ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


    For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
    Conceptual Framework
    Influence of facial attractiveness on the allocation of attentional resources: Moderating effect of evolutionary motivations
    PU Xiaoping, HU Hao, ZHU Jina, TANG Yipeng
    2023, 31 (7):  1109-1120.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01109
    Abstract ( 1067 )   HTML ( 35 )  
    PDF (724KB) ( 1441 )  

    Previous research found that facial attractiveness positively affects attentional resources allocation in the sense that more attentional resources are allocated to attractive faces. However, the underlying mechanism of how facial attractiveness affects attentional resources allocation is still unclear. The present study seeks to clarify the three key issues in this stream of research. First of all, there are two processes of attentional resource allocation: attention capture, which refers to the process of the initial orientation of attention; and attention adhesion, which represents the difficulty of turning attention away from the target. Nevertheless, the experimental paradigms in previous studies can not clearly distinguish the two processes in explaining attention preference for facial attractiveness. That is, the findings could be interpreted both as the positive effect of facial attractiveness on attention capture and on attention adhesion. In this study, we want to differentiate these two distinct processes. Specifically, since there is no existing paradigm to examine the effect on attention adhesion, we seek to adapt Levin's (2000) visual search paradigm by putting attractive faces as background in the condition of no target face. If attractive faces have a stronger effect on attention adhesion, therefore, it will take a longer time for the participants to navigate through all the background face pictures and then make the judgment that there was no target. Another way to test the effect on attention adhesion is the modified cue paradigm by using attractive faces as invalid cues. We then measure the time for the participants to shift attention from the invalid face cue pictures to the point location. If facial attractiveness can influence the time of shifting attention, it is suggested to have an effect on attention adhesion.
    Second, there are two types of attention capture: top-down attention capture and bottom-up attention capture. The process of top-down attention capture occurs when the participants search for a particular target which is informed in advance, whereas bottom-up attention capture happens if a specific stimulus captures the participants’ attention when they are either aimlessly browsing a certain area, or when their task (or target) is not related to the stimulus. Existing studies on the effects of facial attractiveness on attention capture did not investigate the difference between the two processes. However, in bottom-up attention capture, the stimulus (not task-related) in the visual field itself attracts attention. As such, attention is unintentionally attracted by the distinct features of the stimulus itself. It is suggested that only strong features of the stimulus can elicit bottom-up attention capture. It is unclear whether facial attractiveness is such a strong feature. The present study tries to address this controversial issue. We plan to use two new paradigms to examine bottom-up attention capture. In Langton et al.'s (2008) visual search paradigm, the participants are told to search for some non-face pictures, such as animals or plants. Attractive face pictures would appear randomly in the background. Another way to examine bottom-up attention capture is the modified cue paradigm. In the task, the participants are asked to report the location of a point while attractive face pictures are used as valid cues. In both paradigms, to avoid the appearance of face pictures being too frequent such that the participants notice the task to be related to faces, we set the probability of the appearance of faces and all other kinds of pictures as the same.
    The third issue is about whether the motivational state can reshape the influence of facial attractiveness on attentional resources allocation. Attractive faces have the advantage of attracting attention. The widely-accepted theoretical explanation is from the evolutionary perspective, which suggests that facial attractiveness is related to mate selection because high attractiveness indicates good health and fertility. In this regard, the motivational state may influence the priority of attentional resources allocation. This issue has been paid less research attention in the existing studies. There are two crucial evolutionary motivations: self-protection motivation and mating motivation. Research found that people generally prioritize self-protection motivation over mating motivation. The current study seeks to investigate whether the effects of facial attractiveness on attentional resources allocation will be weakened if the participants’ self-protection motivation is activated. We plan to use the pictures, texts, and videos to prime participants' mating and self-protection motivations to test the moderating effect of evolutionary motivations.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Discount or trade off: The psychological mechanisms of intertemporal choice with double-dated mixed outcomes
    SHEN Si-Chu, WANG Yao-Min, ZHANG Han-Bing, MA Jia-Tao
    2023, 31 (7):  1121-1132.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01121
    Abstract ( 545 )   HTML ( 19 )  
    PDF (1303KB) ( 586 )  

    Individuals, enterprises, and countries need to make decisions involving different time nodes in real life. Such decisions are commonly measured by “intertemporal preference” in the field of behavioral decision-making. The most crucial kind of intertemporal decision making relevant to survival and development is the intertemporal choice with double-dated mix outcomes. However, existing intertemporal preferences measured by paradigms with pure gain outcomes were found to be poor predictors of far-sighted behavior in real life. To explore the characteristics of intertemporal choice with double-dated mixed outcomes, and investigate which theory could provide a satisfactory account for intertemporal choice with double-dated mixed outcomes, the present project tends to carry out three research. Study 1 is designed to synthesize indicators of intertemporal choice with double-dated mixed outcomes by using two different logics, providing predictive indicators for model comparison. Study 2 would develop a new ecological paradigm of measuring intertemporal choice with double-dated mixed outcomes, aiming to provide a more ecological and predictive measurement for the development of the following research. Study 3 aims to adopt the Mouselab and eye-tracking technique to test which model could more satisfactorily explain intertemporal choice with double-dated outcomes, the utility comparison model or the attribute-comparison model. Having sorted out the existing compensatory and non-compensatory models, and based on behavioral choice outcomes and behavioral process techniques, we proposed an explanation of integrative trade-off models. First, when people are faced with intertemporal choice with double-dated mixed outcomes, they would perform simplification of information within options with limited cognitive resources. Thus, we can determine whether decision-makers are more likely to use additive logic or integrated logic to simplify option information within options when processing. Second, based on the integration and simplification of within-option information, evidence based on the choice process helps reveal whether people apply the non-compensatory model to make an intertemporal choice with double-dated mixed outcomes. Finally, this project tends to improve predictive power for farsighted/short-sighted by introducing multiple time points, the combination of gain and loss outcomes into intertemporal choices. In summary, the current project proposes to combine evidence on choice outcomes and choice processes to test whether people make the intertemporal choice with double-dated mixed outcomes following utility or attribute comparison models/strategies, and to improve the predictive power of intertemporal preferences for realistic farsighted/short-sighted decisions. The implementation of the current project will help improve our understanding of the mechanisms of intertemporal preferences with double-dated mixed outcomes and provide a practical reference for people on which temporal strategies to choose in crises.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Digital job crafting and its positive impact on job performance: The perspective of individual-task-technology fit
    SHI Yanwei, XIE Julan, WANG Yani, ZHAGN Nan
    2023, 31 (7):  1133-1145.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01133
    Abstract ( 584 )   HTML ( 25 )  
    PDF (748KB) ( 644 )  

    With the booming development of digital economy and digital technology, digital transformation has changed from an “optional” choice for some leading enterprises to a "mandatory" requirement for more enterprises. However, many companies face several problems in the digital transformation process such as slow performance growth and insufficient transformation sustainability. Among possible reasons for these problems, the misfit between employees' digital competencies, digital technologies, and digital job demands (i.e., individual-task-technology misfit) is the main one. Therefore, understanding how employees can proactively change the digital job environment and increase individual-task-technology fit to improve job performance has both theoretical and practical implications. On the basis of the new work environment element of digital technology, this project intends to introduce the individual-task-technology fit theory and explore new digital job crafting strategies to help employees actively adapt to the digital transformation of enterprises and promote individual-task-technology fit, in turn improving job performance.
    Specifically, this project focuses on digital work, a new type of work practice, with particular attention to employees' adaptation to digital work. In order to help employees adapt to and manage their digital work, this project will propose a new concept called digital job crafting, which refers to the process by which employee make physical and cognitive changes in digital task characteristics, interpersonal interactions, and digital technology use in order to match personal needs, digital technology use, and digital work demands. We propose that digital job crafting promotes job performance via individual-task-technology fit. We intend to use multi-wave surveys and diary surveys to explore the mechanisms for the effect of digital job crafting on employees' job performance. Meanwhile, from the perspectives of colleagues, leaders, and organizational structure, this project will examine digital job crafting support, digital leadership, and organizational formalization as potential boundary conditions of the relationship between digital job crafting and job performance.
    This project firstly proposes the concept of “digital job crafting” and develops a theoretical model of the promoting mechanism of digital job crafting on job performance. This project will contribute to expanding digital job research from a proactive adaptation perspective and initiate new research themes for job crafting research. It also provides theoretical guidance and practical intervention plans for employees to proactively adapt to digital transformation and gain digital intelligence dividends.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    What enables teams to “bounce back” from adversity? The influence of leader mindfulness on team resilience
    LIU Beini, ZHANG Zhixue
    2023, 31 (7):  1146-1159.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01146
    Abstract ( 601 )   HTML ( 20 )  
    PDF (809KB) ( 758 )  

    Team resilience is the key to successful risk response, rapid recovery and even growth in a crisis. It has been pointed out that team resilience is not only the capacity of a team to bounce back from adversity, but also a dynamic psychological process and a shared belief. However, there is a paucity of team-level resilience research compared to the individual and organizational levels. The limited literature suffers from two deficiencies. First, the predominance of studies that consider team resilience as a capability neglects the understanding of where the capability comes from, i.e., the dynamic development of team resilience and the emergence of consensus. Second, the antecedents of team resilience have been less studied with a focus on leadership style and empirical research needs to be enriched.
    Against this backdrop, the theoretical mechanism behind the formation of team resilience by leader mindfulness is constructed by adopting three perspectives: the capacity perspective, the process perspective and the belief perspective. First, we identify the path mechanism of leader mindfulness to enhance team resilience. Considering the mechanisms of team work anxiety absorption, team emotional carrying capacity as sequential mediators and team performance as moderator, the present study provides a theoretical explanation framework to systematically clarify when and how leader mindfulness promotes the formation of team resilience. Second, we reveal the dynamic pattern of team resilience development through positive leadership thinking. Based on the within-team level, we analyze the “social-cognitive” resource change mechanisms that influence the change of team resilience due to the change of leader mindfulness. In the “social-cognitive” resource change mechanism, the team psychological safety represents the social resource change mechanism and team cognitive reappraisal represents the cognitive resource change mechanism. The findings help to better understand the underlying dynamics of team resilience development. Third, to clarify the emergence of a consensus process of leader mindfulness for team resilience belief, we focused on team sense-making as a mediating role and team emotional integration as a moderating role. The results provide a more comprehensive theoretical explanation to clarify and enhance the effectiveness of leader mindfulness in promoting team resilience.
    The study is the first attempt to explore the integration of two relatively independent literatures on “leader mindfulness” and “team resilience”, and to clarify the enriching connotation of team resilience through the integrated perspective. The integrated perspective of team resilience emphasizes that team resilience is not only a team capability, but also as a team interaction process and team shared belief emergence. The research topic is based on social needs, responding to practical concerns and theoretical explorations, and is the first to reveal the potential impact of leader mindfulness on the formation of team resilience. In terms of research perspectives, we expand the research landscape dominated by the capability perspective, based on three perspectives: the capacity perspective, the process perspective and the belief perspective, to understand how team resilience comes from. The research design focuses on a hybrid study, taking into account both dynamic processes and static results, to more accurately portray the development pattern between leader mindfulness and team resilience. It also provides innovative theoretical explanations for leadership development and team resilience in turbulent business environments. The study not only reveals the relationship between leader mindfulness and team resilience more comprehensively, but also enriches the research on the antecedents of leader characteristics in team resilience, expanding the scope of team resilience studies and linking the theoretical gaps in the literature on leader mindfulness and team resilience. Our research provides novel insights into leadership development in turbulent business environments, offering practical strategies for how teams can survive and even thrive in the face of adversity.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The impact of regulatory focus on App users’ privacy disclosure
    SUN Zaoyi, XU Weijing, XU Liang, LI Hongting
    2023, 31 (7):  1160-1171.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01160
    Abstract ( 373 )   HTML ( 15 )  
    PDF (1486KB) ( 407 )  

    The reasonable and full use of user data is an important part of the Internet economy. Data collection is inevitably involved with user privacy information and requires user authorization, which is the procedure of privacy disclosure. Although it is well-documented that users’ regulatory focus type is a robust predictor of privacy disclosure intention, few studies have explored the underlying decision-making mechanism. Group-level studies based on objective data are also limited. In order to further explore the effects of regulatory focus and regulatory fit on app users’ privacy disclosure, this project considers privacy disclosure as a decision-making process. Privacy disclosure decisions largely depend on the tradeoff between costs and benefits, which is affected by the user’s regulatory focus. First of all, Study 1 explores the effects of individual regulatory focus types (promotion versus prevention) on app users’ privacy disclosure decision-making preferences through a situational simulation experiment (Experiment 1). Then, the titration experimental paradigm, which has previously been used in decision-making fields, is adopted in Experiment 2 to quantitatively represent the indifference point in the tradeoff between privacy disclosure’s costs and benefits. After that, it is examined whether users with promotion (versus prevention) regulatory focus have significantly higher (versus lower) indifference points. If so, users with a promotion regulatory focus tend to provide personal data for smaller benefits. Users’ privacy disclosure preferences are also influenced by contextual factors such as the information frame. Different from previous studies that examined personal traits and information features separately, in Study 2, the user’s regulatory focus and information frame (gain versus loss) are combined to find matching effects (regulatory fit). Experiment 3 explores the regulatory fit effects in nudging app users’ privacy disclosure. This experiment also tests whether the user’s perceived uncertainty mediates the relationship between regulatory fit and privacy disclosure preference. According to the Elaboration Likelihood Model, the level of message elaboration influences the persuasion effect. Following a high elaboration process, changed attitudes are more likely to guide behavior and persist over time. Thus, Experiment 4 explores whether users adopt a higher (versus lower) elaboration level for regulatory fit (versus nonfit) privacy authorization information. Specifically, the experiment tests whether the participants who receive strong arguments in the matched (versus mismatched) condition tend to show a stronger privacy disclosure preference as well as lower perceived uncertainty. The above individual-level experiments are advantageous in that they control for variables and causal interpretation; however, there are some deficiencies in the sample size and ecological validity. Accordingly, in Study 3, several participants’ regulatory focus questionnaire scores, as well as their Weibo accounts, are first selected. Then, machine learning classification algorithms are used to train a prediction model of the users’ regulatory focus types based on the data obtained from the questionnaire scores and the corresponding Weibo text contents (Experiment 5). Privacy-related behaviors not only occur in the authorization stage but can also be reflected in daily usage data. Experiment 6 evaluates the explicit and implicit privacy disclosure level by analyzing the user’s microblog profile and original texts. A machine learning association algorithm can be used to finally output the association rules and the frequent item sets of users’ regulatory focus types and of their privacy disclosure level. This project helps explain the mechanism of regulatory focus in the process of privacy authorization from the individual level to the group level. From the perspective of decision-making, it provides an integrated explanation of privacy disclosure from the stages of intention to behavior. In addition, the results are expected to have potential application values in modifying the designs of privacy authorization information.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Regular Articles
    The gradedness and richness of consciousness: Two pathways toward decoding consciousness
    CAO Jinjing, QIU Shiming, DING Xianfeng, CHENG Xiaorong, FAN Zhao
    2023, 31 (7):  1172-1185.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01172
    Abstract ( 788 )   HTML ( 14 )  
    PDF (760KB) ( 887 )  

    The gradedness of consciousness refers to whether conscious processing follows an “all-or-none” or “gradual” mode. The richness of consciousness refers to whether conscious representations are “rich” or “sparse”. Any subjective experience of consciousness could be explored from these two perspectives: gradedness represents the quality of consciousness, that is the clarity and stability of conscious content; while richness represents the scope of consciousness, that is the abundance and complexity of conscious content. The gradedness and richness of consciousness are intrinsically connected, and both can be traced back to the long-standing debate on whether cognitive access is necessary for the formation of consciousness. Therefore, they represent two important pathways toward decoding one of the basic scientific inquiries of mankind, i.e., consciousness, in that any theory of consciousness formation must provide comprehensive, accurate, and reasonable explanations of the two.
    Regarding the gradedness of consciousness, four main theoretical hypotheses based on empirical studies have been proposed to account for it. The first one asserts that conscious processing follows an “all-or-none” mode, that is, information could be consciously perceived only when the processing on them meets certain criteria, otherwise the information remains unconscious and could not be perceived. The second one lowers the requirements of consciousness formation and suggests that the quality of conscious content could be improved as more neural regions are involved, which means that consciousness is formed following a “gradual” mode. The third one supports the idea of “all-or-none” mode and further improves it by introducing the concept of multiple dimensions of conscious representations. Following this hypothesis, the gradedness could be interpreted as the composition of multiple “all-or-none” patterns. The fourth one integrates the “all-or-none” mode with the “gradual” mode in a flexible way. Specifically, this hypothesis suggests that either of the two modes could be observed depending on the features of stimuli (e.g., low-level vs. high-level) or the experimental requirements. As to the richness of consciousness, on the one hand, the proponents of the “rich view” asserted that conscious representation is charactered by abundant conscious content and wide range of processing scope. Thus, conscious representation exceeds the capacity of cognitive access. On the other hand, according to the “sparse view”, cognitive access is necessary for the formation of consciousness. Only the information which is accessible to cognitive processing could be consciously perceived and therefore the content and the scope of consciousness processing are restricted.
    However, current theories of consciousness formation are limited. They could neither give a unified explanatory framework for both the gradedness and richness of consciousness, nor provide an integrated interpretation for the complex performance of them under different experimental situations. To solve these problems, a promising way is to try to introduce different cognitive modules and processing mechanisms into the theoretical framework of consciousness. Basing on the interactions among these modules and mechanisms, it is possible to provide a comprehensive explanation for the complex phenomenon in consciousness formation. Two latest theories of consciousness formation may help to shed light on this approach. First, the Two Neural Network Theory suggests that there exist two neural networks in the human brain, namely the cognitive network and the theory-of-mind network, and consciousness was formed by the collaboration of the two networks. In this perspective, the information processed in the cognitive network would be reconstructed by the theory-of-mind network, and the diverse ways of the reconstruction results in the gradedness and richness of consciousness. The other theory named Higher-Order Mnemonic Theory proposes a framework containing mental quality space, perceptual reality monitoring and memory (i.e., implicit and explicit) to account for subjective experience. Following this theory, the gradedness and richness of consciousness might be the products of different ways of integrating mental quality space with memories.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Predictive processing and the bounds of cognition: A phenomenological perspective
    LI Xueyu, GAO Shenchun
    2023, 31 (7):  1186-1194.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01186
    Abstract ( 318 )   HTML ( 10 )  
    PDF (698KB) ( 434 )  

    Predictive processing (PP) is an important theoretical framework in cognitive science and philosophy of mind. As a cognitive model, PP performs “Copernican inversion” on the standard image of sensory processing, and it depicts the brain as a sophisticated hypothesis-testing machine, which strives to minimize the error of predictions of the incoming sensory input. The perception view of prediction not only reflects and promotes the theoretical thinking of predecessors, but also has been confirmed by experiments. However, the research community has not formed a consistent view. What is the boundary of cognition has become the core of the debate, Markov Blanket as a hypothesis is an important concept. However, the framework has two distinct approaches to the understanding of the bounds of cognition, which are divided into internalism and externalism.
    On the one hand, the proponents of internalism hold that perception is a process of inference from “effects” (internal states of the brain) to “causes” (hidden triggers in the external world), with the Markov Blanket as the evidentiary boundary. Cognition is an internal mental activity, that means radical neuro-representationalism.This is considered "an affirmation of the simple Cartesian skepticism". There is no doubt that the model in the brain can never access the original, nor replace the original. Therefore, the interpretation of internalism makes it difficult for us to understand the miracle of the interconnection between the mind and the world. The problem with this position is how does the mind in our brain know things outside our mind? How does the brain, as a physical thing, relate to the nonphysical mind?These two problems can be considered in combination with Husserl's transcendence of cognition.
    On the other hand, the supporters of PP externalism emphasize that the framework should be combined with the embodied mind and extended cognition, advocating an action-oriented representation.Through analysis, radical neuro-representationalism has made at least two mistakes: one is to introduce a "veil" between the subject and the world; Second, the role of action in the prediction process was ignored. With the help of the dynamic and variable Markov blanket, this externalism position can freely change the boundary to walk in the brain, body and the world. The boundary of cognition is fluid and changeable. The problem is that the marks of cognition are ambiguous, and how the body interacts with the environment. Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of the body undoubtedly lays a strong foundation for the action turn in cognitive research.
    Through careful investigation and critical reflection, we find the following conculusion that the explanation of the absolute internalism and externalism of cognition seems to be inaccurate. And to clarify the boundary of cognition, we must inevitably resort to the interpretation of the nature of cognition, and the core content in the phenomenological criticism of cognition is just in line with this appeal. To solve the problem of internalism, we could combine intentionality, meaning and prediction of consciousness. As for the dilemma of externalism, we should explore the phenomenological scheme of “to the things themselves” (zu den Sachen selbst), and adopt the viewpoint of body phenomenology.
    As mentioned above, it is undeniable that predictive processing, as a possible new paradigm of cognitive science, does provide some new concepts and unique perspectives for understanding human cognition and action. Unfortunately, both the internalism and externalism positions of the framework are facing cognitive dilemmas to some extent. Cognition is neither limited to the brain, nor simply embedded in the surrounding world. It also participates in the generation of the world. Cognitive psychology can get effective enlightenment from this research in both methods and theories. Phenomenology, as a mode of thinking, undoubtedly provides a space for reflection in the study of PP cognitive model.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The relationship between media multitasking and creativity: Explanations from multiple perspectives
    LI Ziying, LI Jiajing, JIANG Jiali, LEI Xiuya, MENG Zelong
    2023, 31 (7):  1195-1205.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01195
    Abstract ( 422 )   HTML ( 17 )  
    PDF (694KB) ( 478 )  

    Media multitasking refers to “the simultaneous or rapid alternation of multiple tasks, at least one of which is related to media use”. In recent years, the relationship between media multitasking and cognitive ability has received much attention from the academic community due to the widespread popularity of media multitasking among young people. In this paper, we sort out the relationship between media multitasking and creative thinking and creative behavior performance in terms of both process and output.
    We found that there are two different patterns in the relationship between media multitasking and creative thinking: (1) media multitasking is positively related to divergent thinking and not to convergent thinking, and (2) media multitasking is positively related to both divergent and convergent thinking. In the case of the former, from the perspective of executive function, on the one hand, increased cognitive flexibility facilitates divergent thinking performance in heavy media multitaskers, while on the other hand, decreased inhibitory control makes it difficult to achieve the same superior performance in convergent thinking; in the case of the latter, from the perspective of attentional style, heavy media multitaskers who prefer scattered attention are not only better at divergent thinking tasks that require attentional flexibility, but this greater attentional breadth characteristic also makes them better at completing divergent thinking tasks that require attentional flexibility. This greater breadth of attention also allows them to have a broader associative horizon and access to more conceptual activation, thus enabling them to integrate different stimuli to form new connections, i.e., to have better convergent thinking performance. The subtle relationship between media multitasking and creative thinking may be related to the complexity of attentional functional influences, differences in creative thinking task properties, and the selection of assessment metrics, and these possibilities need to be tested in depth in the future. In addition, we found a positive relationship between media multitasking and creative behavior performance with supporting evidence from three sources: increased working memory capacity, emotional satisfaction or negative emotion activation, and contradictory coexistence of cognitive elements and their integration.
    In summary, media multitasking has an overall nonnegative relationship with creativity, but it remains to be tested whether it varies with other individual or situational factors. Future research can further clarify this relationship by improving the realism of media multitasking scenarios simulated in the laboratory, adopting a more ecological approach to measure media multitasking and creativity simultaneously, selecting a more integrated assessment instrument, and using a longitudinal follow-up research design. The internal mechanisms of the relationship were validated by integrating the four perspectives of executive function, attentional style, emotional activation, and cognitive integration, exploring other factors that influence the relationship, and exploring effective ways to stimulate creativity through media multitasking in terms of delay effects and task formats.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The “cold and hot” amygdala: An important nucleus relative to aggression
    ZHAO Hui, ZHANG Yaran, XIAO Yuqin, ZHANG Zhuo, YANG Bo
    2023, 31 (7):  1206-1277.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01206
    Abstract ( 686 )   HTML ( 13 )  
    PDF (991KB) ( 603 )  

    Aggression can be defined as any behavior directed toward another with the intent to cause direct harm. It can be divided into reactive aggression and proactive aggression, which differ in precipitating factors, motivations and emotional characteristics. Aggression has an underlying neurophysiological basis. As a key region of emotion processing and learning, the amygdala is closely associated with aggression. The fight-flight mechanism, the violence inhibition mechanism and the fear dysfunction hypothesis emphasize the importance of the amygdala for aggression. Structural deficits and dysfunctions of the amygdala have been observed in individuals who display aggressive or violent behaviors, with two different abnormal manifestations. In groups with high risk of reactive aggression, the amygdala’s response to threatening stimuli is enhanced (a “hot” response). However, in proactive aggression, exhibited by individuals with psychopathic and callous-unemotional traits, researches have reported diminished amygdala responses to threatening stimuli and others’ distress cues as well as insufficient activation of the amygdala during fear conditioning learning and moral decision-making (a “cold” response). These dysfunctions might impair the normal function of individuals in terms of threat response, empathy, punishment avoidance and moral decision-making. Future research should investigate the following four aspects. First, it seems that population-based studies are more important than process-based studies in previous researches. However, the two types of aggression are not opposites; thus, a distinction based on these populations will not provide a true comparison. Therefore, studies should directly explore the neural response during aggression with relative paradigms. At present, brain imaging paradigms used to investigate reactive aggression are well developed; however, proactive aggression paradigms still need further development and innovation. Second, the amygdala may exhibit different activations according to the functions of its substructures, which have not been deeply explored. Previous brain imaging studies have usually investigated the amygdala as a single structure. However, the substructures of the amygdala differ in function. More detailed studies of the substructures can facilitate to accurately locate the neural targets associated with the two types of aggression. Third, the abnormalities may be caused by deficits in other brain regions that provide input to the amygdala or abnormal anatomical connections with the amygdala. It is necessary to interpret the role of the amygdala in the context of the brain functional network. According to dual system theory, further research should consider the stage characteristics of neural development during the investigation of the above network. Finally, from the perspective of prevention, the structural deficits and dysfunctions of the amygdala can serve as potential indicators of violence recidivism; however, further clarification of the role of amygdala substructures in aggression and their connectivity with other brain regions is needed. From the perspective of intervention, studies should explore appropriate interventions based on the characteristics of the aggressive population. For example, research may incorporate deep brain stimulation and other technologies to treat aggressive behavior in individuals with psychotic traits, while exploring noninvasive interventions such as oxytocin for violent offenders. In addition, the social factors that influence the brain-aggressive behavior associated should not be overlooked.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The promotive effect of Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels on healthy behaviors and its cognitive mechanisms
    CHEN Jing, ZHANG Manlu, LI Yuyang
    2023, 31 (7):  1228-1238.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01228
    Abstract ( 721 )   HTML ( 42 )  
    PDF (711KB) ( 765 )  

    Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels, as a type of “front-of-package” (FOP) food label, provide two types of information about food: calorie amounts and the amount of physical activity required to burn off those calories. Because of its additional information on physical activity, PACE label is considered an effective strategy to tackle the increasingly serious obesity problem. This paper first summarizes the relevant research evidence on PACE label in promoting healthy eating and exercise behaviors. In terms of promoting healthy eating, PACE labels can reduce consumers’ willingness to choose unhealthy foods, effectively reduce calories selected and consumed by consumers, and significantly increase selection and consumption of healthy food in both laboratory and field experiments. In terms of promoting exercise behaviors, although evidence is relatively less robust, PACE labels can enhance individuals’ intention to exercise and promote actual exercise behaviors. Previous studies mainly focused on the effectiveness of PACE labels and lacked a systematic theoretical model. Therefore, the cognitive mechanism of PACE label is integrated into a single model to fill this gap, which includes two pathways. The first pathway is the PACE label-mental simulation-emotion-behavior pathway. That is, the PACE label affects the individual’s emotional response to food through spontaneous mental simulations of food consumption and exercise, thereby affecting subsequent eating behavior. The second pathway is the PACE label-mental simulation-health goal-behavior pathway. That is, the PACE label activates the individual's health goals through mental simulations and further affects subsequent eating behaviors and exercise behaviors. At the same time, the activation of health goals may also further affect an individual's emotional response to food intake, which in turn affects food decisions and eating behaviors. Future research can further explore the applicable groups and conditions of the two pathways, the possible negative impact of the PACE label, and the integration of different dietary interventions to help consumers form sustainable healthy eating habits and exercise habits.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The predicting effect of speech-like vocalizations on language development in young children and its explanations
    LIU Min, LIU Qiaoyun, CHEN Siqi, XU Zhijia
    2023, 31 (7):  1239-1253.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01239
    Abstract ( 494 )   HTML ( 16 )  
    PDF (741KB) ( 570 )  

    Speech-like vocalizations are sounds that resemble adult speech and are the precursor for subsequent language development. The current study explored the relationship between vocalizations and language in typically developing infants and young children with language disorders, specifically the quantity of vocalizations, phonological quality of vocalizations, and the communicative quality of vocalizations. The quantity of vocalizations, the total number of vocalizations, predicts expressive language, but inconsistently predicts receptive language development. The phonological quality of vocalizations is measured through four indicators, of which the proportion or frequency of vocalizations with a canonical syllable, consonant inventory and diversity of key consonants used in communication predict expressive language, while the age at canonical babbling onset inconsistently predicts age of word onset and expressive vocabulary size. The communicative quality of vocalizations, including the number of communication acts with a vocalization and proportion of communicative vocalizations, predicts expressive language.
    Three mechanisms explain how speech-like vocalizations may predict future language ability: speech-like vocalizations provide the basis for language production, create optimal learning states for language learning, and promote socially contingent responses. The first mechanism emphasizes the foundations of speech-like vocalizations, i.e., they provide the phonological basis for early vocabulary and the functional flexibility for language. The second mechanism emphasizes the influence of speech-like vocalizations on children’s own language learning status, i.e., speech-like vocalizations indicate that the child is in an attentional state that facilitates learning, speech-like vocalizations help the child’s speech perception, and reflects the child’s motivation to actively participate in social interactions. The third mechanism emphasizes the social function of speech-like vocalizations, i.e., children elicit responses from social partners through speech-like vocalizations, which provide contingent, scaffolding support, and didactic information. All three mechanisms contribute to the transition of children’s speech-like vocalizations to language.
    Many studies have investigated the correlation between speech-like vocalizations and language ability, and future studies may consider exploring the causal relationship between speech-like vocalizations and language development. For example, a speech-like vocalization intervention for children with language disorders could be used to examine its causal relationship with language. The relationship between language ability and speech-like vocalizations may be influenced by factors such as cognition, age and degree of impairment in children with language disorders, and the moderating effects of these factors may be investigated in the future. Different criteria for speech-like vocalization indicators and language testing methods may also influence this prediction, and controlling for the role of these two factors is one of the directions for future research. Future research could also investigate individual differences among children with language disorders, and explore if specific speech-like vocalizations of children with different language disorders are uniquely predictive of future language in order to better implement interventions. How the dynamic interaction between children’s speech-like vocalizations and social responses promotes their transition to language is another question worthy of exploration, especially the longitudinal exploration of children’s vocal development and social responses during interaction.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The phenomenon and mechanism of intergenerational transmission of pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors
    LI Xin, LIU Zhenhui, LUO Jie, JIN Tonglin, JIA Yanru, WU Yuntena
    2023, 31 (7):  1254-1268.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01254
    Abstract ( 698 )   HTML ( 25 )  
    PDF (803KB) ( 732 )  

    Intergenerational transmission in the field of environmental psychology and behaviors is an important fulcrum for sustainable development. Existing studies mainly focus on the intergenerational transmission effects and mechanisms of pro-environmental attitudes (such as environmental values, environmental concern, sustainable consumption attitudes) and pro-environmental behaviors (such as energy saving behaviors, recycling behaviors, green consumption behaviors). Traditional approaches to the study of relationships among generations view ecosocialization as a top-down phenomenon in which parents transmit their attitudes and behaviors to their children in a unidirectional and often deterministic manner. However, although there is evidence of intergenerational correlation between pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, it has not been proved that parents influence children’s pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors through the process of socialization. Family socialization is a dynamic and interactive process, in which parents and children will be reciprocal influences and counterinfluence. (Several theoretical considerations suggest that the influence of parents and children is reciprocal). Children are not only passive receivers of the socialization process, they are also active agents, passing on information and knowledge from schooling, peers and the mass media to their parents. In addition, in most families, parents and children live in a shared socio-cultural context, which further complicates the interpretation of intergenerational correlation. Based on the socialization theory and parent-child values similarity framework, and integrating existing studies, the authors propose a intergenerational transmission framework of pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. In this framework, we argue for considering intergenerational correlation as the result of a complex network of mutual influences among parents, children, and their shared environments. The intergenerational transmission has three interdependent pathways of socialization: (1) parents influence their children, through modeling learning, parent-child communication, parent-child participation; (2) children influence their parents, that is, the process of reverse intergenerational transmission; (3) parents and children are influenced by the shared social and cultural environment, that is, the process of cultural acculturation. We argue that the three processes for intergenerational correlation should be viewed as interdependent, compatible, working jointly. Among them, parents influence their children and reverse intergenerational transmission are a dynamic process. The former occurs earliest in childhood and persists into adolescence, while the latter mostly occurs in later adolescence. Future research should be carried out from four aspects. (1) Construct a dynamic model of intergenerational transmission by longitudinally tracking parent-child interactions and children’s developmental trajectories, and explore in depth the potential mechanisms of intergenerational transmission, such as parental characteristics, children’s characteristics, parent-child relationship. (2) Strengthen the research of intergenerational transmission in the context of Chinese culture, and explore in depth the role of horizontal socialization factors (e.g., peer influence, school environmental educations, mass media) in promoting and blocking intergenerational transmission. (3) Explore the potential mechanism of intergenerational transmission in different fields, and summarize the domain universality and domain specificity of intergenerational transmission, in order to better understand the formation and development of individual psychological and behavioral patterns. (4) Future research needs to construct a family-based environmental education mechanism that involves both parents and children generations to promote the application of research results.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Personality dynamics: The integration of process and trait
    WU Fan, HU Yueqin
    2023, 31 (7):  1269-1287.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01269
    Abstract ( 622 )   HTML ( 30 )  
    PDF (1011KB) ( 770 )  

    Personality dynamics is a research perspective that focuses on intra-individual processes and their relationship with inter-individual personality traits such as Big Five. From the beginning, personality psychology has emphasized the dynamic nature of personality. Early theories of personality dynamics have been proposed but were not tested due to restrictions in methodology until the last two decades when the widespread use of intensive longitudinal analyses brought the personality dynamic approach back into focus.
    Theories of personality dynamics have several emphases: (1) distinguishing between stable and unstable components in the personality system; (2) the personality system is self-regulating; (3) situational and environmental factors are integral to understanding personality; and (4) personality is a multi-process system. While different theories of personality dynamics share the goal of explaining the underlying processes of observable personality traits, they can be further divided into personality process models and integrative models according to their different theoretical emphases. Personality process models focus on the influencing factors and mechanisms that produce behaviors in different contexts, i.e., why people behave differently in different situations. Prominent theoretical perspectives include theories that explain behaviors based on neurophysiology (e.g., the reinforcement sensitivity theory), the social-cognitive theories that explain behaviors via processes such as information processing, goal pursuit, and self-regulation (e.g., the cognitive-affective personality system model), and theories that emphasize the different types of interactions between persons and situations/environments (e.g, the person-environment relations model). In contrast, personality integrative theories attempt to integrate personality process models and trait models, focusing on explaining the causes of stable intra- and inter-individual personality structures by zooming in on the evolutional basis of human beings or the complex interactions of dynamic social-cognitive processes. Research questions include, for example, “What is the specific set of causal processes that underlie a specific trait?”, or “What are the causing forces underlying the inter-individual personality structures such as the big five personality traits?”. Representative theories addressing these issues include the whole trait theory, the knowledge-and-appraisal model of personality architecture, and the cybernetic big five theory.
    Empirical research on personality dynamics employs a range of methods designed to analyze the within-person multivariate dynamic functioning, the complex interrelationships therein, and the relationships between processes and traits. Intensive longitudinal design with the experience sampling method is commonly used. Intensive longitudinal data are usually analyzed using statistical models that can handle multi-level structures (e.g., multilevel models, multilevel structural equation modes), reciprocal relationship (e.g., dynamic structural equation models and group iterative multiple model estimation), multivariate network system analysis and visualization (e.g., graphical network analysis), and system-level feature extraction (e.g., dynamic system models). Based on these methods, applied personality research in organizational, educational, and clinical psychology has made progress on topics such as within-person variability in personality states and their correlation with variables of interest in the related field.
    Future research could address the following issues. Theoretically, researchers should pay attention to the distinctions and connections between intra-individual and inter-individual personality structures. Also, theories of personality dynamics, which focuses on the personality of normal individuals, can be integrated with the theory of psychopathology. In addition, future researchers can also consider how to incorporate temporal effects into theories. Empirically, future researchers could: incorporate different sampling methods, such as self-reports, others’ reports, behavioral indicators, and electronic footprints, to further sort out the sources of variance in personality states; measure multiple psychological processes simultaneously, such as the biological, cognitive, affective, and motivational processes underlying a particular trait; manipulate or measure personality states in a clearer and more precise manner to ensure that they are representative of the chosen personality, for example, measure personality facets rather than traits; and report reliability at the within-person level in multilevel analyses.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    A multidimensional representation model of interpersonal collaboration: From the perspective of cognitive representation
    SONG Xiaolei, DONG Meimei
    2023, 31 (7):  1288-1302.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01288
    Abstract ( 347 )   HTML ( 11 )  
    PDF (783KB) ( 433 )  

    Joint action is a common form of interpersonal collaboration in daily life. Successful joint action depends upon individuals' co-representation ability driven by a common goal. Also, an individual's monitoring and prediction of the actions of own and others based on this common representation ability ensures the completion of the joint task. However, researchers have different ideas on how individuals represent their own and others' behaviors during joint action. The process and the mechanism of interpersonal collaboration are still unclear. Hence, from the perspective of representation, this paper integrates the cognitive mechanism of interpersonal collaboration in joint action. Three main components of the cognitive mechanism are common goals, co-representation, and prediction. The common goal is a prerequisite for the accomplishment of interpersonal collaboration. Co-representation is the foundation of interpersonal collaboration. And during interpersonal coordination in joint action, predicting others' behavior is a core cognitive ability that triggers by co-representation capacity. Next, the authors discussed two neural mechanisms, the mirror neuron system and the theory of mind network, which play important roles in the representation process of interpersonal collaboration in joint action. It has been reported that the mirror neuron system is closely related to the goal of the acts and co-representation, and the theory of mind network is associated with co-representation and prediction.
    Besides, previous theoretical research shed light on the process and content of representation during interpersonal co-representation at the theoretical level. For instance, spatial coding theory explains the interpersonal process of representation in terms of spatial dimension. Co-representation theory views the representation process in the social dimension. Reference coding theory explains the representation process along multiple perceptual dimensions (e.g., color, emotion, personal characteristics). While these theories have provided different explanations of why representations occur during interpersonal collaboration, all of these theories have some limitations in clarifying the process of representation. Up to now, no unified representation models have been provided. Therefore, this study proposes a multidimensional representation model of interpersonal collaboration based on previous theoretical explanations and empirical findings focusing on the factors influencing interpersonal co-representation.
    The fundamental idea of this model is that the interpersonal representation phenomenon in joint action can be explained in three dimensions: spatial representation, embodied representation, and social representation. During the process of interpersonal coordination, individuals represent motor goals (common goals) in spatial dimension at the beginning; then they represent motor plans in both spatial and embodied dimensions; next, individuals execute their actions based on spatial representation and observe others' actions and predict others' execution by the embodied representation and social representation. Finally, embodied representation helps people integrate their behaviors with those of others and facilitates task monitoring and action feedback. There are close connections among spatial, embodied, and social representation dimensions. These three dimensions are at the same level and overlap with each other. Firstly, from the internal perspective, embodied dimension representation promotes information representation in the spatial dimension. Secondly, from a perspective of inter-individual interaction, representation involving embodied dimension helps individuals to represent social information. Finally, there is an interplay between spatial representation within individuals and social representation among people. On the one hand, spatial representation should consider the influence of representation in the social dimension. On the other hand, the clarity of information in the spatial dimension affects the representation results of social information. This model can help us understand and explain the process and content of the representation behind the collaborators' behaviors in joint action. This model can also promote the future advancement of research on intelligent human-computer interaction and improve the user experience. Meanwhile, research surrounding this model can be directly applied to designing and optimizing collaborative operation systems and ultimately provide a scientific basis for designing human-intelligent collaborative operation systems.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    A substitute for the collective ritual: Synchronized movement and its mechanism in the secular world
    XUE Qiu, YIN Keli
    2023, 31 (7):  1303-1317.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01303
    Abstract ( 542 )   HTML ( 26 )  
    PDF (770KB) ( 640 )  

    Synchronized movement has a profound origin in collective rituals. A collective ritual requires participants to perform certain actions together, such as simultaneously chanting and bowing. However, synchronized movements can also be observed in daily secular social situations. Synchronized movements are common in collective folk dances of some ethnic groups in China. For example, Left Foot Dance of the Yi, which has been selected as a national intangible cultural heritage in China, features as few as seven or eight and as many as hundreds of dancers. The dancers start with their left foot when dancing to the rhythm of the ukulele, the leading instrument of the Yi. Although the dance steps vary, all dancers complete the steps according to the same rhythm and movement sequence.
    First, this paper distinguishes between the synchronized movement that is characteristic of social life and the synchronized movement of collective rituals. Herein, we explain the substitutive and compensatory effect of social life synchronized movement on collective rituals in terms of mental health. Regarding the trend in which synchronized movements emphasize the matching of periodic behaviors with the same frequency and/or period and the coordination and consistency of actions, synchronized movements in secular life are the same as those in collective rituals. However, social life synchronized movement does not have the opaque qualities of collective ritual causality, and this kind of synchronized movement is not embedded in the symbolic meaning of rituals. Social life synchronized movement has fewer restrictions on participants’ qualifications, time, and space, as well as looser requirements on repetition times and fixed sequences. Thus, social life synchronized movement—instead of the collective ritual—plays a psychologically protective role for individuals and groups in establishing social bonds and improving mental health.
    Second, we propose five types of synchronized movements in social life by different classification standards: common or self-created synchronized movements, synchronized movements with different phases, those with different levels of consciousness, those with different interaction objects, and those synchronized movements with different coordination modes. We elaborate on the psychological effects and psychophysiological mechanisms of these five types of social life synchronizations. Different types of synchronized movements have different degrees of enhancement on social response factors, such as prosocial behavior, social bonding perception, social cognition, and emotion. For example, previous research has shown that anti-phase synchronized movement in drumming activities affects the synchrony effect whereas in-phase synchronized movement does not. In-phase synchronized movement is associated with higher levels of perceived cohesion. In addition, synchronized movement is related to mental health, which can promote positive emotions and subjective well-being and reduce work stress. At present, researchers mainly use the neurobiological theory, attention theory, affective theory, sensory-motor theory, theory of dynamic attending, the blurring-of-self model, and other theories to explain and study the psychological effects and psychophysiological mechanisms of synchronized movements. Among them, the neurobiological theory has been supported in a large number of empirical studies.
    Future studies should investigate the psychological effects and psychophysiological mechanisms that differs in different types of synchronized movements. Furthermore, future studies should also compare the characteristic, effects and psychophysiological mechanisms of synchronized movement in collective rituals and in social life. By doing so, we can further reveal the similarities, differences, and significance of two these two different synchronized movements to humans. In addition, researchers should pay attention to the synchrony effect and the specific process mechanism of different group size in future study. Different from existing theories, we propose another two similar concepts of social life synchronized movements, that are collective directional movement and mimicry. Based on that, we suggest the concepts of social life synchronized movement, collective directional movement, and mimicry should be distinguished.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The “double-edged sword” effect of eating together on food consumption and its mechanisms
    WANG Chujun, WAN Xiaoang
    2023, 31 (7):  1318-1330.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2023.01318
    Abstract ( 744 )   HTML ( 24 )  
    PDF (895KB) ( 720 )  

    From a psychological perspective, eating together refers to the social eating that individuals consume the same or different foods with others at the same time, in the same physical space or the same virtual space. There are overlaps but also differences between the concepts of eating together and joint consumption as well as co-experiencing, with eating together falling into the scope of joint consumption and including co-experiencing. Considering that eating together is a complex eating behavior, an elaborate classification of eating together helps us understand this concept in a more structured way. Depending on the eating purpose, eating together can be classified as eating-together for social and eating-together for leisure. According to the different eating types and eating space, eating together can be categorized into shared eating-together or separate eating-together, and physical eating-together and digital eating-together, respectively. Moreover, eating together can influence individuals’ food consumption, such as resulting in people’s more choices of healthy foods or less consumption of food compared with solitary eating, which is beneficial to their health (positive effect). Conversely, eating together also leads to people’s choices of unhealthy foods or excessive consumption of foods (negative effect). Therefore, the impact of eating together on food consumption can be integrated into a theoretical model of the “double-edged sword” effect. In terms of food choices, from the perspective of social modeling, eating together promotes individuals to make choices that are favorable or unfavorable to their health, depending on the healthiness of others’ choices; whereas individuals may choose palatable but unhealthy food because eating together depletes their own cognitive resources based on the intertemporal choice theory; according to risk shift theory, people tend to choose unhealthy foods as other diners can diversify the risk of unhealthy eating. In terms of food intake, the presence of others during eating together induces a social facilitation effect that may lead individuals to consume excessive foods; by contrast, eating together driven by impression management motivates people to create a positive impression by controlling their food intake. As for food perception and evaluation, eating together can amplify individuals’ perception of foods based on the cognitive or emotional pathway. It should be noted that since eating together can be divided into different types along different dimensions, these various types of eating together exert different impacts on people’s food consumption. For example, digital eating-together may result in less food intake than physical eating-together as individuals who are eating in different contexts and space are not likely to be influenced by social norms. Although behaviors similar to eating together (e.g., co-experiencing) can also be driven by these theoretical mechanisms, the behavioral outcomes induced by these theories may differ from the influence of eating together, which further highlights the uniqueness and complexity of eating together. Given that eating together not only promotes individuals’ healthy eating but also results in the negative effect on their food consumption, future research can explore the interventions for healthy eating to alleviate the negative effect of eating together. The Nudge Theory is likely to provide a systematic theoretical framework to help individuals gain a positive and healthy experience of eating together. Researchers should also conduct cross-level studies to investigate multiple interactions of eating together by utilizing cutting-edge technologies, rather than merely focusing on individual-level behaviors. In addition to the influence on food consumption, the “double-edged sword” effect of eating together on emotions can be further explored by future research, and researchers should integrate the advantages of eating together and other eating behaviors to thoroughly investigate the influence of eating together on people’s eating experience. In conclusion, reviewing the mechanisms and outcomes of the influence of eating together on food consumption can provide some insights into how social context exerts an impact on eating behaviors in order to facilitate people’s healthy eating.

    Figures and Tables | References | Related Articles | Metrics