study design and large-scale individual-level data analysis. Moreover, future research should continue to explore boundary conditions of reciprocal relationships affecting consumer behavior, and focus on the differences in the internal mechanism of reciprocal relationships triggered by different cooperators.
    Overall, by jumping out of the assumption that self-interest maximization is the only expectation of market members, the present research has three contributions. First, considering that reciprocity has multiple dimensions and forms, the framework comprehensively categorizes the antecedents of reciprocity that drive consumers’ behavior, shedding light upon the conceptual discrepancies and outlining future paths for discovery. Second, the framework summarizes and refines the consumers’ response in reciprocal relationships, which not only helps to systematically grasp the macroscopic law of consumer behavior in social exchange, but also promotes the sustainable evolution of consumption. Third, the framework further discusses the situations where reciprocity, together with social and individual factors, simultaneously affect individual behavior, which expands the traditional framework of interdependent decision-making.

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