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心理学报  2019, Vol. 51 Issue (3): 280-292    DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00280
  研究报告 本期目录 | 过刊浏览 | 高级检索 |
学习材料组块方式对相似词长时记忆的影响
张蕾,鲁成柔,林军凤,梅磊磊()
华南师范大学心理应用研究中心, 心理学院, 广东省心理健康与认知科学重点实验室, 广州 510631
Impacts of chunking strategy on memorising similar words
ZHANG Lei,LU Chengrou,LIN Junfeng,MEI Leilei()
Center for Studies of Psychological Application, School of Psychology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Mental Health and Cognitive Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631, China
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摘要 

已有关于材料相似性影响短时记忆的研究提示, 不相似材料组块相比于相似材料组块可能促进记忆。为验证该假设, 该研究采用学习-测查范式, 通过4个实验考察了学习材料组块方式对相似词长时记忆的影响及机制。结果发现:1)与相似词组块相比, 不相似词组块促进了相似词记忆; 2)不相似词组块的促进效应是通过增强相似词表共同词根的记忆而实现的; 3)不相似词组块的促进效应可能依赖于语音相似性。该结果说明不相似词组块可能是促进相似词汇记忆的有效途径之一。

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张蕾
鲁成柔
林军凤
梅磊磊
关键词 学习-测查范式词汇记忆组块方式相似词    
Abstract

The successful memorisation of similar words is critical for individuals’ vocabulary acquisition. Previous studies have found that individuals perform significantly better in an immediate serial memory test for dissimilar words than similar words. However, the memory advantage for dissimilar words in those studies was mainly based on the comparison of two sets of different learning materials (i.e., similar and dissimilar words). Therefore, whether similar words are memorised better in a similar chunking condition (similar words are successively presented) or dissimilar chunking condition (similar words are alternately presented by other dissimilar words) is unclear.
To address the above question, we performed four experiments in this study, in which within-subject design and study-test paradigm were used. Experiment 1A aims to explore the effects of chunking strategy on the memory of similar words. In this experiment, two matched sets of similar English pseudowords were used for the similar and dissimilar chunking conditions, respectively. In the similar chunking condition, similar words were successively presented, whereas in the dissimilar chunking condition, similar words were alternately presented with other dissimilar words. Participants were instructed to memorise the words during the study phase. A recognition memory test was administered one hour after the study phase. Experiment 1B aims to investigate the memory advantage of the dissimilar chunking condition for long-term retention. Experimental materials and tasks were the same with those of Experiment 1A, but the interval between study and test was prolonged to one week. Experiment 2 used Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to examine whether the dissimilar chunking strategy facilitated the memory of similar words by improving the memory of individual words or enhancing the memory of shared parts across similar words. Experiment 3 included unfamiliar Korean characters as materials to further disentangle the contributions of visual and phonological similarities on the memory of similar words.
Results show that: 1) Compared with the similar chunking strategy, the dissimilar chunking strategy show better memory performance on similar words, which can be maintained for at least one week. 2) The dissimilar chunking strategy improves the memory of similar words and results in a high false memory for similar lures. 3) The memory advantage for dissimilar chunking strategy is evident for phonologically similar words (i.e., English pseudowords) but not for visually similar words (i.e., Korean characters).
The results suggest that the dissimilar chunking strategy improves the memorisation of phonologically similar words by enhancing the memory of common parts across similar words. In other words, the dissimilar chunking strategy may be an effective way to improve the memorisation of similar words. These findings have important implications for language learning and education.

Key wordsstudy-test paradigm    word memory    chunking strategy    similar words
收稿日期: 2018-05-07      出版日期: 2019-01-22
中图分类号:  B842  
基金资助:* 国家自然科学基金项目(31771199);广东省普通高校创新团队项目(人文社科)(2017WCXTD002);广东省普通高校哲学社会科学重点实验室项目资助(2015WSYS009)
通讯作者: 梅磊磊     E-mail: mll830925@126.com
引用本文:   
张蕾,鲁成柔,林军凤,梅磊磊. (2019). 学习材料组块方式对相似词长时记忆的影响. 心理学报, 51(3): 280-292.
ZHANG Lei,LU Chengrou,LIN Junfeng,MEI Leilei. (2019). Impacts of chunking strategy on memorising similar words. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 51(3), 280-292.
链接本文:  
http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/10.3724/SP.J.1041.2019.00280      或      http://journal.psych.ac.cn/xlxb/CN/Y2019/V51/I3/280
  实验流程示意图:学习任务(A), 数字判断任务(B)和再认测查任务(C)。
实验编号 正确率 t d
实验1A 0.82 (0.09) 17.01*** 3.63
实验1B 0.70 (0.09) 9.87*** 2.10
实验2 0.71 (0.08) 11.71*** 2.49
实验3 0.67 (0.08) 10.17*** 1.99
  再认记忆测查的平均正确率(标准差)及t检验结果
  实验1A中两种组块条件的击中率(A)和辨别力指数(B)。
实验编号 相似词组块 不相似词组块 t p
实验1A 2020.76 (757.13) 1908.26 (735.72) 1.55 0.136
实验1B 2151.65 (781.03) 2128.97 (727.22) 0.33 0.747
实验2 2386.15 (986.30) 2336.87 (925.58) 0.62 0.545
实验3 2286.98 (803.35) 2441.74 (1200.42) -0.84 0.409
  再认记忆测查中两种组块条件的平均反应时(标准差)及t检验结果
实验编号 低自信 高自信
相似词组块 不相似词组块 t p 相似词组块 不相似词组块 t p
实验1A 0.24 (0.16) 0.25 (0.12) -0.68 0.506 0.55 (0.23) 0.61 (0.19) -2.66 0.015
实验1B 0.44 (0.18) 0.45 (0.18) -0.98 0.338 0.24 (0.20) 0.27 (0.21) -2.31 0.031
实验2 0.39 (0.17) 0.39 (0.17) 0.03 0.972 0.25 (0.19) 0.32 (0.20) -5.03 < 0.001
实验3 0.29 (0.15) 0.32 (0.18) -1.69 0.103 0.49 (0.24) 0.48 (0.26) 0.24 0.815
  再认记忆测查中两种组块条件的高、低自信击中率(标准差)及t检验结果
  实验1B中两种组块条件在学习一周后的击中率(A)和辨别力指数(B)。
  实验2两种学习条件的击中率、错误记忆率(A)和辨别力指数(B)。
  实验3两种学习条件的击中率(A)和辨别力指数(B)。
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