ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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     The cognitive and neural mechanisms of perception of unfairness and related decision-making process
    GUO Xiuyan, ZHENG Li, CHENG Xuemei, LIU Yingjie, LI Lin
    2017, 25 (6):  903-911.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00903
    Abstract ( 2598 )   PDF (401KB) ( 2880 )  
     Fairness is one of the basic norms in human societies. Researchers have been focusing on the perception of unfairness and the related decision-making process. The Ultimatum Game and its modified versions were typically employed to explore such issues. A large number of brain imaging studies have investigated people’s neural responses to unfairness and the neural mechanisms underlying unfairness- related decision-making and identified the involvement of several key brain regions, including anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala and temporo-parietal junction. Researches among special populations further helps to examine and clarify roles of these brain areas and characteristics of special populations’ social cognitive functions. In recent years, many studies focused on impacts of various contexts on people’s behavioral and brain responses to unfairness. Future studies might consider the usage of multi-modal data analysis methods, in combination with studies on genes and hormones, to achieve a better understanding of psychological and physiological mechanisms of unfairness and its related decision-making process.
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    Conceptual Framework
     Psychology and behavior mechanism of customer online interactive support: In the perspective of social support
    YAO Tang, QIU Qi , MU Lin, ZHENG Qiu-Ying, XIAO Wei-Qun
    2017, 25 (6):  912-922.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00912
    Abstract ( 1453 )   PDF (513KB) ( 2124 )  
     The upgrading cosumption structure impels customers’ gaining a higher level of psychological satisfaction in value co-creation participation. As forms of customer value co-creation behaviors, communication, interaction, sharing and interactive support among customers through online platform will offer them positive emtional experience, which are helpful to construct interpersonal friendship and enable customers to seek self-expression and self-fullfillment in pursit of a higher level of satisfaciton. Based on social support theory and by the method of experiment, survey, case and neomarketing, this research concentrates on psychological motivation and psychological benefits when customers with different traits participating in online interactive support in different types of websites, and explores the psychological and behavioral mechasiam of customer online interactive support. The expected results will enrich the existing theories about customer participation psychology and behavior, and provides theorical recommendations for firms to encourage customers to involve in online co-creation.
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    Research Methods
     Experimental paradigms for discrete attention in visual domain
    CHEN Airui, TANG Xiaoyu, WANG Aijun, ZHANG Ming
    2017, 25 (6):  923-932.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00923
    Abstract ( 1769 )   PDF (1810KB) ( 2145 )  
     The spotlight of attention is intrinsically rhythmic, which discretely sample a single or multiple objects. This phenomenon is called discrete attention. Here we summarized four paradigms used to investigate discrete attention in visual domain. In the wagon-wheel illusion paradigm, motion direction illusion is experienced. This paradigm is adopted to demonstrate the discreteness of attention. In the visual detection paradigm, participants are asked to detect the near-threshold stimuli, which is used to investigate relationship between neural oscillation and discrete attention. In the high time-resolved cue-target paradigm, a target occurs after a varying interval following a peripheral cue; while the target is embedded among distracters in the visual search paradigm. These two paradigms are developed to vividly show behavioral oscillation patterns.
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     Application of virtual reality technology in assessment of executive function
    LI Mingying, WU Huining, KUAI Shuguang, ZHANG Changxin
    2017, 25 (6):  933-942.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00933
    Abstract ( 1451 )   PDF (440KB) ( 2659 )  
     Executive function reflects an individual’s ability to regulate and introspect on his/her cognitive processes. The assessment of executive function plays an important role in the evaluation of cognitive development in children and cognitive impairment in special groups. Although assessment of executive function has been studied and developed since the early 20th century, traditional measuring tools remain unsatisfactory in many aspects such as poor ecological validity and uncontrollable environments and participants’ arousal levels. Virtual reality (VR) technology demonstrated remarkable advantages in generating high ecological validity testing scenario with limited cost and has been developed very fast in recent years. This paper reviews recent progress in applying VR to the assessment of executive function and discusses the future trends in improving VR-based executive function assessments.
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     Applications of experience sampling method in organizational behavior research
    ZHANG Yinpu, SHI Wei, LUO Ben Nanfeng, XING Lu, XU Yuan
    2017, 25 (6):  943-954.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00943
    Abstract ( 1120 )   PDF (432KB) ( 1737 )  
     In organizational behavior (OB) research, scholars are increasingly interested in the short-term process of individual’s emotion, cognition and behavior. The experience sampling method provides an effective tool for such research topics. While the number of OB research adopting this method is rising, a comprehensive overview is not available so far on the topics suitable for this advanced method. We analyzed 67 empirical articles in four top-tier OB international journals (including Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Personnel Psychology, and Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes), and seven Chinese articles. The results revealed the experience sampling method was mainly adopted to study short-term or transient variables of individual’s current state of mind and emotions. The main research topics could be categorized into four types: feelings at work; thoughts at work; work behaviors; and impacts of work on individuals.
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    Regular Articles
     Sound influence eating or drinking behavior: Empirical progress and theoretical ideas
    YU Xide, ZHANG Xiaojuan, LU Cheng, ZHU Yiyi, GAO Dingguo
    2017, 25 (6):  955-969.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00955
    Abstract ( 2124 )   PDF (579KB) ( 2567 )  
     Dietary behaviors consist of a series of psychological and behavior processes, such as sensing flavors, evaluating food’s and drink’s qualities or hedonic valuation, forming preferences for foods and drinks, as well as the explicit consuming actions and patterns. Dietary behaviors are influenced by sound, which, specifically, affects the sensitivity of the gustatory system and individuals’ food preferences. Sounds contain inter-oceptive cues and exter-oceptive cues that directly affect dietary behaviors. Inter-oceptive cues refer to sounds created when one interacts with foods, such as chewing sound, swallowing sound and food preparation sound etc.. Exter-oceptive cues refer to environmental or background sounds, such as music played in a restaurant. Studies have shown that the effects of sound on dietary behaviors are essentially cognitive, involving, for example attention, sensory integration (the match effect), and familiarity and expectation (the potential tone painting effect). The interaction between sound and dietary behaviors has also been studied by neuroscientists, who aim to uncover the underlying mechanisms, and from the embodied cognitive perspective. Both are expected to provide insights about dietary behaviors.
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     MAOA gene-environment interaction on antisocial behavior and its possible brain mechanism
    LIU Limin, TIAN Xiangjuan, ZHANG Wenxin, WANG Meiping
    2017, 25 (6):  970-979.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00970
    Abstract ( 1235 )   PDF (397KB) ( 1660 )  
     The existing studies have already shed light on the genetic underpinnings of antisocial behavior. MAOA gene is an important candidate gene of antisocial behavior. It has been demonstrated that the effect of MAOA gene on antisocial behavior is moderated by environment, however, its underlying mechanism remains unclear. The brain regions and neural circuits associated with emotional management, as well as related to working memory capacity might play an important role. Future research could focus on the issues of polygene-environment interaction, the validation of theoretical model on gene-environment interaction, and the possible mediating role of brain structure and functions.
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     Developmental cascades: A new perspective for uncovering individual longitudinal development
    LI Tengfei, CHEN Guanghui, JI Linqin, ZHANG Wenxin
    2017, 25 (6):  980-988.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00980
    Abstract ( 1884 )   PDF (411KB) ( 1144 )  
      Developmental cascades have become a new theoretical perspective and a study design strategy for developmental research in recent years. Development is conceptualized as a process of persistent cascade effects among various developmental factors over time. Specifically, developmental cascades postulate that the development level of a certain factor at a particular time point will affect subsequent development of its own, and will spill over to influence development of other domains as well. As a result, the entire follow-up processes of individual development are influenced. Researchers developed statistic models according to the theoretical rationales of the developmental cascades. These statistical models provide methodological guidelines for investigating longitudinal associations among multiple factors in developmental systems. This literature review introduced the development cascades in terms of the related concepts, theoretical basis and rationale, and the methodological issues, and was concluded with insights for the future research.
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     To be a mindful parent: Theories, mechanisms and interventions of mindful parenting
    CHEN Xiao, ZHOU Hui, WANG Yu Yin
    2017, 25 (6):  989-1002.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.00989
    Abstract ( 3648 )   PDF (735KB) ( 5580 )  
     Parenting and the influences of parenting on children was an important issue in developmental psychology. Mindful parenting intended to enhance effective parenting. It referred to parents’ application of mindfulness to parent-child interaction, which was characterized by giving attention to children and parenting intentionally, here and now, and non-judgmentally. Mindful parenting had positive effects on parents, children and their relationships. Two empirical research programs of mindful parenting were developed. In the future, robust interventional designs were on demand. Varied assessments could be used to evaluate the effects of mindful parenting programs. The mechanism of mindful parenting was also an important issue in future studies.
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     Mental mechanism and the influencing factors of meaning in life
    ZHAO Na, MA Min, XIN Ziqiang
    2017, 25 (6):  1003-1011.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01003
    Abstract ( 3161 )   PDF (399KB) ( 6085 )  
     A sense of meaning in life has an important impact on individual’s mental health, the studies on which have been widely concerned in many fields of psychology. Three models, the hierarchic model of meaning, the meaning-making model and the meaning maintenance model respectively, are used to explain “what” is the meaning, “when” and “how” the meaning is gained and maintained. Meaning in life is influenced by the Big Five personality, cognitive styles (mental simulation), the state of emotion and prosoical behavior. The future study should pay attention to additional influencing factors of meaning in life and the amelioration of theoretical models of meaning making. Also, it is promising to study the meaning making process from the perspective of time series. Third, cross-culture studies should be taken into consideration as well.
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     Self-uncertainty: Concepts, structures, and theories
    YANG Qing, BI Chongzeng, LI Lin, HUANG Xiting
    2017, 25 (6):  1012-1024.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01012
    Abstract ( 3762 )   PDF (520KB) ( 3892 )  
     Self-uncertainty, which is induced by confusion/suspicion of important regarding one’s psychological characteristics, is defined as a feeling of inconsistency and discontinuity, when contradictions or conflicts arise among one’s cognitions, experiences, and behaviors. This article summarizes the literature on self-uncertainty and proposes a conceptual model, suggesting that its structure is composed of three dimensions: cognitive, affective and motivational. This article then introduces and integrates related theories and models in terms of uncertainty management. Future research should a) clearly define the concept of self-uncertainty and focus on the cultural difference factor; b) test different uncertainty management strategies with multiple perspectives; c) explore the mechanisms of self-uncertainty inducement and management; and d) explore how best to instruct people to take precautions against self-uncertainty and its management, instead of passively accepting the experience.
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     Psychological entitlement: Concept, measurements and related research
    BAI Baoyu, SUN Runsong, HU Qiao, ZHANG Yanjun
    2017, 25 (6):  1025-1035.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01025
    Abstract ( 3990 )   PDF (475KB) ( 3418 )  
     Psychological entitlement refers to a stable and pervasive belief that one deserves favorable treatment and could be waived from social obligations. It could be displayed as academic entitlement, consumer entitlement, workplace entitlement in various domains of life. Psychological entitlement can lead to narcissism, interpersonal conflict, selfish behavior, and aggressive behavior, etc. It can be influenced by situational factors such as life experience, parenting styles, attachment styles, social economic status, organization environments and individual factors such as self compassion, subjective construction, and egalitarian values. Future research is advocated to make a thorough inquiry on the concept and structure of psychological entitlement, improve the research methods, utilize more longitudinal and indigenous research design. Future research is also warranted to further explore the factors that influencing psychological entitlement and the factors to inhibit (or reduce) its negative consequences.
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     Work-family interaction in the context of individualism-collectivism culture
    GUO Xucheng, MA Hongyu, JIANG Hai, YUAN Ming
    2017, 25 (6):  1036-1044.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01036
    Abstract ( 781 )   PDF (413KB) ( 2137 )  
     Based on the increasing interests in the work-family research in IO/OB domain, the researchers find that social or national culture has a key role to play in shaping the individual’s work-family interaction. This review starts with the analysis of the prior researches that have incorporated cultural consideration in some manner and identify individualism-collectivism dimension that influence the work-family interaction. Conclusions have been made as follows: In the individualist cultural norm, the individual are inclined to put equal value of work domain and family domain, and there is a relative clear line between the work and family life. Whereas, in collectivist cultural society, asymmetry are shown in the work-family interface which means individual are willing to put priority on work domain. This social belief is most likely resulted from the cognition of connection and integration of work-family. Future task of Chinese researchers is to construct the localization theory to explain the phenomenon and mechanism of work-family interaction in Chinese society.
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     Cultural difference and cultural change in internet data
    LI Yongshuai, HUANG Zhenwei, TAN Xunyun, LIU Li
    2017, 25 (6):  1045-1057.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01045
    Abstract ( 1383 )   PDF (516KB) ( 2191 )  
     In the Internet era, information on the Internet reflects individuals’ psychological processes and cultural characteristics. These huge and diverse Internet data provide new perspectives for the study of cultural psychology. First, Internet data has shown several strengths on investigating cultural difference and cultural change, which are the two approaches of studying cultural psychology. Second, there are four types of Internet data, and accordingly, cultural psychologists utilize text analysis, multimedia analysis, social network analysis, and online behavior analysis. Third, based on Internet data and corresponding analytic methods, research on cultural difference and cultural changes has obtained fruitful results. Finally, there are limitations of validity, technique, and theory in current research. Future research should pay attention to sampling, tests of indicators’ validity, quasi-causal analysis, and data driven analysis, etc. to improve the validity of methods, the depth of results, and the diversity of theories.
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     Collective guilt: Definition, psychological mechanisms, action tendency and interventions
    YIN Rong, ZHANG Fei-Fei, WANG Yuan-Yuan, XU Zhi-Hong
    2017, 25 (6):  1058-1068.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01058
    Abstract ( 1850 )   PDF (415KB) ( 1680 )  
     When an important ingroup is considered responsible for immorality harm toward outgroup, individuals can experience collective guilt. This kind of emotion can result from past harmful events, current intergroup conflicts, unfair social relations and future harmful events. Group identity, ingroup responsibility and behavior illegitimacy are three key antecedents of collective guilt. Collective guilt could cause members of perpetrator group to perform positive behaviors toward the victimized group, such as friendly attitudes, reconciliations, compensations and intergroup supports. Methods for inducing collective guilt include group affirmation, self affirmation, promoting common identity, highlighting ingroup responsibility, showing existing compensation actions and so on. Future research should clarify genetic mechanism of collective guilt and further explore the complex relationship between collective guilt and reparation.
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     Red is more sexy: Factors and evolutional process
    ZHANG Tengxiao, HAN Buxin
    2017, 25 (6):  1069-1076.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01069
    Abstract ( 1652 )   PDF (407KB) ( 2052 )  
     Studies on psychological effect of colors have focused on the red-sex effect in the past decade. The red color may enhance sexual attractiveness in certain interpersonal context, which is mediated by gender and mate value. This can be mainly interpreted with the moderating effect of motivation. Based on the studies of zoology and psychology, this paper considers the red-sex effect as an adaptation generated from evolutional process and strengthened by culture. Future investigations should overcome the existing limitations on methodology, explore the influence of motivation, color attributes, and spatial-temporal features, as well as promote the application of the red-sex effect on products design.
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     Meteorological psychology: The psychological and behavioral effects of weather and climate
    WANG Yan, CHEN Hao
    2017, 25 (6):  1077-1092.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01077
    Abstract ( 2326 )   PDF (524KB) ( 3035 )  
     Researchers increasingly acknowledge the importance of the effects of meteorological conditions on human life, ranging from individual emotion swings to the rise and collapse of civilizations. “Meteorological psychology” refers to the study of the influence of two meteorological conditions, weather (short-term) and climate (long-term), on multilevel psychological and behavioral functions from individual cognition and emotion, to group dynamics, and further to institutional and cultural traits. Weather and climate related factors like the temperature, humidity, precipitation, sunlight exposure and duration systematically influence (1) individual psychological conditions including emotions, working memory, and cognitive abilities, (2) individual behaviors such as interpersonal affinity and anti-social behaviors, and (3) group dynamics and culture such as interpersonal and group conflicts. Furthermore, climatic demands together with resource sufficiency significantly shape local cultural characteristics. Considering that human society is deeply and constantly embedded in and impacted by meteorological conditions, meteorological psychology should be integrated as an important research field into the discipline of psychology.
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