ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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    Conceptual Framework
     Study on the mechanism and intervention of moral decision: Effects of self-relevance and risk level
    ZHONG Yiping, ZHAN Youlong, LI Jin, FAN Wei
    2017, 25 (7):  1093-1102.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01093
    Abstract ( 2077 )   PDF (415KB) ( 2756 )  
     In current studies on the brain mechanism of moral decision, more attention has been given to the interaction between cognition and emotion with very little focus on the individual’s integrated processing about the self-relevance and risk level information, which ignores the difference and similarity of psychological and brain mechanism from moral decision in both harming and helping situation. Hence, this study adopts behavioral experiments, event related potential technology and multi modality brain functional imaging technology to explore the inter-influence between self-relevance and risk level and its effects on moral decision’s cognitive and neural mechanism in both situations, with a further discussion on the empathy training’s intervention on moral decision. The purpose of this study is to investigate the temporal course and neural substrate of moral decision, and to elaborate the influence of self-relevance and risk level on moral decision and its possible variations in different situations and empathy levels; at same time, this study also evaluates empathy training’s effects on the enhancement of individual’s moral decision.
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     The trust repair effect of apology: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    YUAN Bo, DONG Yue, LI Weiqiang
    2017, 25 (7):  1103-1113.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01103
    Abstract ( 1971 )   PDF (477KB) ( 2620 )  
     A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the effect of apology on trust repair, as well as potential moderators of this effect. A literature research yielded 18 qualified papers with 36 effect sizes and 4731 participants. Heterogeneity test indicated that random effects model was appropriate for the meta-analysis. Results showed that apology played a positive effect on trust repair (d = 0.44, p < 0.001). This repair effect was moderated by type of trust violation and type of control group. Compared with the integrity-based trust violation, apology produced a better repair effect on competence-based trust violation. In addition, larger effect was found when silence control group was used than when deny control group was used. No other moderators were found.
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    Research Methods
     Stimulus-preceding negativity: An electrophysiological index of reward anticipation
    LI Qi, XU Jing, ZHENG Ya
    2017, 25 (7):  1114-1121.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01114
    Abstract ( 1466 )   PDF (336KB) ( 1414 )  
     As a nonmotoric slow potential isolated from the contingent negative variation, the stimulus- preceding negativity (SPN) progressively increases as feedback stimuli approach. Previous studies have mainly regarded the SPN as a cognitive component. However, recent evidence points to the hypothesis that the SPN may constitute an electrophysiological index of reward anticipation. Here, we justified this hypothesis in terms of reward parameters, outcome appraisal, neutral generators, and abnormal individuals, and provided some suggestions for future SPN research. We believed that the SPN provides a reliable biological marker of abnormal reward anticipation in neurological and psychiatric disorders.
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    Regular Articles
     Prediction effect during syntactic processing and experimental evidence
    LI Lin, LIU Wen, SUI Xue
    2017, 25 (7):  1122-1131.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01122
    Abstract ( 1068 )   PDF (394KB) ( 1087 )  
     Readers typically integrate input linguistic information to comprehend sentences, which is termed “syntactic processing”. Syntactic processing enables readers to predict text information in advance so that the reading efficiency can be enhanced. For reading cannot live without information integration, researchers proposed two different kinds of syntactic theories: modularized locality theory and interactive analysis theory. The issue is that modularized locality theory proposed top-down processing while interactive analysis theories contend top-down/down-top processing. The difference is related to the effect of syntactic prediction. Syntactic prediction is considered to inhibit sentence processing in syntactic prediction locality theory, on the contrary, syntactic prediction is regarded as an accelerant in the analysis about syntactic prediction. Based on the literature and discussion, syntactic prediction is often proved by using techniques of eyetracking and ERPs. The paper pointed out that the future studies could discuss the difference of these two theories and provide more elaborate and explanatory evidence to reveal the essence of syntactic processing.
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     Letter/character position encoding in visual word recognition
    HUA Huimin, GU Junjuan, LIN Nan, LI Xingshan
    2017, 25 (7):  1132-1138.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01132
    Abstract ( 1234 )   PDF (275KB) ( 1252 )  
      Letter/character position information plays an important role in visual word recognition. In this article, we review three representative models of letter position encoding, i.e. the Open-Bigram Model, the Spatial Coding Model, and the Overlap Model. In addition, we review main experimental findings on letter/character position encoding in alphabetic language reading and Chinese reading. Finally, we point out some remaining open questions regarding Chinese character position encoding, and propose some new trends in this line of research.
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     Drug addiction memory extinction based on the association between related cues and automatic drug use behavior
    ZHU Liang, LU Chang, WANG Shuang, ZENG Hong
    2017, 25 (7):  1139-1144.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01139
    Abstract ( 1079 )   PDF (349KB) ( 918 )  
     Memory extinction refers to the suppression of conditioned responses to drug cues. However, research on cue-exposure therapy related to memory extinction in clinical settings has found the extinguished responses significantly reemerge after exposure to the drug associated cues. This may indicate that current therapy methods using memory extinction do not prevent drug use or relapse when former drug addicts return to their previous drug environments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal and human learning paradigms indicates a neuroanatomical shift from the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum towards the sensorimotor-dorsolateral striatum in the addiction period, which is characterized by habitual control drug use behavior. This proves that addiction memory also comprises the association between drug related cues and automatic drug using behavior, suggesting that drug addiction memory consists of at least two independent components: the emotion memory related to the drug reward effect and the action memory related to habitual drug use motion. Recent studies show that extinction training that builds an association between drug related cues and the physical action of pushing away has a significantly effect on addiction memory extinction. This serves as a reminder that eliminating or substituting the association between drug related cues and drug use motion could be the aim of memory extinction treatments. Therefore, the sensorimotor-dorsolateral striatum system is the relevant biological target. A better effect of intervention could be expected based on this specific form of memory extinction.
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     Predictive factors and the neurophysiological mechanism of postpartum depression
    JIN Yuchang, DING Meiyue
    2017, 25 (7):  1145-1161.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01145
    Abstract ( 1754 )   PDF (863KB) ( 2540 )  
     Postpartum depression (PPD) refers to the depression symptoms that appear in the postpartum period which has negative impact on the health and well-being of a large number of new mothers, their offspring, and the rest of their family’s members. In the present review, key predictive factors of PPD are discussed, including genetic gene, attachment styles, negative experience of the childhood and hormone level changes. The neural network and brain regions related to PPD are resided largely in the prefrontal cortex, the cingulate cortex, the amygdale, the hippocampus and the other parts in the brain and their corresponding neural network. Future research in this field should focus on exploring an integrated predictive model, an etiology model of PPD, controlled trials of male partners and an intervention model based on characteristics of brain plasticity.
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     The precedent correlates of parent-child emotion talk in early childhood
    LU Fang
    2017, 25 (7):  1162-1171.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01162
    Abstract ( 1021 )   PDF (384KB) ( 2209 )  
     As an important method of parental socialization of emotion, parents’ emotion talk with young children are of great significance for their early personality and social development. Studies showed that social context such as culture, ethnicity and socioeconomic status, child characteristics such as gender, age and attachment status, and parental qualities such as their attachment style, beliefs about parenting and mental health, have certain effect on the parent-child emotion talk. Future researchers need to further the study beyond the stages of early childhood, understand the cultural difference of parent-child emotion talk from the social-cultural adaptive perspective, strengthen the analysis of non-verbal information and parent-child mutual responsive behaviors, elaborate the different levels of research variables, and take more mediating factors into consideration.
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     Parenting in families with two children
    CHEN Bin-Bin, SHI Zeyi
    2017, 25 (7):  1172-1181.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01172
    Abstract ( 2860 )   PDF (491KB) ( 4117 )  
     With the implementation of the two-child policy in China, there has been an increasing concern about parenting in families with two children. However, there are no published Chinese studies about this area of research. This article provided a comprehensive review on the patterns, causes and consequences of parenting in families with two children. The patterns included parental differential treatment and mediation of sibling relationships. The factors that influenced parenting included experience about caregiving an older sibling, marriage quality, coparenting, and children’s characteristics. The parenting in families with two children may influence children’s psychological and behavioral development through parental differential treatment and mediation of sibling relationships. This article, based on the existing literature, presented a process model of parenting in families with two children. Last, it emphasized that future studies should value the indigenous meaning in conception of parenting and the roles of social changes on parenting.
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     A knowledge-mapping analysis of U.S. research on treatments for children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    PANG Zhuo-Yue, XI Ju-Zhe, ZUO Zhi-Hong
    2017, 25 (7):  1182-1196.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01182
    Abstract ( 2880 )   PDF (1027KB) ( 2844 )  
     The purpose of this paper is to report the foci and trends of U.S. research on children and adolescents who had treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the last decade (2006~2016). We employed Bicomb 2.0 and IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0 software to do a knowledge-mapping analysis of 363 U.S. journal articles retrieved from ISI Web of Science Database using the key words “PTSD or posttraumatic stress disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder”, “treatment or therapy or prevention or cure”, and “children or teenagers or adolescents or students or pupils or youth”. Analyses revealed that the studies could be divided into two fields. The first field is psychiatric and neurobiological treatment which includes two research foci: psychiatric treatment and neurobiological treatment (e.g. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing). The second field is psychological treatment which also includes two research foci: psychological treatment research on the PTSD caused by domestic violence; and cognitive behavior treatment research. Cognitive behavior treatment is the key focus in current studies on children’s and adolescents’ PTSD. However, there are few studies on the effects of children’s and adolescents’ PTSD treatments. Further studies should pay more attention to longitudinal research on treatments of children and adolescents with PTSD, and the effects of psychological treatment combined with medication.
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     Formal feedback in psychotherapy
    SHE Zhuang, JIANG Guangrong, SUN Qi-wu, SHI Yanwei
    2017, 25 (7):  1197-1207.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01197
    Abstract ( 1371 )   PDF (460KB) ( 1229 )  
     Formal feedback refers to the systematic monitoring of client perception of progress throughout therapy through the use of standardized scales and a real-time comparison with an expected treatment response (ETR) to gauge client progress, and then provide this information to clinicians inform further treatment. Outcome Questionnaire System (OQS) and Partners for Change Outcome Management System (PCOMS) are two main measuring tools that are widely used to collect client feedback. Formal feedback appears to be effective for clients who are not progressing well in therapy, the so-called not-on-track (NOT) cases. It also increases the overall speed of progress in clients and promotes better cooperation between therapists and clients. The current study sought to investigate the mechanisms of formal feedback based on contextualized feedback intervention theory (CFIT) and the interactions between therapists and clients. Factors affecting the intervention effects of formal feedback included feedback itself, initial distress level, impact from therapists, and duration of therapy. The article included discussion on methodological problems and limitations, shortcomings of the mechanisms, and recommendations for further cross-cultural research on formal feedback in China.
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     The relationship among the individual self, the relational self and the collective self: Based on the motivational and cognitive perspectives
    GAO Fan, WANG Pei
    2017, 25 (7):  1208-1217.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01208
    Abstract ( 990 )   PDF (392KB) ( 951 )  
     The self-concept is not a singular and monolithic cognitive structure. Instead, it comprises three fundamental components: the individual self, the relational self and the collective self. From the perspective of motivational primacy, there are four potential hypotheses for the hierarchy of tripartite self): a. individual-self primacy hypothesis, b. relational-self primacy hypothesis, c. collective-self primacy hypothesis, d. contextual primacy hypothesis. The integrated results of previous studies based on motivational perspectives tend to support individual-self primacy hypothesis, but the effects caused by other potential variables still remains to be verified. Nevertheless, considering the hierarchical status of the tripartite self from the cognitive perspectives, results of previous researches are inconsistent. Meanwhile, the integrated research in which the cognitive hierarchical status of the tripartite self can be compared is also inadequate. It requires to focus more on new experimental paradigms which can integrate the tripartite self in future researches, thus to promote the analysis and studies regarding hierarchical status of the tripartite self.
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     Energy at work: Convective transformation based on multilevel expression patterns
    ZHU Yanhan, CHEN Xiaohui, ZHAO Yulan, ZHOU Yiyong
    2017, 25 (7):  1218-1228.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01218
    Abstract ( 577 )   PDF (434KB) ( 1118 )  
     The study of energy at work has developed from individual level towards interactive and collective levels. Based on a contingency perspective, this paper starts with interpreting the connotation of different energy patterns and discriminating them from other similar conceptions, and then constructs the convective transformation model of energy expression patterns with the basic of interaction ritual theory, to provide new ideas for maintaining and replenishing energy at work. Future studies should pay more attention to the dual-effects of relational energy and collective energy within organizations, and indigenous empirical studies should be carried out as well.
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     The dynamic characteristic of self-construal: A polycultural perspective
    MAMAT Marhaba, WU Yanhong
    2017, 25 (7):  1229-1239.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01229
    Abstract ( 1311 )   PDF (403KB) ( 1339 )  
     Influenced by cultural diversity and interaction, an individuals’ self-construal develops a dynamic characteristic. Based on the polycultural perspective, the researchers found that dynamic self-construal could develop at cognitive, motivational, and emotional levels, and proposed the theories of dynamic constructivist approach of culture as well as culture as the situated cognition. Multicultural experience, cultural identity, non-essentialism, and cultural intelligence were identified as influential factors of dynamic self-construal. While the current literature suggests that the dynamic self-construal has a potential neural and biological basis, the present paper called for further exploration into the psychological, neural, and biological aspects of dynamic self-construal.
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     The status quo of culture mixing research and its future directions
    PENG Luluo, ZHENG Xiaoying, PENG Siqing
    2017, 25 (7):  1240-1250.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01240
    Abstract ( 1981 )   PDF (420KB) ( 2636 )  
     Culture mixing denotes the phenomenon that “different cultures coexist in the same time and same place”. Culture mixing is an important new research direction of psychology in the era of globalization. It represents the paradigm of polycultural psychology, the fourth generation of culture and psychology research after cross cultural psychology, cultural psychology and multicultural psychology, and extends previous multicultural research in a few ways. Culture mixing affects perceptions of culture differences, creativity and multi-cultural competence. People demonstrate either inclusive or exclusive responses to culture mixing. Different psychological mechanisms underlie these reactions, and individuals’ reactions are moderated by their psychological factors and features of culture mixing. Future research should further clarify the basic concepts, examine important dimensions, reconcile inconsistent research findings, highlight the specialty of cultural information, and adopt multiple methods from various disciplines.
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