ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    The endogeneity issue in longitudinal research: Sources and solutions
    FANG Junyan, WEN Zhonglin
    2023, 31 (4):  507-518.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00507
    Abstract ( 1525 )   HTML ( 55 )  
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    Longitudinal cross-lagged models have been widely used to analyze causal relations in behavioral and psychological sciences, and the cross-lagged panel model (CLPM) is common and important. The CLPM and related panel data models usually consist of two kinds of regression relations: (a) the autoregressive effects of a variable from its prior state (an earlier time point) to its current state (present time point) and (b) the cross-lagged effects of one variable at the prior state to another variable at the current state. These effects between the two constructs provide the foundation and crucial information in deciding on their diachronic causation. Importantly, in contrast to general regression models, a CLPM consists of a complex set of regression equations, making it more susceptible to endogeneity-related problems.
    Endogeneity is a critical concern in regression analyses, which refers to situations when an explanatory variable is correlated with the residual (error) of its regression equation. It will likely lead to over- or under-estimated bias with commonly used estimators. Endogeneity is a critical concern when using regression models to analyze observational data to make causal claims. The CLPM determines diachronic causation based on two kinds of regression effects (autoregressive and cross-lagged paths). Despite its vulnerability to endogeneity, this issue has received little attention and requires systematic analyses.
    The current study focuses on issues related to endogeneity in the CLPM. We first clarify the main sources of endogeneity problems. Then, we systematically analyze different endogeneity issues in the CLPM. Lastly, we provide an empirical example to illustrate the use of the instrumental variables (IV) method in the CLPM.
    IV originates from econometrics and refers to the predictor of a predictor. The IV method is probably the most popular approach while dealing with endogeneity. Researchers often incorporate suitable IVs in the model to provide unbiased estimates and alleviate the endogeneity concerns. The model implied IVs (MIIVs) have been frequently used in empirical studies. A MIIV is an IV identified within the model. The MIIVs offer a promising way to deal with endogeneity in longitudinal analyses. Typically, a MIIV is a chronologically prior observation of an exogenous variable in the model. Currently, applications with IV are underutilized in psychological research. This paper tries to illustrate the use of MIIV in the CLPM by an empirical example.
    To our knowledge, this is the first study to discuss endogeneity issues in the CLPM and explore the performances of MIIV in the longitudinal cross-lagged model. We find that common possible sources of endogeneity in the CLPM are: omitted variables, dynamic panel, and reciprocal relation. The omitted variables are ubiquitous in all empirical research and the omitted variable problem will affect the estimation of cross-lagged analyses. For the dynamic panel, “dynamic” refers to the use of the prior outcome as a predictor. Including the effects of this lagged outcome increases the probability of the explanatory variable being related to the residual. Besides, biases could arise from the reciprocal relation, which is also known as the feedback relation, simultaneity, or simultaneous causality.
    We conclude, first, there are various types of endogeneity in the CLPM, including the omitted variables, dynamic panel, and reciprocal relation. Second, endogeneity could distort the estimation of cross-lagged effects in the CLPM. Lastly, MIIV is a promising technique to tackle endogeneity issues in the CLPM. For future research, it would be interesting to explore the performance of MIIV in models extended from the CLPM. They may include the Random Intercept-CLPM, the Latent Cure Model with Structured Residuals (LCM-SR), and the Latent Change Score Model (LCS).
    This paper reviews the main sources of endogeneity in the CLPM to raise applied researchers’ awareness of the endogeneity issues in longitudinal research. We recommend the MIIV-CLPM as a solution to deal with the endogeneity issue.

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    A meta-analysis of the relationship between semantic distance and creative thinking
    LI Yadan, DU Ying, XIE Cong, LIU Chunyu, YANG Yilong, LI Yangping, QIU Jiang
    2023, 31 (4):  519-534.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00519
    Abstract ( 1406 )   HTML ( 89 )  
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    The development of natural language processing has offered reliable and valid research methods for exploring the relationship between semantic distance and creative thinking. There are more and more studies in this direction in recent years. However, the research findings are inconsistent in this line of research. It remains unknown whether semantic distance could predict creative thinking and whether this relationship is influenced by other potential factors. Therefore, a more comprehensive study is necessary to investigate the relationship between semantic distance and creativity. To fulfill such a research gap, the present study, based on the Associative Theory of Creativity and the Spreading-Activation Model, has investigated the relationship between semantic distance and creative thinking by using a meta-analysis method. The reasons for the inconsistency of previous studies in this line of research were also analyzed. The current research has involved 14 studies and extracted 53 independent effect sizes from 4729 subjects. Since the heterogeneity test showed that there was significant heterogeneity (I2 = 92.21), the random effect model was used for the meta-analysis. Results of funnel plots, Egger’s test of regression, and Fail-Safe Number (Nfs) showed that there were low levels of publication bias in the selected publications. The sensitivity analysis also suggested that the meta-analysis in the present study had acceptable reliability. The main effect analysis suggested that there was a moderate level of correlation between semantic distance and creative thinking (r = 0.379, 95% CI [0.300, 0.452]). Further meta-regression analysis found that the correlation was moderated by the age of participants and dimensions of creative thinking. Specifically, the results suggested that the correlation between semantic distance and creative thinking decreased with the increase in the age of participants. In addition, the flexibility (r = 0.473, 95%CI [0.180, 0.688]) had a higher correlation coefficient with semantic distance than originality (r = 0.328, 95%CI [0.197, 0.447]) and fluency (r = 0.447, 95%CI [0.338, 0.545]). However, elaboration had a negative correlation with semantic distance (r = -0.533, 95%CI [-0.664, -0.372]). The current study showed that semantic distance was associated with creative thinking. It has been suggested that the moderation effects of the age of participants and dimensions of creative thinking might be the potential reasons for the inconsistent results in previous studies. In theory, the present study provides new perspectives and explanations for exploring cognitive and neural mechanisms of creativity. It contributes to the exploration of the relationship between semantic distance and creative thinking. The current study offers better scientific evidence and important implications for interpreting, predicting, and improving creativity. In practice, the current study contributes to quantifying creative thinking by using semantic distance. Future explorations should investigate the relationships between semantic distance and domain-specific creativity (e.g., scientific creativity and artistic creativity), as well as the influence of other higher cognitive functions (e.g., cognitive control) on these relationships.

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    The Relationship between self-efficacy and online health information seeking: A meta-analysis
    ZENG Runxi, LI You
    2023, 31 (4):  535-551.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00535
    Abstract ( 1489 )   HTML ( 107 )  
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    Numerous studies have discussed the relationship between self-efficacy (SE) and online health information seeking behavior (OHISB), but the results were divergent. Theoretically, according to the health belief model, there was a significant positive correlation between the two variables, while the comprehensive model of information seeking suggested that there was no correlation between the two variables, and the risk perception attitude framework argued that the relationship between the two variables is correlated in different directions under different levels of risk perception. Empirically, the effect sizes of this relationship reported in the existing empirical research were far from consistent, with r values ranging from -0.10 to 0.71. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted in this paper to explore the strength and moderators of the relationship between SE and OHISB.
    Through literature retrieval, a total of 46 independent effect sizes (44 studies, 21912 participants) were found within the criteria of the meta-analysis. On the basis of the characteristics of studies, the random-effects model was selected. The heterogeneity test illustrated that there was significant heterogeneity among 46 independent effect sizes, indicating that the random-effects model was appropriate for subsequent meta-analyses. In addition, no significant publication bias was found in the included studies according to the results of Funnel Plot, Classical fail-safe indicator, and Trim and Fill.
    The main effect analysis indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between SE and OHISB (r =0.27, 95% CI [0.21,0.33]). The subgroup analysis and meta-regression revealed that the relationship between SE and OHISB was moderated by cultural background and the health status of the participants. The results showed that: (1) There is a positive correlation between SE and OHISB, the higher individuals’ level of SE is, the more willing and more frequently they would seek health information on the internet. (2) From the perspective of cultural background, the correlation between SE and OHISB was stronger under the background of collectivism than individualism. (3) From the characteristics of participants, the correlation between SE and OHISB was higher in the sick group than in the healthy group; Gender did not moderate the relationship between SE and OHISB, the correlation between SE and OHISB may be stable across genders. (4) In terms of measurement indicators, both internet self-efficacy and health self-efficacy were positively correlated with OHISB, as so was SE with the intention, the frequency and duration, and the experience of online health information seeking. The measurement indexes of SE and the measurement indexes of OHISB did not moderate the relationship between SE and OHISB.
    This meta-analysis has both theoretical and practical significance. In theory,this study validated that SE is closely related to OHISB, which initially clarified the academic arguments between the health belief model, the comprehensive model of information seeking and the risk perception attitude framework. We found that individuals’ online health information seeking behavior was affected by both media-related and health-related belief factors, the findings confirmed the adaptation of the health belief model theory in cyber society. In practice, we suggest that the governments and health care practitioners could help people improve the level of SE through multiple ways, such as conducting internet skills training and organizing lectures on health education, thus encouraging more people to seek health information on the internet and effectively excavating the potential of internet in improving the ability of personal health management.
    Future research would focus on the standardization of measurement tools of SE and OHISB, and add longitudinal and experimental studies to further explore and clarify the causal relationship between SE and OHISB.

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    A meta-analysis of the relationship between perceived social support and student academic achievement: The mediating role of student engagement
    WU Jiahui, FU Hailun, ZHANG Yuhuan
    2023, 31 (4):  552-569.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00552
    Abstract ( 2372 )   HTML ( 201 )  
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    Academic achievement can be considered as a measure of student's knowledge level and adaptation to school. As a valid indicator for quantitatively assessing the effectiveness of national education, academic achievement has become a key concern for students, parents, schools, and society. While intrinsic motivation is important in the process of increasing academic achievement goals, extrinsic support is equally essential for students. In recent years, empirical studies based on social cognitive theory have analyzed the relationship between social support and academic achievement, revealing that perceived social support is more predictive and functional. With continuing advances in developmental psychology, current research is increasingly focusing on the mediating mechanisms between perceived social support and academic achievement. Student engagement is a specific indicator of student involvement in the learning process and an important measure of learning competence; thus, it can positively and significantly predict academic achievement. However, there are no uniform findings on how perceived social support and its sub-indicators affect academic achievement, and the extent to which both are influenced by student engagement factors has not thus far been definitively addressed. In addition, the current meta-analysis failed to comprehensively validate the correlation between perceived social support and academic achievement, exploring only the relationship between the three indicators of perceived social support and academic achievement, and the study tended to focus on a single dimension such as autonomy support. Moreover, current meta-analyses have not yet comprehensively revealed the mediating role of student engagement, with most studies focusing on integrating effect sizes and exploring possible moderating variables, using samples that do not involve mediating variables or the studies have devoted themselves to exploring the effects of multiple factors (e.g., individuals' cognitive and non-cognitive factors) and their chained relationships on academic achievement, with inclusion samples covering multiple mediating variables. In light of this, the current study classified perceived social support based on the microsystems that most directly influence student development in ecological systems theory and used meta-analysis to obtain reliable estimates of effect sizes, mediating effects of student engagement, and a range of moderating effects in conjunction with self-system processes theory. A total of 41 empirical research and 78 studies were included through literature retrieval. The results were as follows: (1) There was a significant positive correlation between perceived social support and its sub-indicators and academic achievement; however, because the effect values were small, a weak correlation was indicated, with perceived social support as a whole having the strongest correlation, followed by perceived teacher support, perceived parental support, and perceived peer support. In addition, perceived social support and its sub-indicators were found to be positively related to student engagement. The effect of perceived social support and its sub-indicators on student engagement was higher than academic achievement. (2) Student grade moderated the relationship between perceived teacher support and academic achievement only. Academic achievement indicators moderated the link between perceived social support and its sub-indicators and academic achievement, while the moderating effects of economic level and cultural background on the relationship between perceived social support and its sub-indicators and academic achievement were not significant. (3) The direct effect pathway between perceived social support and its sub-indicators and academic achievement showed a significant positive correlation. Student engagement partially mediated the effect of perceived social support and its sub-indicators on academic achievement. In addition, the partial mediating effect of student engagement was only significant for students in the junior high school group and not for the senior high school group.

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    Conceptual Framework
    The conversion mechanism and double-edged sword effect of expressed leader humility from the perspective of leader authenticity
    LI Jie, ZHANG Zhenzhen, LIANG Qiaozhuan, LI Genqiang
    2023, 31 (4):  570-581.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00570
    Abstract ( 918 )   HTML ( 51 )  
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    Leader humility is a new leadership style that emerging at the VUCA era, which received highly praised in academia and practitioner as being regarded as the "panacea" of organizational management. However, some leaders regard humility as the "workplace protection" and behave in humble ways deliberately, in order to meet the social norms and achieve self-interest. In fact, the phenomenon of "hypocrites" is very common in the workplace, which has negative impact on organization development, e.g. damaging the relationship between superiors and subordinates, and inducing organizational deviation. However, prior studies overwhelmingly focused on the positive effects of leader humility, which may neglect the implicit behavioral motivation of leader’s humble expression and the potential dark-side effect of leader humility. Hence, in post-pandemic era, does employees more sensitive to the behavioral motivation of leadership? Does authentic humble leadership more effective to shaping resilient organizations? Does the strategic humble leader effective in workplace? How to break the shackles of strategic leadership? The above questions have not yet been fully explored in current research.
    Moving beyond the general positive effect, this research recognized two distinct motivations that actually exist behind the expressed humility: the authentic expression of internal trait or self-expression strategy of self-interesting, which may have different effectiveness. Drawing from the distinguish of authentic or strategic of leader humility, this study develops positive effect model of authentic leader humility, negative effect model of strategic leader humility, and conversion effect model of strategic leader humility. Specifically, from the “follower reaction” perspective, study 1 investigates how employee respond to leader’s authentic humble behavior. Based on the resource conservation theory, this study develops a developing strategy model for employees and explores the psychological mechanism and boundary condition of improving employee resilience. Study 2 investigates how employee respond to leader’s strategic humble behavior. Based on supervisor-subordinate value consistency model, this study develops the survival strategy model and ingratiate strategy model for employees, and explores the cognitive and behavioral process employees adopt under different degree of value consistence. From the “leader conversion” perspective, study 3 further reveals the formation mechanism of strategic leader humility at the individual level, and verifies the intervention mechanism of strategic leader humility at the organizational level.
    In all, this research aims to reveal the profile of the study of leader humility. Through the essential exploration of the "authenticity" of leader expressed humility, this study deepens the dialectical understanding of the connotation of leader humility theory and the different effectiveness of humble leadership. In this way, from the perspectives of subordinate response and leadership transformation, this research comprehensively explores the positive effects of authentic leader humility, the negative effects of strategic leader humility and the transformation mechanism of strategic leader humility. The current study contributes to expand the understanding of leader humility theory, as well as provides potential directions for managers to fully stimulate authentic effectiveness of leader humility, and help to reduce the negative effect of strategic humility in the era of post-pandemic.

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    Lonely at the top? Exploring the multi-level double-edged sword effect of leader workplace loneliness
    GUO Li, JIA Suosuo, LI Guiquan, LI Manlin
    2023, 31 (4):  582-596.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00582
    Abstract ( 2025 )   HTML ( 62 )  
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    In organizations, it is often difficult for leaders to obtain intimate interpersonal relationships due to factors such as power and status differences; thus, workplace loneliness becomes a common experience for leaders. In fact, leader workplace loneliness not only exerts influence on leaders themselves, but also has a unique social function that subsequently impacts his on her team and followers. However, by systematically reviewing and summarizing relevant literature, we found that the extant research has primarily focused on employees’ workplace loneliness, leaving leader workplace loneliness unvisited. More importantly, prior studies have predominantly focused on the negative effects of loneliness yet provided limited insights on the positive side of workplace loneliness from a leader’s perspective. To address the above issues and advance the study of workplace loneliness, this paper adopts a multi-level, multi-theory, and multi-method approach to unravel the beneficial and detrimental effects of leader workplace loneliness on various outcomes, as well as the underlying mediating and moderating mechanisms across three studies. Specifically, based on self-regulation theory, Study 1 aims to dissect how leaders adopt emotion regulation strategies to cope with their daily workplace loneliness. We further identify the critical role of emotional intelligence in the leaders’ self-regulation processes. Because leaders have frequent interactions with their subordinates on a daily basis, such leader-subordinate interactions significantly affect the loneliness that leaders experience during the workday, which influences other attitudes and behaviors of leaders. Hence, Study 1 adopts the experience sampling method to investigate the short-term effects of leader daily workplace loneliness on key events (i.e., leader daily task-oriented focus and leader daily relationship-oriented focus) and key outcomes (i.e., leader daily task performance and leader daily contextual performance). Inspired by the emotions as social information model, Study 2 explores how leader workplace loneliness affects team climates (i.e., team individualism climate and team collectivism climate) and the effects of such team climates on team creativity. We also theorize team task complexity as one of the most important boundary conditions, which either facilitate or hinder the process of team creativity formation. Therefore, Study 2 takes a step forward to investigate how team task complexity plays a moderating role in the mediated leader workplace loneliness-team creativity relationship. We propose that the positive effect of leader workplace loneliness on team creativity through team individualism climate would be weaker when the team task complexity is higher vs. lower. In contrast, the negative effect of leader workplace loneliness with team creativity via team collectivism climate would be stronger when team task complexity is higher vs. lower. Study 3 sets out from a follower-centric perspective and explores how subordinates evaluate a lonely leader. Specifically, Study 3 utilizes the leadership distance theory to propose the inverted U-shaped relationship between leader accessibility as perceived by subordinates and subordinates rated leadership effectiveness. We then theorize the mediating role that leader accessibility plays between leader workplace loneliness and leadership effectiveness. In addition, Study 3 focuses on the individual differences among subordinates and further theorizes that subordinates’ power distance orientation can influence the evaluation process of subordinates on their lonely leaders. In this paper, we argue that the indirect effect of leader workplace loneliness on leadership effectiveness would be weaker when subordinates’ power distance orientation is higher vs. lower. In light of the above discussion, this paper not only advances the theoretical development of leader workplace loneliness, but also helps organizations cope with leader workplace loneliness with theory-based guidance and intervention. Last but not least, we admit that we still lack understanding of workplace loneliness, and thus encourage future research to conduct follow-up studies on the following topics, such as exploring the differences in the loneliness experiences of leaders at different positions, identifying the antecedents of loneliness in the context of the new economy era, and so on.

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    Regular Articles
    Spatiotemporal interference effect: An explanation based on Bayesian models
    YU Jie, CHEN Youguo
    2023, 31 (4):  597-607.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00597
    Abstract ( 1261 )   HTML ( 40 )  
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    The interference of space on time and vice versa are common in daily life. The spatiotemporal interference effect is a phenomenon in which temporal perception is disturbed by spatial information or spatial perception is disturbed by temporal information. Some studies suggest that spatiotemporal interference is asymmetric, and the spatial interference on time is always greater. Other studies indicate that the strength of mutual interference between time and space is influenced by experimental factors. In general, spatial interference on time is greater, but time can also produce the same degree or even greater interference on space. Results of previous studies on the direction and strength of spatiotemporal interference effects have been controversial, and there are phenomena in which space interferes with time to a greater degree, time interferes with space to a greater degree, and time and space interfere with each other to an equal degree. A rational theory is required to explain the phenomena and mechanisms of the spatiotemporal interference effect. Some reviews have introduced related research, but they all explain the spatiotemporal interference effect from the perspective of metaphor theory and a theory of magnitude (ATOM). In recent years, researchers have applied Bayesian models to the field of spatiotemporal interference effects and have achieved rapid developments in this area, but no systematic review of these studies has been conducted. Therefore, it is necessary to summarize and discuss the research that has used Bayesian models to explain spatiotemporal interference effects.
    First, this paper introduces the recent studies related to the spatiotemporal interference effect and reviews the main viewpoints of metaphor theory and ATOM to explain the spatiotemporal interference effect. Metaphor theory suggests that people’s tendency to use spatial metaphors to think about time extends into the perceptual domain, producing asymmetrical spatial interference on time, and ATOM proposes that temporal and spatial information are processed in a common magnitude system in the parietal cortex, which allows time and space to influence each other comparably but not necessarily symmetrically. Then we highlight four types of Bayesian models in the field of spatiotemporal interference effect research: the constant velocity Bayesian model, the slowness Bayesian model, the dimensional covariance Bayesian model, and the ATOM Based Bayesian model. Next, based on Bayesian models, we propose a new interpretation of the generation mechanism of spatiotemporal interference. The Bayesian model that explains the effect of temporal perception interfered by spatial information can serve as an example. The observer’s perceptual time (posterior) is an integration of the time in experience (prior, a belief that longer distances take longer to arrive) and the time of sensory input (likelihood). The more unreliable the sensory input (e.g., low salience of temporal stimuli), the more the observer will rely on the prior and be interfered by the spatial information from the prior, resulting in a spatiotemporal interference effect. The Bayesian models assume that the spatiotemporal interference effect is not always symmetrical or asymmetrical, and the direction and strength of the spatiotemporal interference effect is modulated by the relative noise of spatial and temporal information in working memory (i.e., the relative variance of spatial and temporal likelihood distributions). If they are of equal size, there will be symmetrical interference between space and time; if they are of different sizes, there will be asymmetrical interference from the dimension with less memory noise (i.e., smaller variance of the likelihood distribution) to the other dimension. Thus, the symmetry of the spatiotemporal interference effect can be affected by experimental factors such as stimulus saliency and perceptual acuity. Finally, we discuss the relationship between metaphor theory, ATOM, and Bayesian models. All three accounts propose that people expect space and time to co-vary in the same direction, which suggests that we can assimilate reasonable views of spatiotemporal relations in metaphor theory and ATOM to the prior hypotheses of Bayesian models and then construct an optimal model in the future by optimizing the prior and revealing the neural basis of the inference and decision-making processes. Specifically, three issues should be addressed in further studies: (a) expanding the scope of the Bayesian model to explain the spatiotemporal interference effect, (b) exploring the neural mechanism of spatiotemporal interference based on Bayesian inference, and (c) seeking regulation methods for spatiotemporal interference, which laid a foundation for unraveling the cognitive and neural mechanisms of spatiotemporal interference in the future.

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    Neural mechanism of speech imagery
    WANG Yongli, GE Shengnan, Lancy Lantin Huang, WAN Qin, LU Haidan
    2023, 31 (4):  608-621.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00608
    Abstract ( 975 )   HTML ( 38 )  
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    Speech imagery is an internal perceptual experience of one's own speech or others' speech. It not only plays an important role in the pre-processing mechanism of the brain, but it is also the latest technology in the field of brain-computer interface (BCI) research. Firstly, the theoretical model, activation of brain regions, and neural conduction pathways of speech imagery have many similarities with speech production, but there are still some controversies. Theoretical models of speech production, such as the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model and the State Feedback Control (SFC) model, show that the process of speech imagery and speech production are highly overlapping in the motor planning of articulatory organs and the prediction of somatosensory and auditory results. The difference is that speech imagery does not activate the last step in speech production, that is, the execution of articulatory movement. There are many similarities between the brain regions activated by speech imagery and speech production, which are mainly reflected in the brain regions of the speech motor planning and auditory center. However, the signal strength of the brain regions activated by speech imagery is weaker. The neural pathways of speech imagery and speech production are also similar. However, current research is only limited to the connections between some brain regions, such as the connection and integration of auditory cortex and motor cortex. Whether or not there are direct or indirect conduction pathways in speech imagery consistent with speech production needs further study. Secondly, for people with speech disorders, the severity of speech imagery ability is not completely positively related to the severity of speech production impairment. For example, some patients with aphasia or stuttering have no limitation in their ability of speech imagery. Due to the similarities between neural mechanisms on speech imagery and speech production, speech imagery therapy is considered a new technology for the rehabilitation of people with speech impairments caused by brain injury. However, there is still a lack of mechanism and application of speech imagery for dysarthria caused by the damage to speech motor planning and auditory cortex and its neural conduction pathways. Thirdly, when imagining meaningful words and sentences, the EEG signals are different from those in speech production. The complexity, length, and meaning of the speech samples will affect the brain activation during speech imagery. Moreover, the identification of brain regions with weak signals, stimulation methods, and brain signal detection techniques will affect the identification of cranial nerve signals. The neural mechanism of speech imagery plays an important role in both the brain preprocessing mechanism and BCI technology. Given the complexity of the speech system, research on the neural mechanism of speech imagery still faces a series of challenges. Further research can focus on speech imagery quality evaluation tools, neural decoding paradigms, brain control circuits, activation pathways, and speech imagery mechanisms in speech disorders. Further exploration of the cranial nerve signals of word and sentence imagery will help provide a basis for effectively improving the recognition rate of BCI and to facilitate the communication for people with speech disorders.

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    Effectiveness and underlying mechanism of the intervention for children with comorbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental dyslexia
    CUI Nan, WANG Jiuju, ZHAO Jing
    2023, 31 (4):  622-630.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00622
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    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental dyslexia (DD) are two common neurodevelopmental disorders in children, and the prevalence of the comorbidity between these two disorders varies from 25% to 48%. This comorbidity not only exposes children to cognitive, behavioral, and psychological impairments but also brings a heavy burden to their families, schools, and society. Hence, intervention for children with comorbidity between ADHD and DD is extremely important and necessary. Based on the hypothesis regarding the pathological mechanism of this comorbidity, previous intervention studies can be divided into two categories as below: 1) Intervention programs based on the phenotype hypothesis, that is, the intervention targeting the core deficits in one of ADHD and DD is predicted to improve the symptoms of the other disorder. For example, the usage of pharmacological intervention targeting ADHD symptoms, or reading intervention targeting dyslexia, or the combination of the two interventions. These intervention programs have been found to exhibit direct benefits on the targeted disorder, but relevant transfer effect and retention effect especially on the symptoms of the other disorder still need to be further checked and examined. Moreover, the combined programs of medication and reading intervention have additive effects as compared to the intervention program targeting only one disorder, but no incremental effect has been found. This lack of interaction of the intervention effects challenges the phenotype hypothesis to some extent. 2) Intervention programs based on the common deficit hypothesis. For example, preliminary benefits have been found in the intervention focusing on processing speed, that is, one of the critical common deficits between ADHD and DD, in which the significantly transfer effect has been observed. Although relevant intervention studies targeting common deficits between ADHD and DD are scarce, previous findings supported the feasibility of these intervention programs and provide some enlightenment for future direction. More studies can be further carried out from the following aspects: Firstly, to design intervention of the comorbidity based on the theoretical hypotheses. On the one hand, it is better to extensively explore the potential core factors regarding the common deficits between ADHD and DD so as to examine the etiology of the comorbidity and to design relevant cognitive training programs; on the other hand, future studies should utilize various types of intervention programs on the basis of the phenotype hypothesis, so as to fully verify the hypothesis and comprehensively investigate the training effects of the corresponding intervention programs. Secondly, more studies with multi-modal techniques are required to explore the etiology of the comorbidity, to systematically evaluate the training effects from the direct, transfer, and retention effects, as well as the possible mechanism underlying the training benefits. Finally, parental intervention and teacher training should be integrated into the intervention system for the children with ADHD-DD comorbidity to form a child-parent-school community, with contributing to the development of these comorbided children via a home-school cooperation.

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    The effect of sleep on fear learning and its cognitive neural mechanisms
    ZHANG Jie, ZHANG Huoyin, LI Hong, LEI Yi
    2023, 31 (4):  631-640.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00631
    Abstract ( 2209 )   HTML ( 133 )  
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    Sleep problems may induce fear-related mood disorders such as anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and phobias, among others. Studying the cognitive cognitive and neural mechanisms involved in the relationship between sleep problems and fear learning can help enhance the prediction, diagnosis, and treatment of fear-related mood disorders. Previous studies have shown that sleep deprivation affects fear acquisition mainly by inhibiting the activity of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and blocking its functional connections with the amygdala, resulting in impaired safe learning that fails to inhibit fear of threatening stimuli, thus enhancing fear acquisition. In contrast, sleep deprivation during the fear memory consolidation phase impairs the activity of the amygdala and hippocampus, thereby impairing fear memory. On the other hand, sleep deprivation during the extinction learning phase results in delayed activation of brain regions associated with extinction learning, which in turn impairs fear extinction memory. Further studies have reported that different stages of sleep have distinct effects on brain regions associated with fear learning; in particular, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (insufficient) and complete sleep deprivation have similar effects on the cognitive and neural mechanisms of fear learning. Deprivation of REM sleep suppresses vmPFC activity, enhances amygdala activation, and thus enhances fear acquisition. In addition, reduced functional connectivity in the limbic cortex disrupts fear memory consolidation. Deprivation of REM sleep after extinction learning phase increases amygdala, insula, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activity and diminishes mPFC, thereby impairing extinction memory. Therefore, after clinical treatment, quality of sleep, particularly REM sleep, should be ensured at night. In addition to reinforcing recently acquired memories, REM sleep is involved in integrating new information into existing knowledge structures, reorganizing these structures, and generalizing recently acquired memories; therefore, improving REM sleep can promote fading retention and generalization. In contrast, the slow-wave sleep (SWS) stage facilitates fear extinction learning through target memory reactivation, which allows the hippocampus to re-code threatening stimuli and accelerate the consolidation of new safety information in the amygdala. During the SWS stage, participants are not conscious and therefore do not have to directly face the threatening stimulus, thus avoiding some of the drawbacks of traditional extinction therapy applied during wakefulness for patients with fear-related mood disorders, such as anxiety disorders and (PTSD). Clinically relevant studies have found that individuals with insomnia also exhibit delayed activation of the fear extinction brain regions, with related activation occurring only during extinction recall. At the same time, individuals with insomnia have stronger learned fear which causes their insomnia and can easily develop into pathological anxiety or PTSD. Furthermore, sleep immediately following exposure therapy can optimize the therapeutic effect and may even promote extinction generalization; therefore, sleep should be used in combination with traditional exposure therapy. Future research should be conducted to further the study of the neural mechanisms by which sleep affects fear generalization and the effect of circadian rhythm disruption on fear extinction, as well as clarifying the problems in the translation of animal sleep studies to human sleep studies.

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    The effects of different sensory functions on depression and its neuromechanism
    LIU Wenbin, QI Zhengtang, LIU Weina
    2023, 31 (4):  641-656.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00641
    Abstract ( 1560 )   HTML ( 56 )  
    PDF (1317KB) ( 1980 )  

    The ancient term "sense" is one of the most important topics in psychology. The brain receives information from the outside world through the visual, auditory, olfactory, taste, and tactile sensory channels. Different senses form human cognition and experience by converting information from the real world into electrical signals that the brain can process. Sensory deprivation occurs when the amount of sensory stimuli that a person receives decreases or falls below a normal threshold, and this change becomes a risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Therefore, different sensory impairments are involved in the central mechanism of depression, and appropriate stimulation based on different sensory channels and multi-sensory combined interventions may also play a significant role in its treatment. Among the effects of different sensory functions on mental health, depression has a greater proportion; however, the patient's disease type, age stage, gender difference (especially during pregnancy and postpartum period), and other factors can affect the susceptibility to depression. Yet, the sensory stimulation that the body receives is not “more is better”; excessive sensory stimulation will also lead to the imbalance of the body's sensory and emotional function, as blue light and noise over stimulation will induce depression. The appropriate sensory stimulation can be used as a "compensatory input" to effectively improve the symptoms and severity of depression.
    Taking "symptoms-brain region-mechanism-treatment" as the logical thread, the author systematically reviewed the clinical symptoms of depression, the neural mechanisms of depression, and the antidepressant treatments based on sensory stimulation for the first time in persons with five major sensory disorders. The results show that different sensory dysfunctions in the neural mechanisms related to depression may represent the different pathologies of depression, involving neuronal electrical activity (firing of certain neurons and activation of neural circuits, etc.) and neural biochemical changes (neuroplasticity and neurogenesis, inflammatory immunity and HPA axis, neurohormones and neurotransmitters, etc.); these mainly occur in the limbic system (amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, nucleus accumbens, cingulate gyrus, and olfactory bulb) and its adjacent brain regions (lateral habenula nucleus, nucleus of solitary tract, superior colliculus), which involve the insular lobe, temporal lobe, frontal lobe, etc. The review found that individualized visual cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation, visual art therapy, transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation, frequency conversion music therapy, olfactory-based deep brain stimulation, intranasal administration, psychological behavioral therapy based on sugar intake, massage therapy with music and fragrance, and reiki therapy had good curative effects and few side effects for the improvement of depression symptoms, and were appropriate for clinical application.
    At present, the research on the relationship between sensory disorders as well as their treatment and neuropsychiatric diseases is still very immature, the research on the underlying mechanisms is still in the initial stage, and the development of relevant treatment methods is just beginning. There are still many problems that need to be clarified and solved. Future research should focus on the extraction of different sensory information, which will provide a new research perspective for the etiology and treatment of human depression. In the interdisciplinary context of physics, chemistry, psychology, biology and computer science, researchers should develop how to make reasonable assessments based on certain sensory parameters to assist the medical treatment of depression. For example, with the help of artificial intelligence technology, audio-visual sensory information will be digitized, more practical wearable devices will be invented, and virtual reality and augmented-reality technology will be accelerated to contribute to depression inquiry. In a word, the extraction of sensory information will help in the intervention and rehabilitation of mental diseases, and enable digital medicine, technological medicine, and precision medicine, to rewrite the model of traditional medical thinking, and promote humans into a new medical era.

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    The influence of social identity on depression and its theoretical explanation
    YAN Lei, YUAN Yiren, WANG Juan, ZHANG Yanhong, YANG Linchuan
    2023, 31 (4):  657-668.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00657
    Abstract ( 2013 )   HTML ( 162 )  
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    In recent years, researchers have begun to study the causes of depression from the perspective of social identity (The Social Identity Approach). These studies suggested two broad categories: single-multiple and static-dynamic. Single-multiple refers to whether researchers focus on the degree of individual identification with a particular group or the number of groups that individuals identify with when examining social identity. Static-dynamic focuses on an individual’s identity at a specific time or an identity change before and after life transitions (such as further education, immigration, and others). Therefore, the investigation of social identity can be divided into four situations: static single (identity degree), dynamic single (identity importance), static multiple (identity group number), and dynamic multiple (identity change). They had a positive effect on depression overall. However, the importance of identity in stigmatized groups and its loss in changes worsen depression. Regarding mediating mechanisms, researchers believe that social identity can alleviate depression by satisfying needs. Furthermore, it can reduce it by changing individuals' cognition and behavior. These mediating factors can be divided into three aspects: need, cognition, and behavior.
    Regarding theoretical explanation, Haslam et al. (2009) were the first to propose using the social identity perspective to explain mental health phenomena explicitly. They regarded this field as an important research trend. Four theories have been proposed to explain the relationship between social identity and depression. First, the Social Cure proposes that the psychological resources associated with group identity have a protective effect on individual mental health. Second, the Social Identity Model of Depression is the first to define it from a social identity perspective, proposing four key psychological resources (meaning, social influence, social support, and belonging) for depression. Third, the Social Identity Model of Identity Change shifts to a dynamic perspective, arguing that social identity continuity and gain pathway plays an essential role in life change. Finally, the hierarchical interaction model emphasizes that social identity has different levels, and these have various underlying psychological mechanisms.
    Future research should be carried out from three aspects. (1) In the deep influence mechanism of social identity on depression, we should examine whether it increases an individual's interpersonal support and sense of belonging. However, more importantly, we should examine whether the meaning (target, significance, and values) and influence (such as group norms) are beneficial to physical and mental health. When the group’s meaning and influence are detrimental to an individual's physical and mental health, social support and a sense of belonging can increase this detrimental effect, leading to increased depression. (2) Use empirical research to test the moderating factors proposed by previous theoretical explanations from three aspects: individual, group, and intergroup. Examples include group type (category/interaction group), normative content (positive/negative), identity compatibility, and the role of group performance. (3) Construct an agency-communion model of social identity affecting depression. This model could simultaneously explain the four pathways of social identity’s influence on depression, simplifying psychological resources into agency (meaning and social influence) and communion (social support and sense of belonging). Their mediating effects correspond one-to-one with the four situations of social identity. The model proposes the moderating role of the content of agency psychological resources, such as the meaning and social influence are detrimental to individual physical and mental health, the performance of group "failures," and the conflict of multiple identities.

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    How to establish a digital therapeutic alliance between chatbots and users: The role of relational cues
    MO Ran, FANG Zuozhi, FANG Jiandong
    2023, 31 (4):  669-683.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00669
    Abstract ( 1535 )   HTML ( 53 )  
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    Recently, the rapid development of Internet technology has constantly promoted the digital process of the mental health industry. Internet-based self-help interventions (ISIs) have gradually become an effective supplement to traditional psychological counseling/psychotherapy. Although the feasibility and effectiveness of ISIs have been widely verified, some problems, such as low user engagement and high dropout rate in the actual application process, affect the quality and efficiency of ISIs. To solve the above problems, researchers began to combine the concept of the therapeutic alliance (TA) with ISIs and tried to establish TA with users in a digital environment by using applications to promote user engagement. This TA formed in a digital environment is called a digital therapeutic alliance (DTA). The gap between the natural language conversation ability of chatbots and human beings has gradually narrowed due to the continuous breakthrough of artificial intelligence technology. Compared with traditional ISI programs, chatbots are more likely to develop real social relations with human beings. This study proposes to embed chatbots in ISI programs and use personified chatbots with emotion recognition and interaction capabilities to establish and develop DTAs with users to make up for the lack of human guidance in ISIs to some extent. Also, this study integrates multidisciplinary theories such as mind perception theory, social cue reduction theory, the investment model of personal relationships, and self-determination theory. These theories are useful as follows: first, to build a model from the perspective of human-computer interaction (HCI); second, to explore the influencing factors and mechanisms in the process of establishing DTA between chatbots and users from both cognitive and emotional aspects; and lastly, to put forward several design features of chatbots that are conducive to strengthening DTA. Specifically, we can design relational cues for chatbots based on the facilitation factors of TA in traditional psychological counseling/psychotherapy, such as making chatbots show the characteristics of amiability, respectfulness, listening, encouragement, sincere comprehension, and mutual trust. The users can have a positive cognitive and emotional experience and establish and develop high-quality DTAs with them. This scheme not only helps chatbots improve artificial wisdom but also provides a new way to solve the problem of low user engagement, promotes the development of HCI and DTA theories, and advances the intelligent process of digital mental health in China. In addition to a more rigorous investigation of the factors that affect DTA, future research should consider how to integrate advanced technologies in computer science into ISIs to optimize the user experience of ISIs and promote the development of DTA, prepare a special scale based on the particularity of ISIs types and scenes, and unify the measurement specifications. It is also necessary to test the influence of different therapies and subjects, such as age, sex, symptoms, and other factors, on DTA in ISIs.

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    Behavioral intervention strategies to nudge smoking cessation
    ZHANG Ning, WANG Anran
    2023, 31 (4):  684-696.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.00684
    Abstract ( 2159 )   HTML ( 102 )  
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    Smoking is one of the major public health challenges around the world. Traditional tobacco control strategies, which include health education, taxes on tobacco products, and restrictions on smoking in public spaces, have greatly contributed to the reduction of smoking behavior around the world. However, these strategies are not always effective in helping smokers successfully quit smoking. As the traditional strategies do not consider the “irrational characteristics” of smoking behavior and its underlying mechanisms, their effects are usually discounted in real-world contexts. Recent advances in applied behavioral sciences during the past several decades provide new approaches for nudging smokers to quit smoking, which could be used to develop more effective tobacco control strategies at both the individual and population level. This article systematically reviews recent empirical research on behavioral intervention strategies to nudge smoking cessation according to the framework developed by Duckworth and colleagues for improving self-control. Specifically, behavioral nudge interventions for promoting smoking cessation could be classified by the people or organization implementing the intervention (e.g., smokers versus governments and public health agencies) and their underlying mechanisms (e.g., cognitively oriented versus context oriented). Context oriented interventions implemented by governments and public health agencies include reducing the accessibility of tobacco retail outlets in residence areas, restricting the display of tobacco products in stores and supermarkets, so as to reduce exposure of tobacco products, offering smaller size of cigarette products, and establishing separate smoking areas and removing tobacco-related irritants from the environment; cognitively oriented interventions implemented by governments and public health agencies include printing prominent warning pictures on cigarette packets, removing marketing information from cigarette packs, and increasing the usage of smoking cessation services; context oriented interventions implemented by smokers include making a public commitment to stop smoking and inviting important others to monitor one’s smoking behavior, using loss aversion to motivate quitting behavior among smokers; cognitively oriented interventions implemented by smokers include making specific, actionable smoking cessation programs, promoting a future-oriented time perspective, and cultivating incremental theories of smoking behavior. This framework makes it easier for governments and smokers to select appropriate behavioral nudge interventions. It also has implications for informing the development of culturally sensitive and adaptive behavioral intervention strategies for promoting smoking cessation in China, improving the efficiency and effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions, and contributing to the achievement of the “Tobacco Control Initiatives” of the “Healthy China 2030 Initiatives”. Although there is progress in developing effective behavioral nudge interventions for smoking cessation, future research is warranted to comprehensively evaluate the effects of these interventions, including both positive and negative effects, short-term and long-term effects, especially in real-world contexts. Future research is also needed to adopt behavioral change strategies in the development of stop-smoking APPs and digital smoking cessation services. By fully understanding the irrational characteristics of smoking behavior and its underlying mechanisms, we can develop tailored, targeted, context adaptable, and applicable smoking cessation intervention strategies. These types of interventions can greatly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of smoking cessation services. Future research is also needed to preclude the negative impacts of e-cigarettes and prevent the misuse of these behavior nudge strategies, especially among young children and adolescents who are vulnerable to the attraction of e-cigarettes. We believe that behavior science-informed interventions, if successfully implemented with the collaboration of governments, public health agencies, and smokers, can greatly contribute to safeguarding the health of both smokers and the general public.

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