ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conceptual Framework
    Conceptualization of voice-taking and its effect on work behaviors: From the perspective of regulatory focus theory
    XIAO Sufang, XU Zhengli
    2023, 31 (5):  697-708.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00697
    Abstract ( 1364 )   HTML ( 31 )  
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    Voice-taking is originated from the ancient time and it’s crucial for the growth and success of an organization. This paper dealt with a detailed review on the concept, antecedents and outcomes of voice-taking. It found that existing studies paid less attention to the connotation of voice-taking and focused on discussing the antecedents of voice-taking, which were not conducive to in-depth understanding of the connotation and effects of voice-taking. Voice-taking is a deliberate cognitive process. Meanwhile, as a conscious behavior, it’s also a goal-directed behavior driven by motivation. From the perspective of motivation of voice-taking, this paper systematically explores the connotation of voice-taking and its effect mechanisms based on the regulatory focus theory. Specifically, according to motivation perspective and regulatory focus theory, voice-taking may include two sub-dimensions: promotive voice-taking and preventive voice-taking. At the individual level, promotive voice-taking and preventive voice-taking have different effect mechanisms on promotive voice and prohibitive voice. Promotive voice-taking has a positive effect on employees’ promotive voice by stimulating their felt responsibility for constructive change, while preventive voice-taking has a positive effect on employees’ prohibitive voice by enhancing their psychological safety. Meanwhile, according to regulatory fit theory, employees’ regulatory focus trait is an important factor that affects the relationship between promotive voice-taking and felt responsibility for constructive change, and the relationship between preventive voice-taking and psychological safety. When employees’ promotion focus trait matches the promotive voice-taking environment, their felt responsibility for constructive change will be strengthened and consequently more promotive voice behavior will be performed. When employees’ prevention focus trait matches the preventive voice-taking environment, their psychological safety will be enhanced, thereby more prohibitive voice behavior will be performed. At the team level, the effect mechanisms of promotive voice-taking and preventive voice-taking on team innovation are different. Promotive voice-taking is conductive to the formation of collective promotion focus, thus facilitating team exploration orientation. The flexible way of thinking and willingness to take risks for team exploration orientation are benefit to team innovation. Preventive voice-taking is conductive to the formation of collective prevention focus, then promotes team reflexivity, thus helping to team innovation. Although both promotive voice-taking and preventive voice-taking can promote team innovation through different effect paths, promotive voice-taking has a stronger effect on team innovation through the chain mediating effect of collective promotion focus and team exploration orientation.
    Moreover, according to regulatory fit theory, regulatory focus organizational context is an important factor that affects the relationship between promotive voice-taking and collective promotion focus, and the relationship between preventive voice-taking and collective prevention focus. When organizational context emphasizes development opportunities and growth (i.e., promotion-focused organizational context), employees will have a sense of matching between leader promotive voice-taking and promotion-focused organizational context. Then they can perceive correctness and effectiveness of leader promotive voice-taking in the organizational context, thus strengthening collective promotion focus. When organizational context emphasizes avoiding losses, mistakes and risks (i.e., prevention-focused organizational context), employees will have a sense of matching between leader preventive voice-taking and prevention-focused organizational context. Then they can perceive correctness and effectiveness of leader preventive voice-taking in the organizational context, thus strengthening collective prevention focus. The present study expands the research perspective and theoretical basis of leader voice-taking and provides a new direction for future study of leader voice-taking.

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    Double valence coping strategies for damaged brands in the social media environment: From the perspective of group polarization theory
    WANG Xingang, LI Zulan, ZHANG Ting
    2023, 31 (5):  709-720.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00709
    Abstract ( 1110 )   HTML ( 32 )  
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    From the perspective of social media group polarization, how should enterprises with strong stereotypes deal with the damage causing by weak stereotyped consumers? Previous studies have focused on enterprises harm to consumers and their responses, less attention has been paid to how enterprises responses after being harmed by consumers. The difference lies in the shifting of the roles of harmer and victim, as well as the shifting of the contrast between strength and weakness. In view of this, based on the theory of group polarization, this paper conducts research on the core issue of “how to deal with damaged brands to obtain/eliminate polarized support/opposition of onlooker consumer groups in the social media environment”, and explore the double valence coping strategies.
    According to the logical framework of group polarization theory: information persuasion strategy-group emotional resonance-group polarization results, we carry out three studies in general. (1) From the perspective of damaged brands, how should enterprises with strong stereotypes express their sad expression in order to gain polarized support from onlooker consumer groups? The conclusion is expected to be that enterprises adopted anthropomorphism (vs. non-anthropomorphic) and expressed group sympathy play a continuous mediating role in the context of social media, when infringing consumers cause brand harm. (2) From the perspective of onlooker consumer groups, how can enterprises with strong stereotypes unite with onlooker consumer groups to gain support from their group polarization? Expected conclusion is that the enterprise appealing for victim transfer (vs. no victim transfer) will make onlookers consumer groups have group polarization support, and the group-hate resonance of onlookers consumer groups to infringing consumers plays a mediating role in the social media environment, when infringing consumers cause damage to the brand. (3) From the perspective of infringing consumers, how to eliminate the polarization of onlooker consumer groups caused by enterprises punishing infringing consumers? Expected conclusion is that in the context of social media, victim significance (vs.no victim significance) will weaken or even eliminate the group polarization of onlooker consumer groups to brands, and the group anger resonance of onlookers to brands plays a significant mediating role.
    Overall, the theoretical contributions of this study are mainly reflected in the following three aspects First, from the perspective of research questions, this study puts forward a new research direction on how enterprises should deal with consumers' brand damage in the social media environment, filling in the theoretical system of brand crisis response; Second, from a theoretical perspective, this study proposes group polarization as an effective test basis and explanation mechanism support for damaged brand coping strategies, which expands the theoretical construction and explanation of brand crisis response. Third, from the perspective of individual infringing consumers, based on the theory of group polarization, in this study different appeal methods are proposed from the perspectives of victims, victims and onlookers, which will enrich the specific strategies for brand crisis response. In addition, based on the conclusions expected of this study, the management implications can be summarized as the following points. First, from the perspective of enterprises, this study provides valuable guidance on how damaged brands with strong stereotypes can "obtain/eliminate" the polarized "support/opposition" of onlooker consumer groups in the social media environment. Second, from the viewpoint of industry, conclusions of this study have reference significance for how the strong party should respond after being hurt by the weak party in the fields of government, education, and medical care. Finally, from a social perspective, the expected conclusions in this study can alleviate or eliminate the huge risks and adverse consequences brought by the negative polarization of groups in the social media environment to the whole society.

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    History of Psychology
    “One prelude” and “two movements”: A portrayal of the research process of wisdom psychology in the past 50 years
    ZHANG Kaili, ZHENG Hong, WANG Fengyan
    2023, 31 (5):  721-735.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00721
    Abstract ( 1043 )   HTML ( 26 )  
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    The psychological study of wisdom is becoming more and more widespread. To better carry forward the past and usher in the future, the research history of wisdom psychology in the past 50 years is comprehensively reviewed, critically drawing on the work of Sternberg and Glück. The symphony of the development of wisdom psychology consists of “one prelude” and “two movements”. Specifically, “one prelude” refers to Vivian Clayton’s wisdom research, which started no later than 1976 and ended abruptly in 1982, when Clayton left academia. Clayton elevated the concept of wisdom to scientific status for the first time, paving the way for empirical research on wisdom psychology. The brief period of Clayton’s academic career devoted to the study of wisdom psychology ignited the enthusiasm of scholars for research on wisdom psychology. The “two movements” are “one flower blooming with two buds” and “all flowers bloom together”. The first stage of wisdom psychology, begun in the early 1980s, was characterized by the leading position of the Berlin wisdom model, which shed light on an expert knowledge system dealing with the fundamental pragmatics of life, as well as neo-Piagetian theory and the balance theory of wisdom by Robert J. Sternberg. At that time, the uniqueness and importance of wisdom were uncovered, and these three theories together formed a solid theoretical foundation for the future development of wisdom psychology. The second stage of wisdom psychology began with Monika Ardelt’s critical review of the Berlin group’s definition, operationalization, and particular measurement of wisdom in 2004 and has continued to this day. It is characterized by vigorous development in the field of wisdom psychology and fruitful results, mainly demonstrated by two aspects. First, wisdom was treated as more important than knowledge. Accordingly, a variety of theories and measurements of wisdom were presented, promoting the development of wisdom research, such as the explicit three-dimensional wisdom model (3D-WM), the H.E.R.O.(E.) model of wisdom, wisdom as self-transcendence, and the two-dimensional theory of wisdom that integrates virtue and wit. Second, a wide array of research hotspots of wisdom emerged, which further deepened and broadened the field of wisdom psychology. To elaborate, research of wisdom psychology nowadays focuses on the controversies and resolutions of wisdom connotations, wise reasoning, the relationship between wisdom and self, wisdom education, and so forth. In reviewing the research history of wisdom psychology over the past half-century, two conclusions can be drawn. First, the study of wisdom psychology has evolved from spontaneity to consciousness, from dispersion to organization, and from sporadic discussion to systematic research. Second, the research object of wisdom has gone through an alternate spiral change process that from characteristics of the wise person to characteristics of wisdom per se, and back to characteristics of the wise person, until finally, integration of the two. Furthermore, future research on wisdom psychology should be promoted in two areas. One aspect is to develop a maturely experimental paradigm for studying wisdom directly and revealing its brain mechanism. The other is to pay more attention to the study of applying wisdom to real-life situations.

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    Regular Articles
    The influence mechanism of emotion on intuitive and analytical processing
    YE Shuqi, YIN Junting, LI Zhaoxian, LUO Junlong
    2023, 31 (5):  736-746.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00736
    Abstract ( 1690 )   HTML ( 62 )  
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    Dual process generally refers to intuitive processing and analytical processing. Given the progress in transformation and collaboration mechanisms of dual process, emotion has gradually become the key variable for influencing the dual process. It is clearly pointed out that emotion is closely related to intuitive processing (Type 1) in dual process theory, which does not need cognitive efforts, but many empirical findings have shown that emotion also has a significant impact on analytical processing (Type 2). However, how emotions affect intuitive and analytical processing remains controversial in related studies. Relevant researches mainly focus on the influence of emotion on the single pathway of Type 1 processing or Type 2 processing, while the comprehensive influences of emotion on dual processes are rarely studied, these researches only are carried out at the superficial level, less dig deep into the differences of cognitive processing mechanism. In addition, different perspectives have resulted in the obscurity of emotions' function. Therefore, it is important to clarify the mechanism of emotion influencing on dual-processing from the perspectives of emotional valence and emotional arousal. The results show that positive emotions and emotions with high arousal tend to promote intuitive processing, while negative emotions with low arousal prefer to adopt analytical processing, but it will be affected by knowledge and experience, surface information, task characteristics and processing conditions. Consequently, emotions with different valence and arousal also have different impacts on processing. Positive emotions or negative emotions with high arousal can promote Type 1 processing, while negative emotions with low arousal will lead to Type 2 processing. In addition, a dual processing model which helps us make clear of thread about emotion influences, is used to explain the mechanism of emotional influence on dual processing. Type 1 and Type 2 are regarded as two relatively independent and successive processing stages in this model. In the startup phase of cognitive processing, positive emotions will broaden one’s attention, which means an increase in available information cues and enable individuals to retrieve information faster, thus facilitates Type 1 processing, individuals in high affective arousal will be directed attention by highly relevant information and reduce the attention to irrelevant information, thus tend to choose Type 1 processing, while negative emotions will narrow attention, which let the individuals pay more attention to the detailed information instead of the main information and let them consume more cognitive resources in Type 2 processing. In the Type 2 processing intervention stage, on the one hand, motivation is the individuals' subjective condition of whether to enter the Type 2 processing stage. The motivation to maintain positive emotions will trigger Type 1 processing that takes less cognitive effort, while the motivation to improve negative emotions will make the individual invest more cognitive resources in Type 2 processing. The individuals will choose the appropriate arousal level for the motivation of maintaining the current positive emotion and repairing negative emotion. On the other hand, cognitive resources are the individuals' objective condition of Type 2 processing, which are needed in Type 2 processing. Cognitive resources are also the core part of cognitive load theory, which includes intrinsic cognitive load, extraneous cognitive load and germane cognitive load. Emotions can be used as the three kinds of load to directly allocate cognitive resources and determine whether Type 2 processing can be involved. It is worth doing future exploration on verifying the effect of emotion on specific dual processing models by cognitive neuroscience techniques, the association between emotional arousal and dual processing, recent developments in emotion theory, and the strategies for optimizing dual processing under emotional load.

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    Brain mechanism underlying learning Chinese as a second language
    ZHANG Caihui, YE Jianqiao, YANG Jing
    2023, 31 (5):  747-758.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00747
    Abstract ( 1051 )   HTML ( 23 )  
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    With the fast growth of the Chinese economy, the Chinese language has become one of the most widely spoken world languages. There is a steady growth of empirical studies on the neural mechanisms underlying the learning of Chinese as a second language (L2). Yet, research on the specific brain mechanisms and the corresponding theoretical models for Chinese L2 learning are still in their infancy. Research in the past two decades has revealed that: 1) Chinese tone learning relies on the brain areas of the right superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus when learners are at a lower L2 proficiency, and then shifts to the left superior temporal gyrus as they reach advanced proficiency; 2) Chinese character learning is related to the inferior frontal gyrus and the right fusiform gyrus, whereas Chinese phonological learning is closely related to the left temporal-parietal areas; 3) Overall, Chinese L2 learning relies more on right-hemisphere brain regions (e.g., inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyrus) at the early stages of L2 learning, and the reliance decreases with the improvement of L2 competence.
    To sum up, Chinese L2 learning undergoes a dynamic neural change from an early stage of right-hemisphere reliance to a later stage of left-lateralization or bilateralization. The findings support the Assimilation Hypothesis in the Assimilation-Accommodation Hypothesis (Perfetti & Liu, 2005) which argues that extra right-hemisphere brain regions are activated in L2 learning when the typical left-hemisphere regions for first language processing cannot adapt to L2 input processing. The findings above also support the Dynamic Restructuring Model (Pliatsikas et al., 2020), which states that learners’ brain functions and neural structures go through dynamic changes at different stages of L2 learning. Furthermore, L2 learning strategies and learners’ auditory perception abilities are found to influence brain functions, neural structures, and connectivity networks. These findings are in line with the prediction of the Unifying the Bilingual Experience Trajectories model (DeLuca et al., 2020) which claims that bilinguals’ linguistic and cognitive representations are strongly influenced by their language experiences (e.g., language typology, language usage, code-switching frequency, proficiency, and age of acquisition). The current theoretical models of L2 Chinese learning can be further strengthened by considering factors such as L1-L2 characteristics, individual differences, learning strategies, and learning contexts.
    Future research on Chinese L2 learning can investigate learners of varying characteristics (e.g., young learners and high-proficiency learners), triangulate research paradigms, and synthesize behavioural, functional and structural brain imaging data of language processing and production. Meanwhile, new neuroscience techniques have created the opportunity to investigate the socio-cognitive mechanisms of L2 learning under different interaction situations, such as teacher-student, student-student, and computer-student interactions. More future research in this field can advance the current theoretical models and understanding of neuroplasticity in Chinese L2 learning.

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    The contribution of dictionary interactivity on young children’s electronic picture book reading
    WU Xiuying, LI Feifei, LIU Baogen
    2023, 31 (5):  759-768.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00759
    Abstract ( 677 )   HTML ( 9 )  
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    In the digital era, young children have become increasingly exposed to electronic picture books, both at home and in educational settings. Most electronic picture books are programmed to be interactive such as being functional with dictionary interactivity. Dictionary interactivity provides young children an explanation of the word and clarifies its meaning with the animation. The effect of dictionary interactivity on picture book reading among young children has been the focus of research for the past two decades. To summarize the contribution of dictionary interactivity on the young children’s reading engagement, vocabulary learning and story comprehension, we conducted a systematic review of the literature.
    This review identified that the dictionary interactivity facilitates young children’s engagement in reading electronic picture books. With the support of dictionary interactivity, young children achieve similar results in reading electronic picture books as they engaged in shared reading with adults with hardcopy picture books. Compared to traditional pictures books, the advantage of electronic books with dictionary interactivity in promoting children’ engagement is not obvious. We propose that this result is partially due to the assessments of children’s reading engagement in previous studies that lack objectiveness.
    In terms of vocabulary learning, the review found the dictionary interactivity offer the similar educational affordance as print picture book on vocabulary learning. Young children reading electronic picture book with dictionary interactivity learn more words that appear in the book, and young children progressed the most after reading the electronic picture book with dynamic dictionary and the printed focal words. The effectiveness of dictionary interactivity in the support of vocabulary learning among children with special needs is well recognized, yet its effect on children from different socioeconomic status remains debatable. Inconsistent findings exist in different empirical studies regarding the effect of dictionary interactivity on children’s story comprehension. It is difficult to draw a conclusion due to the research design and the assessment of story comprehension that varied in previous studies. The factors including the content of text, the means of interactions with dictionary interactivity during reading, and children’s individual differences were identified that may impact the effect of dictionary interactivity on children’s reading comprehension. Findings are discussed in relation to the cognitive load theory and multi-media learning theory.
    This review proposed a few revenues for future studies. Firstly, to assess children’s reading engagement more effectively, the application of eye-trackers and bio-feedback instrument in future research may help to achieve more solid evidence. Secondly, in addition to explore the content of text and types of vocabulary that have impact on children’s vocabulary learning with dictionary interactivity, the factors relating to children’s initiative and the complexity of dictionary interactivity merit further exploration. Thirdly, intervention study is necessary to promote young children’s reading engagement, vocabulary learning and story comprehension, based on their individual characteristics. Finally, most existing research focuses on one aspect of children reading experiences (reading engagement, vocabulary acquisition, reading comprehension) that are associated with the function of dictionary interactivity, yet little attention focuses on the mechanisms underpinning the factors that impact the three different aspects in general. Future research that explores the underlying mechanisms form maximizing the function of dictionary interactivity in promoting reading experiences with electronic picture books is needed.

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    Can learning by non-interactive teaching promote learning?
    CHENG Meixia, KUANG Ziyi, LENG Xiaoxue, ZHANG Yang, WANG Fuxing
    2023, 31 (5):  769-782.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00769
    Abstract ( 1776 )   HTML ( 58 )  
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    As a generative learning activity, learning by non-interactive teaching refers to learners play the role of teachers and teach what they have learned to others, and the activity is designed to help learners actively engage in knowledge building and improve their academic performance. For example, learners face a video camera to explain the learning material to imaginary, non-present peers in their minds (i.e., recording an instructional video). Given the vastly different ways in which learning by non-interactive teaching was implemented (e.g., video, audio, and text), the effectiveness of learning by non-interactive teaching in facilitating learning might be different. By summarizing the relevant studies, it was found that learning by non-interactive teaching in oral form with a tutor figure (e.g. video) was more effective in improving learner’s performance (d immediate comprehension = 0.56, d delayed comprehension = 0.63, d immediate transfer = 0.35, and d delayed transfer = 0.76) compared with simple learning activities such as restudy and retrieval practice, which was probably a better implementation. Learning by non-interactive teaching in oral form (e.g. audio only, d immediate comprehension = 0.09 and d immediate transfer = 0.02) or written form (e.g. text, d immediate comprehension = -0.16, d delayed comprehension = 0.39, d immediate transfer = 0.08, and d delayed transfer = 0.19) without a tutor figure had a smaller positive effect on learning outcomes. Learners with non-interactive teaching also experienced higher motivation (d = 0.44) and enjoyment (d = 0.76) and were willing to invest more mental effort (d = 0.47). The retrieval practice hypothesis and the generative learning hypothesis focused on different subcomponents of cognitive processing (e.g., retrieval, generation, or monitoring) to explain the positive effects of learning by non-interactive teaching on learning, respectively. The social presence hypothesis emphasized that social presence might facilitate whole cognitive processing and thus improved learning. Our results supported these three hypotheses to some extent. In addition, the cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML) may provide a supplementary explanation for differences in the effectiveness of different implementations of learning by non-interactive teaching. On the one hand, learning by non-interactive teaching (e.g., video) might successfully create teaching situation that stimulated a moderate sense of social presence and leaded learners to be more engaged and think more deeply about the material, i.e., increased their essential processing and generative processing, and thus facilitated learning. On the other hand, learning by non-interactive teaching (e.g., text) might distract learners from focusing too much on the typos, the standardization and rigorousness of written language, i.e., increased their extraneous processing. Due to the inherently high demands for processing capacity in generative activities, too much extraneous processing might cause learners' limited processing capacity being insufficient for adequate essential processing and generative processing, which in turn impaired learning. While learning by non-interactive teaching in the audio-only format might neither successfully facilitate learning with essential processing and generative processing because of the weaker teaching situation created, nor hinder learning with extraneous processing because of the automated spoken language. Research is needed to test and integrate theories, identify boundary conditions, and enhance the effectiveness of learning by non-interactive teaching in the future.

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    Reward-anticipation and outcome-evaluation ERPs and its application in psychiatric disorders
    LIU Wenhua, WEN Xiujuan, CHEN Ling, YANG Rui, HU Yiru
    2023, 31 (5):  783-799.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00783
    Abstract ( 758 )   HTML ( 21 )  
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    Reward processing abnormalities are prominent in the clinical presentation of patients with major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Reward processing comprises a dynamic set of cognitive component processes that may occur temporally adjacent to each other. Event-related potentials (ERPs), as one of the most commonly used tools to assess cognitive processing with a high temporal resolution, is a useful method to investigate complex, multifaceted constructs composed of the substages of reward processing. However, ERP research in psychiatric conditions has typically focused on a single component of reward processing rather than capturing the dynamics of reward processing. Reward processing can be decomposed into two temporally distinct stages: reward-anticipation and outcome-evaluation, each of which is associated with different ERP components (i.e., reward-anticipation: cue-related N2 and P3, stimulus-preceding negativity or SPN and contingent-negative variation or CNV; outcome-evaluation: feedback-related negativity or FRN/reward positive or RewP, feedback-related P3 or FB-P3 and the late positive potential or FB-LPP), and abnormal activities of these ERPs are closely related to transdiagnostic psychiatric symptoms. Attenuated cue-related N2 (associated with conflict detection) and cue-related P3 (associated with attention allocation) during reward-anticipation stage and blunted FRN/RewP (an initial reactivity to receipt of feedback) and FB-LPP (a sustained processing of motivationally salient stimuli) during outcome-evaluation stage could be found in patients with major depression compared to healthy controls, suggesting a reduced reward sensitivity in patients with depression. For CNV (associated with motor preparation), SPN (associated with anticipation feedback), and FB-P3 (associated with the evaluation of feedback), no consistent findings emerge in previous depression studies. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit abnormal activities of cue-related N2, cue-related P3 and SPN during reward-anticipation stage, and evidences of abnormal ERPs activities are inconclusive during outcome-evaluation stage. Currently few studies have investigated the reward-related ERP components in patients with bipolar disorder. Preliminary findings suggest that patients with bipolar disorder might have enhanced FRN activities during different stages of disease development. Further research should carefully consider some factors which might have an influence on the results, such as small samples, different experimental paradigms and data analysis methods, and the disease state of patients. In conclusion, utilizing multistage experimental designs and implementing multicomponent analyses hold great promise to investigate neurophysiological abnormalities during different stages of reward processing in psychiatric disorders.

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    Social dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder: Tactility and oxytocin
    HUANG Yujie, ZHAO Rong, KE Libinuer·aierken, LI Jingjing, WANG Junqi, PAN Haiping, GAO Jun
    2023, 31 (5):  800-814.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00800
    Abstract ( 980 )   HTML ( 32 )  
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    One of the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder(ASD)is persistent social dysfunction. The severity of symptoms varies from patient to patient, and there are many different clinical manifestations, such as depression, anxiety, sleep disorders and ADHD. About 30 percent of people with ASD require psychotherapy and psychiatric care, including medication for behavioral problems. In recent years, many studies have indicated that tactile input can affect social function through regulating the oxytocin system. The affective touch conducted by C-fiber promotes the synthesis and release of oxytocin and enhances social motivation and social preference. And the social salience hypothesis of oxytocin hypothesizes that oxytocin regulates the attention orientation of individuals to social information cues in external situations. For example, oxytocin may enhance aggression and competitiveness of individuals in competitive situations while enhance cooperation in social situations. According to the social salience hypothesis of oxytocin, oxytocin increases the salience of social information through enhancing activation of corresponding brain regions. Under this theoretical framework, when social interaction happens, tactile input can enhance the synthesis and release of oxytocin, and oxytocin can also increase the salience of tactile information, which further promotes the occurrence of social interaction. Previous studies have shown that people with ASD have deficits in the oxytocin system. The main manifestations are lower peripheral oxytocin concentration than normal developing individuals and the change of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism(SNP)of oxytocin receptor. People with ASD also show abnormal tactile sensitivity, including hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity. At the peripheral level, they manifest abnormal tactile threshold. At the central level, they manifest abnormal activation in the brain’s affective touch processing regions (such as insula). Compared with typical development, people with ASD show lower activation in social brain network, which maybe is the one reason of abnormal tactile sensitivity. Moderate tactile input can promote the synthesis and release of oxytocin. Thus, we can combine the exogenous oxytocin treatment with auxiliary tactile training together in the future intervening measures. And the interventions for social dysfunction need to start as early as possible. Many people with ASD exhibit abnormal sensory sensitivity in early life, which can affect the quality of parent-child interactions. If infant cannot obtain adequate sensory input from early parent-child interaction, it will cause a growth environment similar to sensory deprivation for infant patients with ASD, which will seriously affect future social functioning in adulthood. Based on the social salience hypothesis of oxytocin, this article summarizes the possible regulations between touch and oxytocin on social function. We point out that the deficits in the oxytocin system can decrease the salience of touch information in people with ASD, reducing the attention resources in social interaction and affecting the emotional feelings for touch. Abnormal tactile sensitivity results in social avoidance, which decreases the synthesis and release of oxytocin in social contact, decreasing the social motivation and social preference, ultimately resulting in social dysfunction. Exploring the interaction between touch, oxytocin system and social function can help us understand the pathogenesis of social dysfunction, and providing new ideas for the prevention and intervention in the future.

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    The determinants and consequences of positive body image and its promotion strategies
    YANG Chao, DONG Zhijie, WEN Haoyan, ZHOU Yizhou, WANG Yanli, YUAN Fangzhou
    2023, 31 (5):  815-826.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00815
    Abstract ( 1165 )   HTML ( 37 )  
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    Early research focused on the prevention and improvement of negative body image, but with the rise of positive psychology, researchers realized that positive body image and negative body image are not polar parts of body image. Positive body image is an important protective factor for an individual's mental health, and it is a multifaceted structure that includes but is not limited to body appreciation. In order to guide researchers to change the positive perspective of body image research and promote people's physical and mental health and self-improvement, this study summarized positive body image, sorted out the influencing factors, protective effects, and promotion strategies of positive body image, and looked forward to future research directions, so as to provide some theoretical reference for the research on the Sinicization of positive body image.
    This study believes that positive body image refers to the individual's cognitive acceptance of his own body, and the appreciation of the uniqueness and function of the body, as well as the active processing and protection of body evaluation information, which has the effect of internal and external gain on the individual. Taking the biopsychosocial model and the operational definition of body image as the theoretical framework, the study found that positive body image is affected by biological factors such as gender, age, and body mass index, psychological factors such as personality factors, cognitive mode, and interoception, as well as socio-cultural factors such as important others, mass media, and values, and has a protective effect on individual physical cognition, emotional experience, and behavior regulation, among which the body mass index, neuroticism, and perception of pressure from important others and mass media are prominent. Psychological and sociocultural factors have a greater influence on an individual's positive body image than biological factors. At the same time, functional-focused intervention and self-compassion-based intervention have become the two most commonly used promotion strategies, the former is more effective, while the latter has more advantages in the application and promotion. Specifically, existing studies have mostly focused on women, but ignored the gender differences in positive body image and the influence of men on women's positive body image construction. At the same time, positive body image is developmental, and current cross-sectional research cannot elucidate in detail the mechanism of transition from negative body image to positive body image and ignores the content integrity and object applicability of positive body image enhancement strategies, especially the influence of important others (especially parents) on individual positive body image. In addition, due to cultural differences in positive body image, the development of Sinicized measurement tools is particularly important.
    Future research can enrich the theoretical model of positive body image based on intersection theory, and deepen people's understanding of its antecedents and consequences by constructing the biopsychosocial model of positive body image. We can further explore the age characteristics of body image and its relationship with executive function through longitudinal tracking design combined with the recall method, such as recalling and retelling the experience of body image transformation, and clarify the occurrence mechanism of positive body image. Based on the complete characteristics of positive body image, future research should consider family factors and demographic differences of intervention targets to ensure the comprehensiveness, applicability, and timeliness of promotion strategies. At the same time, based on the cultural background of our country, we should construct the structure and assessment tools for positive body image with Chinese characteristics, guide the public to form healthy body image and promote the study of positive body image in China.

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    Environmentally specific servant leadership: Consequences and their underlying mechanism
    ZOU Yanchun, ZHANG Huimin, PENG Jian, TIAN Yiwen
    2023, 31 (5):  827-839.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00827
    Abstract ( 622 )   HTML ( 10 )  
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    Carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals are incorporated into the overall situation of China’s economic and social development. In this context, enterprises should actively adapt to the requirements of green development and strive for the “dominant position” of future market competition. As a leadership practice that focuses on environmental well-being, an environmentally specific servant leader can be an important guarantee for the enterprise’s green development. As such, the concept of environmentally specific servant leadership has attracted much attention from both scholars and practitioners in recent years.
    Environmentally specific servant leadership is defined as leading with motivation to develop pro-environmental values and knowledge in employees. Environmentally specific servant leaders tend to serve employees in their pursuit of green goals and contributions. Under the supervision of such leaders, followers can proactively acquire not only green-related knowledge and skills but also green value. Moreover, environmentally specific servant leadership is a practice of leadership that places environmental benefits over economic benefits for himself or herself as well as for the enterprise, focusing on contributing to the green and sustainable growth of the enterprise and a larger community.
    This paper introduces the concept and measurement of environmentally specific servant leadership and systemically reviews its multilevel influences on employees’ green output, team green performance, and organizational green performance. Specifically, the outcome variables of employees’ green output include green behavior (low-carbon behavior, voluntary green behavior, organizational environmental citizenship behavior, and green performance) and green innovation (green creativity and green innovative work behavior).
    Conservation of resources theory, role identity theory, social learning theory, self-determination theory, and theory of planned behavior are important theories that could explain why environmentally specific servant leadership leads to beneficial green outcomes. Specifically, conservation of resources theory was used to explain the mediating role of employees’ green crafting and green (creativity) climate; role identity theory was used to explain the mediating role of team green identification, employees’ green role identity, employees’ environmental engagement, corporate social responsibility and employees’ harmonious environmental passion; social learning theory was used to explain the mediating role of employees’ green self-efficacy and employees’ environmental self-accountability; self-determination theory was used to explain the mediating role of employees’ green intrinsic motivation; and theory of planned behavior was used to explain the moderation of perceived organizational support for green behaviors as well as pro-environmental person-group fit. Explaining the underlying mechanism of environmentally specific servant leadership, conservation of resources theory and role identity theory were both used at the individual level and team level, while the other theories were only used at the individual level.
    Finally, this paper demonstrates six directions for future research. First, future research could explore environmentally specific servant leadership in the Chinese context, including the concepts, measurements, and contingency mechanisms. Second, future research should further integrate the double-edged sword effects of environmentally specific servant leadership on employees and leaders. Third, this paper suggests that future research explore the cognitive-affective mechanisms of environmentally specific servant leadership, constructing a parallel mediating model or an interactive mediating model. Fourth, future research could deepen the extant explorations about the relationship between environmentally specific servant leadership and team/organizational green outputs or expand the multilevel research about the consequences and their underlying mechanism of environmentally specific servant leadership. In addition, future research could also expand the research methods by using the experience sampling method, scenario simulated method, or behavioral experimental method. Fifth, future research should further expand the research sample to compare and explore the effects of environmentally specific servant leadership in different industries. Finally, this paper encourages future research to identify antecedents of environmentally specific servant leadership, such as the internal and external environment as well as the interaction between situational factors and personal traits.
    This paper clarifies the effect and mechanism of environmentally specific servant leadership research for internal scholars. At the same time, we expect to have practical insights for enterprises to realize sustainable development through leadership practices and help achieve China’s carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals.

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    The concept of employee networking behavior and its influence mechanisms on working outcomes
    WANG Song, ZHANG Liaodan, LUAN Kun
    2023, 31 (5):  840-853.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00840
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    Networking behavior refers to employee’s behaviors that build, maintain, and use relationships to achieve work-related goals. Different from traditional social network research which primarily focuses on the decisive influence of network structure, research on networking behavior responds to the call of "individual agency" in the stream of social network research in recent years and holds the belief that employees can improve job performance and promote career management by taking the initiative to carry out networking behavior.
    Employee networking behavior is found to be endowed with the four characteristics: 1) goal-directed in performing networking behavior, 2) selective in deciding whom to network with, 3) composed of different stages such as relationship building, maintaining and using, and 4) reciprocity in exchanging with others during the networking process. Existing studies have further examined the antecedents and outcomes of employee networking behavior. Employee networking behavior have been found to be mainly affected by a wide range of antecedents across individual, organization and environment levels. In addition, employee networking behavior also affect the employee and the organization in a variety of positive and negative ways. However, in contrast to studies on antecedents, research focusing on the outcomes of employee networking behavior is still limited, providing room for further studies, particularly of the underlying mechanisms. Hence, we introduce resources, affect, network and exchange perspectives and make efforts to identify and summarize the influencing mechanisms of employee networking behavior.
    Based on resources and affect perspectives, previous studies have mostly focused on the outcomes of employees networking behavior. In addition to these two well-researched perspectives, we suggest to adopt network and exchange perspectives to depict the mechanisms in depth. According to the network perspective and the social network theory, networking behavior is likely to make an impact on the employee and the organization through changing employees’ network structures and assisting them in making use of the resources endowed by the positions they occupied. The exchange perspective introduces the dyadic relationship between "actor" and "partner" into the networking behavior research, breaking through the limitation that prior research solely considered the role of "actor". By doing so, the networking behavior research can enrich the analysis of moderating variables and deepen the conversation about the impact of networking behavior.
    Finally, considering the limitations of existing research on employee networking behavior, six future research directions that merit attention are proposed: 1) extending the examination of the negative impacts of employee networking behavior base on resources and affect perspectives and providing further research support for effective networking behavior management; 2) analyzing the dynamic relationship between employee networking behavior and social network and uncovering the mechanisms through which networking behavior takes effect based on network perspective; 3) expanding the research towards boundary conditions of the employee networking behavior based on exchange perspective; 4) integrating different theoretical perspectives to deepen the employee networking behavior research; 5) taking root in new contexts such as the enterprise social media platform to explore the characteristics and possible unique effects of online networking behavior; 6) adopting new methods to broaden the methods for measuring and researching employee networking behavior; for example, using unstructured data like texts and images to develop objective networking behavior measures, or introducing simulation methods like Agent-Based Modeling to explore how networking behavior affects both employees and their teams or organizations.

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    A new categorization of career shocks and their effects based on different theoretical explanations
    ZHANG Ying, ZHANG Jian, ZHANG Jingya, GONG Zhenxing
    2023, 31 (5):  854-865.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00854
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    Uncertainties in the external environment are constant and difficult to predict in a world filled with VUCA (volatility, uncertainty, complexity, ambiguity; Bennett & Lemoine, 2014), which has caused career shocks to become an increasingly important part of current career scholarship. Akkermans et al. (2018) defined a career shock as “a disruptive and extraordinary event that is, at least to some degree, caused by factors outside the focal individual’s control and that triggers a deliberate thought process concerning one’s career” (p. 4). These authors suggested that the occurrence of a career shock can either be positively or negatively valenced (Akkermans et al., 2018); that is, positive career shocks are more likely to be associated with positive career outcomes, and negative shocks are more likely to be associated with negative outcomes. However, due to individual differences in the cognition of events or time factors, this categorization may have some shortcomings. We found that the literature includes several theoretical perspectives that have been or could be used to scaffold our understanding of the positive or negative impacts of career shocks, and a multiperspective model may provide evidence to support the reclassification of career shocks and help clarify the effects of career shocks. First, we found that the main reasons for the positive or negative effects of career shocks on employees’ behaviour can be explained in terms of different mechanisms and processes. More specifically, the transactional model of stress and coping, the job demands-resources model, and affective event theory could help elucidate how different cognitive, motivational and emotional responses to a career shock can influence the effects of such shocks on behavioural outcomes, those providing insights into the different processes by which shocks impact outcomes. Event system theory focuses on the characteristics or attributes of career shock events that make them salient and therefore likely to impact such outcomes, which could also help explain how their impacts can be extended over time as events vary in duration and timing or as event strength evolves. Second, based on the transactional model of stress and coping, the present study proposed a new classification of career shocks, namely, challenging career shocks and hindering career shocks. Third, we explored the mechanism underlying the impacts of challenging and hindering career shocks on individual behaviour based on the transactional model of stress and coping, the job demands-resources model, and affective event theory. We proposed that challenging career shocks are positively related to problem-focused coping, work engagement and positive affectivity and that hindering career shocks are positively related to emotion-focused coping, burnout and negative affectivity. Furthermore, the attributes (e.g., the strength) of events could moderate the effects of career shocks. Finally, we identify a number of avenues for future research, including developing the concept and attributes of career shock, enriching the empirical research on the new classification of career shocks, exploring additional mechanisms underlying career shocks, and examining the outcomes of career shocks. The present study contributes to the emerging career shock literature by providing a new perspective on the classification of career shocks and developing a new dedicated theoretical model to help us understand the mechanisms underlying career shocks and their effects on career processes as well as behavioural outcomes more completely. Our study also has important practical implications for helping employees make sense of and prepare for career shocks; this research can also improve the ability of career counsellors and managers to help employees better cope with career shocks by avoiding their negative impacts, which is conducive to the long-term and stable development of organizations and employees.

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    Experimental evidence for internal mechanisms of cumulative cultural evolution
    YANG Lei, CHEN Weiyang, BAI Baoyu, ZHONG Nian
    2023, 31 (5):  866-886.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00866
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    Cultural change has gradually become the focus of psychologists’ attention, and related studies have addressed core issues such as the content, causes, and mechanisms of cultural change. Cultural evolution, a way of studying cultural change from an evolutionary perspective, explores the issue of the mechanism of cultural change. Cumulative Cultural Evolution (CCE) is a subset of cultural evolution. It refers to the adaptive changes in efficiency, function, and complexity of human culture over time through multiple social transmissions and innovation among individuals or groups. CCE plays a vital role in understanding the mechanisms of the emergence of human cultural uniqueness and sociocultural change.
    Throughout the research in this area, single-subject experiments, “microsocieties” designs, and computer simulations have often been used to explore the underlying mechanisms. Based on the evidence from these three types of laboratory studies, it is possible to sort out the mechanisms of occurrence and influence of CCE. In terms of the mechanisms by which CCE occurs, the transmission and modification of cultural information are the two core processes of CCE. Numerous empirical studies have found that copying and teaching ensure high-fidelity transmission of cultural information. Copying includes both results-oriented and action-oriented copying, and teaching can be defined as the act of facilitating the learning of others. These two are considered two representative social learning mechanisms in information transmission. The modification of cultural information is reflected in innovation. Empirical evidence shows that innovation can make modified cultural information more adaptive. The high-fidelity transmission prepares the ground for cultural innovation, and culture achieves sequential improvement through repeated cycles of high-fidelity transmission and modification, promoting the cumulative development of culture. Thus, copying, teaching, and innovation are three crucial foundations for CCE.
    In addition, CCE is a complex dynamic process in which behavior and environment interact. In this process, various factors influence information transmission and modification that originate from the environment where the information is transmitted and from the subject who transmits the information. Therefore, the influence mechanism of CCE can be understood in terms of environmental and subjective factors. The former mainly involves task difficulty, environmental uncertainty, group size, and social interaction; the latter mainly involves technical reasoning, cognitive flexibility, innovation ability, and social identity. The generalization of these factors can help explain the boundary conditions under which CCE occurs and, in particular, clarify inconsistent findings that have emerged from previous studies. Overall, these factors affect how information is processed in the transmission process, such as identification, collection, and use, which affects the rate of cultural accumulation and the probability of innovation.
    CCE explains the uniqueness of human culture from the perspective of accumulated modifications of culture over time, while laboratory studies in this field specifically describe how cultural information is transmitted from person to person to produce change. Future research can advance the field in terms of research methods, research areas, and research mechanisms. Specifically, first, the new paradigm (single subject multi-task design) is proposed considering the operationalization of task characteristics, and the feasibility of this new paradigm needs more empirical evidence to verify. Second, the current research on CCE has accumulated rich empirical evidence in the technical domain, and future research can consider conducting more laboratory studies in non-technical domains. Finally, the upward transmission of cultural information has been neglected in previous studies of CCE. Future research could consider exploring the value and significance of this process in CCE in the context of the current phenomenon of “cultural feedback” in China.

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