ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R


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     Cultural influences on individual risk perception: Cultural cognition theory’s explanation
    WANG Xinjian, ZHANG Huijuan, WU Di, LV Xiaokang
    2017, 25 (8):  1251-1260.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01251
    Abstract ( 2977 )   PDF (488KB) ( 4089 )  
     Cultural cognition theory aims to study risk perception differences related to culture factors at individual level. With this theoretical perspective, individual cultural worldview can be categorized into a two-dimensional matrix reflecting ‘group’ and ‘grid’. The ‘group’ dimension measures an individual preference for the social structures that encourage social bonds and cooperation versus those that encourage individual differences and competition. The ‘grid’ dimension reflects preferences for the structures that ensure role-based social stratification versus those that encourage equal opportunity. Along with this theoretical framework, cultural cognition scales has been developed to measure individual exact location in this two-dimensional matrix. Five mechanisms, which are identity protective cognition, biased assimilation, group polarization, cultural availability, cultural credibility and cultural identity affirmation, have been verified as supports to cultural cognition theory. Besides, in light of the affect heuristic theory, researchers also introduced cultural conflict meme as a mediating variable to develop the concrete model of cultural cognition theory. Further research will focus on the cross-cultural validation and indigenization of cultural cognitive scales, and try to explore effective public risk management strategies, based on the empirical research on specific risk factors.
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    Conceptual Framework
     The effect and countermeasure of ego depletion on workplace safety
    PAN Ailing, XU Yaoshan, LI Yongjuan
    2017, 25 (8):  1261-1273.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01261
    Abstract ( 1824 )   PDF (411KB) ( 2132 )  
     To maintain workplace safety, it is important to improve employees’ safety behavior. However, the depletion of limited self-control resources may result in an impaired self-control capacity, which in turn results in unsafe behavior. Based on Ego Depletion Model, the purpose of the current study is to explore the resources of ego depletion, the negative effect of ego depletion on safety behavior, and the countermeasures of ego depletion effect. Specifically, the current studies will explore the ways in which self-controls job demands and abusive supervision negatively influence employees’ safety behavior through depletion; and the two possible countermeasures that may overcome the effect of ego depletion by examining the moderating effect of trait self-control ability and automatic safety motivation. In addition, the current research will use heart rate variability (HRV) as electrophysiological index of self-control ability and ego depletion. Flied study, experimental study as well as electrophysiological measures will be used to test these research questions above. This research helps to understand why unsafe behaviors occur at workplace through a limited self-control recourse perspective, thereby providing novel insight into safety behavior improve intervention programs.
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     The relationship between aggression and self-esteem: A Meta-analysis
    SHI Guochun, ZHANG Lihua, FAN Huiyong
    2017, 25 (8):  1274-1288.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01274
    Abstract ( 2803 )   PDF (635KB) ( 3793 )  
      A large body of researches have examined the relationship between aggression and self-esteem. Yet the findings are still inconclusive. A meta-analysis was conducted. Eighty-one relevant studies met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The results indicated a moderate but negative correlation between self-esteem and aggression. Further moderating analysis revealed that 1) aggression was similarly and negatively associated with explicit self-esteem and implicit self-esteem; 2) aggression was positively associated with self-esteem instability and contingent self-esteem; 3) the relationship between aggression and self-esteem varied with grade and measurement. Future studies should examine the relationship between aggression and the heterogeneity of self-esteem.
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    Regular Articles
     Emotion comprehension in discourse and its cognitive neural mechanism
    ZHANG Xiuping, ZHANG Yuping, YANG Xiaohong, YANG Yufang
    2017, 25 (8):  1289-1298.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01289
    Abstract ( 1608 )   PDF (390KB) ( 1441 )  
     Emotion comprehension is of great significance for discourse comprehension and it is widely studied in psycholinguistics. Previous studies demonstrated that readers infer emotional information in discourse on-line and automatically. What’s more, readers can keep track of emotional change in discourse and update their situation model accordingly. Recently, some empirical ERP studies and related discourse comprehension theories showed that at least two processes are involved in emotion comprehension in discourse: one is the monitoring of emotional information and the other is the evaluation and updating of current emotional information. Related fMRI studies suggested that emotion comprehension in discourse activated not only emotion network, but also other networks, such as narrative comprehension network and theory of mind (ToM) network. In the future, more studies are needed to explore the influential factors of emotion comprehension and its cognitive neural mechanisms. The findings can be useful for the studies of emotion computing.
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     Children’s distributive justice: The role of Theory of Mind
    CHEN Tong, WU Zhen
    2017, 25 (8):  1299-1309.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01299
    Abstract ( 1975 )   PDF (393KB) ( 2364 )  
     Theory of Mind (ToM) plays an important role in children’s development of distributive justice. The hypothesis of “multiple forces” posits that ToM can help children weigh the advantages and disadvantages of different motivations that underlie resource distribution, and find a balance between self-interest and the welfare of others. Children’s ability to understand other people’s desires, intentions and emotions are the three most important components of ToM that impact distributive justice in the Dictator Game, Ultimatum Game, and the Third-party Punishment Game. More empirical research is needed to support this hypothesis. Future research also should investigate whether and how different components of ToM influence different types of fair behavior. In addition, studies should explore the possible application of these research findings, such as for promoting children’s distributive justice by fostering their ToM ability.
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     The interaction between gene and environment: Evidence from differential susceptibility model
    ZHAO Demao, FENG Shuhui, XING Shufen
    2017, 25 (8):  1310-1320.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01310
    Abstract ( 1282 )   PDF (417KB) ( 2547 )  
      According to the differential susceptibility model, individuals with certain genetypes are not only more vulnerable than others to the negative effects of adversity, but also disproportionately susceptible to the beneficial effects of supportive and enriching rearing environment. With the advancement of quantitative genetics and molecular genetics, a great many researches on the effect of gene-environment interaction on children’s development have emerged in recent years. For example, researches have been done regarding the interaction between environment (such as maternal sensitivity, stressful life events and family upbringing) and five candidate genes — 5-HTTLPR, DRD4, MAOA, COMT and BDNF — all of which support the differential susceptibility model. The underlying mechanisms of gene-environment interaction, racial and gender differences between individuals carrying vulnerable genes as well as further estimation of vantage sensitivity hypothesis are all important directions of future researches in this area.
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     Relational frame theory: It’s application in children with autism spectrum disorders
    WANG Fenfen, ZHU Zhuohong
    2017, 25 (8):  1321-1326.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01321
    Abstract ( 1322 )   PDF (296KB) ( 1613 )  
      Language dysfunction is one of the core symptoms of children with autism spectrum disorders. In 1957, Skinner put forward the concept of Verbal Behavior. He believed that the underlying process of learning to comprehend and speak language is fundamentally similar to the process of other observable behaviors, such as walking and dancing. In 2001, based on the theoretical foundation of verbal behavior, Hayes et.al proposed a new perspective of human language and cognition, Relational Frame Theory, which explains linguistic generativity in terms of learned contextually controlled relational responding referred to as relational framing. It predicts that language, especially the derived relational responding ability of children with ASD, could be learned via multiple exemplar training. Researches on ASD revealed that the enhancement of relational responding was related with the improvement of linguistic and cognitive competence. Future research could explore the learning model based on RFT to repair the language and cognition dysfunction of children with ASD.
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     Are both neural mechanisms of Internet gaming and heroin addicts the same? Research evidence based on MRI
    HE Jinbo, NIE Yufeng, ZHOU Zongkui, CHAI Yao
    2017, 25 (8):  1327-1336.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01327
    Abstract ( 2168 )   PDF (800KB) ( 2567 )  
     There are several similar clinical manifestations between Internet gaming and heroin addicts; however, it is still unclear whether their neural mechanisms are the same or not. Recent five years of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies found that these two types of addicts illustrate brain structural and functional impairments, and also enhanced activity (partially in the same field) in four addiction related circuits (the cognitive control, reward, motivation, and memory-learning circuits) under the addictive information-induced state, which induces strong craving. On one hand, the brain damage of heroin addicts cover larger brain areas, such as cognitive control and reward circuits that causes wider range of damage (four circuits all decreased in functional connectivity). On the other hand, the brain collapse of gaming addicts occurs mainly on relatively low-level brain areas, such as memory learning and motivation circuits, which causes a relatively narrow range of lost (functional connectivity reduction occurs only in cognitive control and memory-learning circuits). All these results indicate that the neural mechanisms of the Internet gaming and heroin addicts have both similarities and differences.
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     Specific influence of Open Monitoring Meditation
    WANG Hailu, LIU Xinghua
    2017, 25 (8):  1337-1348.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01337
    Abstract ( 2076 )   PDF (409KB) ( 1242 )  
     Open Monitoring (OM) Meditation has received many researchers' attention in recent years. Compared with other meditation, especially with Focus Attention (FA) Meditation, OM has been shown more effective influence on some cognitive processes (such as pain and creative thinking) and anxiety. While, there was not consistent result in attention currently. Several other studies have explored neural mechanisms of OM with electroencephalograph and fMRI, especially in the default mode network, although inconsistent result was found. Finally, OM approach adopted in these studies showed obvious differences, such as whether or not starting from breath and maintaining attention. These results need to be further clarified in future studies, adopting more standardized approach.
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     Self-deception: For adjusting individual psychological states
    FAN Wei, YANG Bo, LIU Juan, FU Xiaolan
    2017, 25 (8):  1349-1359.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01349
    Abstract ( 2787 )   PDF (451KB) ( 3298 )  
     The current study aim to explore the research methods, generational origins, cognitive mechanism and some problems to be solved of self-deception in this filed. Recently, researches have found that self-deception have three different ways of definition based on its motivational characteristics, and most psychologists paid more attention to the third definition. On the research methods about self-deception, the most applicable questionnaire was Self-Deceptive Enhancement (SDE), and the most operational classical paradigm was Dot-Tracking Task. Research results revealed that the direct motivation of self-deception was to adjust psychological state at any period of cognitive process, so it’s possible to prevent self-deception by changing the individual psychological states or promoting to hazily perceive things. Future studies should focus on how to adjust the psychological states of an individual for better to utilize self-deception, and adopted the dot-tracking task to explore the time course, cognitive mechanism and neural basis of self-deception by combining the event-related potential and fMRI.
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     Nature connectedness: It’s concept, measurement, function and intervention
    YANG Ying, GENG Liuna, XIANG Peng, ZHANG Jing, ZHU Lifang
    2017, 25 (8):  1360-1374.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01360
    Abstract ( 1964 )   PDF (500KB) ( 2722 )  
     Nature connectedness is an individual difference of people’s sense of connection with nature, including nature perspectives, affection and experience. The measuring approaches include self-reported scales and Implicit Association Test. Theoretical and empirical evidence indicates that engagement with nature can restore mental fatigue, improve cognitive performance, relieve physical and mental symptoms, enhance well-being, and increase prosociality. Researchers have developed series of interventions to boost nature connectedness. The future directions should further investigate its concept, methodology, conditions of positive effect, cultural variables and so on.
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     Narcissistic leader versus humble leader: A perspective from cross-culture management
    MAMAT Marhaba, LI Ye, WANG Hui
    2017, 25 (8):  1375-1386.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01375
    Abstract ( 1475 )   PDF (388KB) ( 2200 )  
     The conceptual differences of the humble and narcissistic leaderships lie in self-cognition, attitude towards others, motivation, emotion, and behavioral characteristics. And the humble and narcissistic leaderships have advantages and disadvantages in leadership effectiveness, employees’ performance and organizational development. In addition, the relationship between the humble and narcissistic leaderships is that they are independent and can coexist. Based on the perspective from cross-culture management, researches have suggested that there are potential cultural differences between the humble and narcissistic leaderships, they have different formation basis and different implicit leadership theories. At last, they both are the result of cultural adaptation. Future research should focus on the cultural specificity, the antecedent variables, the research paradigm development, and the dynamic construction of cultural influence as well as the role of cultural identity in the humble and narcissistic leadership field.
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     Workplace ostracism: A review on mechanisms and localization development
    CHEN Chen, YANG Fu, LI Yongqiang
    2017, 25 (8):  1387-1400.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01387
    Abstract ( 1392 )   PDF (609KB) ( 3577 )  
     Workplace ostracism, a negative behavior, has detrimental consequences for employees and organizations in the form of employees’ psychological states, work attitudes, work behaviors and organizational performance. Workplace ostracism has attracted attention from scholars and managers in recent years. By systematically reviewing the literature of its concept, structural features, measurements, and comparing with other types of workplace behavior and empirical researches, this study summarizes related researches home and abroad, and discusses the contingent effect of Chinese culture. Future studies should focus on enriching the definition and dimensions of workplace ostracism, expanding its research level and exploring the mechanism from the perspective of Chinese organizational context.
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     The impact of goal setting on unethical behavior: Boundary conditions and theoretical bases
    WEN Peng, REN Xiaoya, CHEN Cheng
    2017, 25 (8):  1401-1410.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01401
    Abstract ( 1215 )   PDF (431KB) ( 1620 )  
     As an effective motivation tool, goal setting has been widely used in various types of organizations. However, while recent research has revealed that goal setting might lead to unethical behavior, research efforts in reviewing their relationships are still rare. Therefore, the present research aims to comprehensively review previous research on the impact of goal setting on unethical behavior. Specifically, we reviewed their direct relationships, boundary conditions, and also theoretical bases. Based on this review, we suggest that future research should be conducted in real organizations and pay more attention to their mediators, moderators and the social perspective of goal setting.
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     Brand attachment: Theories, measurements and relationships to related variables
    WU Lili, SHI Xiaoxuan, WANG Beiyi, ZHANG Jianxin
    2017, 25 (8):  1411-1422.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01411
    Abstract ( 3129 )   PDF (479KB) ( 3004 )  
     Ever since it has been proposed, brand attachment is an important construct in consumer psychology and marketing area. It describes the connection between brand and consumers, thus it could be served as a significant predictor of consuming behavior. At the same time, it captures great attention from the marketing managers since it could reflect the effects of brand management efforts and marketing strategies. Based on previous research, the present paper synthesized the current status of research on brand attachment, including theoretical construct, measurement, theoretical model, its determinants and outcomes as well as the distinctions between brand attachment and other constructs, such as brand attitude or brand love. And then, the paper introduced the research work on brand attachment done by Chinese scholars. Finally, it concluded by proposing that future researches on brand attachment should focus on theoretical integration, external validity enhancement and cross-cultural difference.
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     Moral judgment from construal level theory perspective
    LI Ming-Hui, RAO Li-Lin
    2017, 25 (8):  1423-1430.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01423
    Abstract ( 2073 )   PDF (350KB) ( 2626 )   Peer Review Comments
     Moral judgment is critical for social cooperation. Research on moral judgment has been rapidly growing in the last 20 years. Empirical evidence has been accumulating to challenge the assumptions underlying the Social Intuitionist Model and Dual-process Model, which are the dominant models of moral judgment. Recently, construal level theory (CLT) has provided a new perspective for research on moral judgment. This article reviewed CLT-based research on moral judgment by classifying studies into two different categories, namely, moral judgment on moral dilemmas and moral judgment on moral and immoral actions. Evidence from the former arrived at a consistent conclusion, whereas that from the latter is inconclusive. We proposed that construal levels may affect moral judgment through turning people’s attention to different principles. Future research should focus on cross-cultural comparisons and exploring the mechanism underlying the relationship between CLT and moral judgment to clarify the controversy and provide additional empirical evidence.
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    Regular Articles
     The poverty problem: Based on psychological perspective
    XU Fu-ming, ZHANG Hui, MA Hong-yu, DENG Ying, Shi Yan-wei, LI Ou
    2017, 25 (8):  1431-1440.  doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1042.2017.01431
    Abstract ( 4093 )   PDF (468KB) ( 6868 )  
     As the latest psychological application in the field of poverty, psychology poverty is a new research approach to poverty through the lenses of psychology. The extant research on the psychology poverty is mainly focused on three areas, which are subjective well-being, mental health, and decision-making. And the poverty culture theory, scarcity theory, and ego depletion theory emphasize explanations on the mental mechanism of poverty by respectively viewing from the perspectives of poverty culture, scarcity mindset, as well as the resources of willpower. In order to break the vicious cycle of poverty and consequently escape poverty, in-depth investigations of the psychology of poverty should be conducted to further explore its mental and neurophysiological mechanisms, its localization, and its application of psychology in term of poverty relief.
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