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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    15 March 2003, Volume 11 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Study Tendency of Verb Specific Deficit and Noun Specific Deficit
    Shu Hua,Han Zaizhu,Bai Xiaoli,Xiong Hanzhong
    2003, 11 (02):  121-126. 
    Abstract ( 2067 )   PDF (610KB) ( 1506 )  
    It is always an important study area to reveal the patterns of the presentation and processes on kinds of lexical knowledge information (such as grammatical category information). The way of collecting data from patients begins to become an important technique in such study. Some brain-damaged patients present selective cognitive processing deficits for verbs or nouns. In other words, they suffer from verb specific deficit or noun specific deficit. Exploring the mechanism of causing the deficits will provide a good chance to understand the patterns regarding the presentation and processes on grammatical category information in human brain. In the present paper, we introduced the finding on verb specific deficit or noun specific deficit. Concretely, some brain-damaged patients showed the selective loss of knowledge of verbs compared to nouns, and others showed the reversed pattern. Furthermore, we also discussed three theoretical explanations based on it, i.e. grammatical, semantic-conceptual,and lexical explanations.
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    Cerebric Mechanism Of Prospective Memory
    Wang Qing, Yang Yufang
    2003, 11 (02):  127-131. 
    Abstract ( 1488 )   PDF (589KB) ( 1490 )  
    Prospective memory refers to the memory required to carry out planed actions at the appropriate time. It has become one of the focuses in memory study. This article reviews the cerebral mechanism of prospective memory from two aspects: clinic neuropsychology and cognitive neuroscience. The results show that the Brodmann’s(BAs)8 region was related to the prospective component of the prospective memory, the work of the thalamencephalon was to perform the intention.
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    Research Status Of Brain Mechanism Of Visual Motion Perception
    Luo Yanlin,Luo Yuejia
    2003, 11 (02):  132-135. 
    Abstract ( 1687 )   PDF (596KB) ( 1809 )  
    Visual research is one of the important aspects in exploring the function of human brain. This treatise reviewed and discussed some questions of visual motion perception, such as the relationship between visual channel and color, production of visual motion perception, the process of visual information at a series of stages and three-dimensional vision. Some theories and altercation among them were involved. This treatise also raised some questions and study directions of visual perception in the future.
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    Progress In Functional Neuroimaging Studies Of Human Skill Learning
    Wang Yan, Weng Xuchu
    2003, 11 (02):  136-140. 
    Abstract ( 2064 )   PDF (610KB) ( 1402 )  
    Over the past decade, a number of neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that human skill learning is a dynamic process, in which at least two phases of changes in regional brain activity are observed. In the early phase, activity decreases over the learning probably due to the increase of neuronal selectivity, whereas in the late phase activity increases because of the recruitment of new neurons. Changes in brain activity are modulated by awareness of learning tasks and switching of strategies. At the same time, regional connectivity is developed and gradually strengthened, resulting in a temporarily task-oriented system. This system is controlled and modulated by high-order associative areas such as the frontal cortex.
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    ERP Studies of Developmental Dsylexia
    Sha Shuying,Zhou Xiaolin,Meng Xiangzhi
    2003, 11 (02):  141-146. 
    Abstract ( 1915 )   PDF (613KB) ( 1893 )  
    Behavioral studies found that deficits in phonological processing plays a major role in developmental dyslexia. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies in recent years also found that developmental dyslexia is related to deficits in basic auditory and visual processing as well. As a non-invasive technique with high time resolution, event-related potentials (ERP) measured on dyslexics confirmed the discoveries of behavioral studies about phonological processing and information integrating. However, results from auditory ERP studies were less consistent, and visual ERP studies on development dyslexia are still lacking, suggesting that more systematic studies are being wanted.
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    Second Language Vocabulary Learning in Multimedia Context
    Sun Yanqing,Dong Qi
    2003, 11 (02):  147-152. 
    Abstract ( 2277 )   PDF (600KB) ( 1972 )  
    second language vocabulary learning, contextualized learning, multimedia context.Learning in context is an important approach of second language vocabulary learning. Compared with text-based context, multimedia context is more authentic, vivid and attractive because of the integration of information in audio, video, graphic, animation, as well as verbal format. The present paper discussed the concept of contextualized learning, the characteristics in learning L2 vocabulary in multimedia context and the related factors. The problems for future studies were also proposed.
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    A Review on the Research in the dimension of Entity Theory versus Incremental Theory of Implicit Personality Theories
    Wang Moyun,Fu Xiaolan
    2003, 11 (02):  153-159. 
    Abstract ( 2388 )   PDF (615KB) ( 2175 )  
    The Research in the dimension of entity theory versus incremental theory of implicit personality theories is a new trend in social cognition. It’s found that people's implicit personality theories about human attributes structure the way they understand and react to human behavior. Different implicit personality theories cause different social cognitive patterns and different reactions. Research is reviewed showing that entity theorists believe that attributes are fixed, therefore they tend to understand behavior in terms of these abstract and static internal traits. In contrast, incremental theorists believe that attributes are more dynamic, therefore they tend to understand behavior in terms of more specific behavioral or psychological mediators. On the base of the review on relevant research, the authors give some new viewpoints.
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    The Relationship between Research Development of Mental Imagery and I Ching
    Song Libo
    2003, 11 (02):  160-164. 
    Abstract ( 1472 )   PDF (601KB) ( 1444 )  
    This essay traces briefly the history of the research of mental imagery made by western psychologists and summarizes the development of the latest activity cycle theory of conscious imagery. This essay makes a comparison between the activity cycle theory of conscious imagery and the traditional Chinese cultural thought contained in ancient Chinese works such as I Ching in order to provide psychological theoretical evidences concerning the research of mental imagery for the diathesis education reformation.
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    The Development and the Problem on Learning from the Worked Example
    Xing Qiang,Mo Lei,Zhu Xinming
    2003, 11 (02):  165-170. 
    Abstract ( 1406 )   PDF (600KB) ( 1418 )  
    Learning from the worked example had a long history in educational psychology research field and received great attention from the cognitive psychologists and the educational psychologists recently. The three research themes, intra-example features and inter-example features of worked example and the self-explanation, are reviewed since 1980s’ in the present article. Then, the article points out the problems to be solved and describes the new reference framework for future research about learning from worked example.
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    Recent Progress of Research on Attitudes: A Model of Dual Attitudes
    Zhang Lin, Zhang Xiangku
    2003, 11 (02):  171-176. 
    Abstract ( 1983 )   PDF (621KB) ( 2435 )  
    Research on Attitudes was an important problem in Social Psychology. People usually paid close attention to an explicit attitude under conscious statute, and were interested in implicit attitude under unconscious statute recently. Wilson and Lindsey suggested that people can have dual attitudes, which are different evaluations of the same attitude object —explicit attitude and implicit attitude. This idea was a strong challenge to traditional concept of attitude and measure approach. In this paper, the origin, contents and types of dual attitudes theory was elaborated, and empirical supports about the dual attitudes model was reviewed. Furthermore, we put forward some implications to the future research about attitude change, attitude-behavior consistency and attitude measurement.
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    The Life-Span Orientation Of Research On Theory Of Mind
    Xi Juzhe, Sang Biao, Zuo Zhihong
    2003, 11 (02):  177-183. 
    Abstract ( 2251 )   PDF (621KB) ( 1878 )  
    The classical paradigm of research on theory of mind mainly focused on 3~5 years old children. But with research in this domain deepened, there emerged an important trend that many investigations began to take into account development of theory of mind in before-4-year and after-5-year olds recently. The author calls this noteworthy trend life-span orientation of research on theory of mind. Another evidence supporting this point is that some scholars have posed explicit views of life-span-developing theory of mind. It is the author’s anticipation that this orientation of research on theory of mind should be one of the most important trends in the endeavor of exploring the conspicuous area in the future.
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    Reviews on the Studies of Children’s Trait-Understanding in the Research Area of Theory of Mind
    Huang Tianyuan,Lin Chongde
    2003, 11 (02):  184-190. 
    Abstract ( 2045 )   PDF (607KB) ( 1648 )  
    Trait-understanding is an important area in the studies of theory of mind, and it plays an important role in the enhancement and development of social competence. The paper is intended to review some of the major developments and findings on this topic, including studies on theory of mind and traits, children’s beliefs about the origins of traits, children’s use of trait-words and their development of trait-understanding, trait-inferring and development of trait-understanding. The prospects of the studies in this field have been suggested finally.
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    A Comparative Psychological Approach On Personality
    Zhang Liyan
    2003, 11 (02):  191-196. 
    Abstract ( 1739 )   PDF (604KB) ( 1714 )  
    A comparative psychological approach on personality actually refers to animal personality research. This article explores its theoretical foundations: evolutionary and ecology, as well as its research strategies and methods. According to the author, evolution developed its strategies: cross-species comparison and within-species comparison, and ecology developed its methods: behavioral coding and trait rating. The implications of this approach to current personality psychology was also discussed.
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    COMMENTS ON MISCHEL’S COGNITIVE-AFFECTIVE PERSONALITY SYSTEM THEORY
    Yu Songmei, Yang Lizhu
    2003, 11 (02):  197-201. 
    Abstract ( 2048 )   PDF (609KB) ( 1613 )  
    In the recent 20 years, a new perspective on personality has emerged under the label social cognitive theories and it has become an important reflection of integration in the field of psychology. These approaches perceive person as a cognitive and social human being, regarding cognitive processes as a key to understanding complicated and purposed social behaviors. In the field of personality psychology, Walter Mischel is one of the significant contributors using cognitive variables to explain the individual differences. This paper focuses on Mischel’s three important research aspects: cognitive prototypes, cognitive-affective personality system and self-imposed delay of gratification, and tries to make brief comments on his personality theory.
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    Biobehavioral View on Female Response to Stress
    Zhang Lian,Zhang Jinfu
    2003, 11 (02):  202-208. 
    Abstract ( 2087 )   PDF (611KB) ( 1742 )  
    Although fight-or-flight may characterize the primary physiological response to stress for both males and females,females’response are more marked by a pattern of “tend-and-befriend”. Behaviorally, tending involves nurturing activities designed to protect the self and offspring that promote safety and reduce distress, befriending may help to create and maintain social networks .The biobehaveoral mechanism of tend–and-befriend pattern is oxytocin, endogenous opioid mechanisms and estrogen. This previously unexplored stress regulatory sys tem has manifold implications for the study of stress.
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    Job Demand-Control Model of Job Stress
    Jiang Wenrui,Ma Jianhong
    2003, 11 (02):  209-213. 
    Abstract ( 2525 )   PDF (608KB) ( 2209 )  
    Karasek created Job Demand-Control Model (JD-C Model) which claims that job stress is caused by both job demand and job control. Much research support this model, though test conclusions somewhat contradict Karasek’s supposition of the interaction between job demand and job control. The differences between JD-C model and other job stress models, together with the research evidence concerned, positive or negative, are commented in this paper, and certain patterns for future research are suggested as well.
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    Potential Sources Of Inaccuracy In Job Analysis
    Luo Fengying,Wang Erping
    2003, 11 (02):  214-219. 
    Abstract ( 2108 )   PDF (603KB) ( 1607 )  
    Job analysis is based on people’s subjective judgments, and may be subject to inaccuracy of job information. This paper summarizes sources of inaccuracy in job analysis, including job analyst, job analysis instrument, social and cognitive sources of potential inaccuracy. Those job analysis facets that most likely to be affected in job analysis are described. Then the relationship between job analysis inaccuracy and real within-job differences is explored. At the end, some recommendations for research and practice are discussed.
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    From Cross-cultural Psychology to Cultural Constructionist Psychology: The Evolution of the Cultural Consciousness in Psychology
    Yang Liping
    2003, 11 (02):  220-226. 
    Abstract ( 2467 )   PDF (598KB) ( 1780 )  
    The cultural consciousness in Psychology has three forms. The cultural adventure in cross-cultural psychology served as a handmaiden to the prevailing enterprise of establishing general principles of behavior. Cultural psychology tends to hold culture as the birthing site for psychological processes, and appeals to theories for “cultural sensitivity”. In cultural constructionist psychology, the psyche is looked as “ the cultural infusion ”or “the cultural construction”, and the processes of the construction are explored. The different characters of each form of the cultural consciousness in Psychology will be examined in this paper, and each will be given a short comment on it.
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    The Analysis Of The Concept Of Identity In Western Psychology
    Guo Jinshan
    2003, 11 (02):  227-234. 
    Abstract ( 2836 )   PDF (619KB) ( 2845 )  
    Identity is a important concept that has been extensively recognized in western psychology. Now it has been applied to developmental psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, educational psychology, counseling psychology, and cultural psychology. Unfortunately, the concept of identity lacks a firm definition because of its richness and complexity as well as variously theoretical frames. Accordingly, its theoretical functions are lowered. So this article attempts to grasp the essence of the understanding of identity by different levels and dimensions in western psychology from the analyses of the foundation, positivism research and new tendency about identity. In the end, I put forward some aspects that we must pay attention to as we try to incorporate the concept of identity, and its essence of identity that I draw from above analyses.
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    Review On Development Of Western Psychological Study Of Negotiation
    Qiu Lin,Zheng Xue,Yan Biaobin
    2003, 11 (02):  235-239. 
    Abstract ( 851 )   PDF (603KB) ( 1787 )  
    Negotiation was an active research topic within social psychology in the 1960s and 1970s,but the revolution in the late 1970s made the study of negotiation decline. By the early 1980s,negotiations blossomed anew, and the behavioral decision perspective dominated. In the late 1990s, the rebirth of the social psychology of negotiation made the missing social factors specific topics. This article reviewed the history of the psychological study of negotiation, explored the causes led to the dramatic shifts in this study, and prospected the future researches.
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