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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    15 May 2003, Volume 11 Issue 03 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Vernon Smith’s Experimental Economics and Its Implication to Psychology
    Huangfu Gang,Zhu Liqi
    2003, 11 (03):  243-248. 
    Abstract ( 2120 )   PDF (585KB) ( 2173 )  
    Vernon Smith who won the 2002 Nobel Prize in economics was the father of experimental economics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize “for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms”. The paper discussed the theoretical base and the main research area of experimental economics. It also introduced a new trend of experimental economics—neuroeconomics. The paper briefly analyzed experimental economics’ implication to psychology.
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    Behavioral Finance and Psychology
    Liu Li,Zhang Zheng,Xiong Dehua,Zhang Shengping
    2003, 11 (03):  249-255. 
    Abstract ( 2671 )   PDF (599KB) ( 5844 )  
    Since the human decision behavior are far from the ‘rational’, there are many puzzles can’t be fully explained by the classical modern financial theory which based on rational economists hypothesis. Behavioral finance try to explain financial market by the model which based on human’s real decision behavior. The psychology research thereby becomes one of the foundations of behavioral finance. The achievements of emotion psychology, cognitive psychology and social psychology study, which related to investor’s belief, preferences and decision, have been widely used in behavioral finance research. The further cooperation of two fields, finance and psychology, will promote the academic development of behavioral finance.
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    Daniel Kahneman and Behavioral Economics
    Chang Xin,Yin HongHai
    2003, 11 (03):  256-261. 
    Abstract ( 1657 )   PDF (609KB) ( 3050 )  
    Daniel Kahneman’s findings in the field are now known as behavioral economics. By outlining some major differences between conceptions of decision-making in economics and psychology, the authors elaborate Kahneman’s specific contributions of Prospect Theory which has taken important steps towards a more accurate description of individual behavior under risk than expected-utility theory and provided researchers in economics with new insights and instruments in model building and empirical work.
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    The Progress of Investing Psychology Theories of America
    Weng Xuedong
    2003, 11 (03):  262-266. 
    Abstract ( 2466 )   PDF (583KB) ( 2384 )  
    American investing psychology originated in 1980’s. During the process of their research on investing activities, western economists found that many mathematic models of microeconomics and finance can’t satisfactorily explain and anticipate the investment in reality, therefore put more efforts on the research of human mind and behavior in investing, and achieved substantial results. Hence, Daniel Kahneman, the investing psychologist of Princeton University of America, was awarded the 2002’s Nobel Prize in Economics. In this paper, four research achievements of western investing psychology are described. They are Overreaction Theory, Prospect Theory, Regret Theory and Overconfidence Theory.
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    Practical Reason: A Framework For Understanding Economic Behavior
    Zhang Jiehai,Zhang Ling
    2003, 11 (03):  267-273. 
    Abstract ( 1631 )   PDF (608KB) ( 2400 )  
    This paper used “practical reason” as a framework for understanding economic behaviors of human being. This position proposed that economic behavior would systemically depart from traditionally economic reason due to human limitations in perception and processing of thinking. This paper introduced Kahneman and Tversky’s main work from perspective of cognitive psychology, including well-known prospect theory, what were called heuristics and biases approach and relation between decision-making and emotion. Criticisms of Kahneman and Tversky’s work were presented in the finial section.
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    How the Psychological Variable Affected the Judgment of Value in Risky Decision-making?——Discussing about Kahneman’s Contributions
    Zhang Ling
    2003, 11 (03):  274-280. 
    Abstract ( 1651 )   PDF (614KB) ( 2655 )  
    Risky decision-making is a complicated process. Because of the psychological variable, the regulation of judgment of value is conflict with economics and mathematics. These display three concepts: utility, value function, mental accounting. Kahneman’s theory inherited the past and ushered in the future.
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    ANALYSIS OF CURRENT CHINESE RESEARCH ON COGNITION AND DECISION
    Xie Xiaofei,Zheng Rui
    2003, 11 (03):  281-288. 
    Abstract ( 2072 )   PDF (609KB) ( 3381 )  
    For years the decision science has always been the research focus of many disciplines because of its direct significance for social and economical construction. Chinese researchers have studied for more than 20 years and have already made great achievements. This article tried to summarize these achievements that are characterized in: (1) the bread range of research topics; (2) high consistency with the international advanced research but still lack of system; (3) beneficial exploratory researches combined with the practical problems. Besides, this article tried to make an analysis of the research trend in this field to promote the development of Chinese research on decision science.
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    Cognitive Neuroscience Research Status Quo of Number Processing
    Nan Yun,Luo Yuejia
    2003, 11 (03):  289-295. 
    Abstract ( 987 )   PDF (618KB) ( 2042 )  
    Numbers as one of the most important culture inventions are being paid more and more attention by cognitive neuroscientists now, who are focusing on the puzzle that what on earth is the cerebral basis of the human competence for mathematics. Neuroimaging studies have indicated a network of brain regions, including the parietal cortex, lateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and cerebellum, as being involved in arithmetic processing. Experiment evidences demonstrated that the human brain contains an analogical representation of numerical quantities, in which numerical quantities are internally manipulated as points on the mental “number line”. Neuropsychological studies of number processing indicated that this representation is distributed in the two hemispheres and its dominant site points to inferior parietal cortex.
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    ERP AND LANGUAGE
    Liu Yanni,Shu Hua
    2003, 11 (03):  296-302. 
    Abstract ( 2145 )   PDF (618KB) ( 2704 )  
    Language processes are continuous and highly complex which involve multiple levels of analysis. The new technique of ERP provides a temporal resolution of milliseconds and multiple recording dimensions. Then it can measure language processing continuously, and also have specific indicators to different level analysis. This paper emphasizes on the introduction of these components such as the component of N200 related with phonological processing, RP and N400 related with semantic processing, and LAN and P600 related to syntactic analysis.
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    Phonological Loop in Working Memory and Its Relation to Reading Comprehension
    Wang Liyan,Ding Jinhong
    2003, 11 (03):  303-309. 
    Abstract ( 2651 )   PDF (607KB) ( 4588 )  
    Phonological Loop is one of the components in Working Memory Model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974. It is considered to be related to some higher cognitive processes, such as reading comprehension, for its intrinsic characteristics. It has been investigated in different ways. Most of the researches approve that Phonological Loop modulates reading comprehension. But some others do not approve of this view. Moreover, there is disagreement about how Phonological Loop affects reading comprehension.
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    New Classification of Achievement Goal
    Liu Haiyan, Deng Shuhong, Guo Dejun
    2003, 11 (03):  310-314. 
    Abstract ( 1510 )   PDF (601KB) ( 2709 )  
    Based on the dichotomy and trichotomy of achievement goal,according to the dimensionality of competence classification— definition and valence of competence , Pintrich & Elliot et al proposed the quartation including mastery approach goal, mastery avoidance goal, performance approach goal, performance avoidance goal. Mastery approach goal focused on mastering new knowledge and enhancing compentence. Mastery avoidance goal focused on avoiding not accomplishing the task or not losing one's knowledges and capabilities. Performance approach goal focused on being superior and better than others. Performance avoidance goal focused on avoiding looking stupid or dumb in comparison to others. The experimental studies indicated that the proposition of new classification not only perfected the classificatory study about achievement goal but also offered the theoretical basis for enhancing achievement of individuals.
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    The Relations Between Locomotion And Cognition In Early Child Development
    Li Hong,He Lei
    2003, 11 (03):  315-320. 
    Abstract ( 2227 )   PDF (603KB) ( 2588 )  
    The interaction between young children and environment goes through locomotion. During the process, locomotion gets developed, as well as cognition. It reviews domestic and overseas researches these years, and explains the effects of crawling, grabbing, and gesture to cognition in early child development. It indicates that locomotion, in early child development, is the representation of cognition, and may prompt cognition from simple to complicate, low to high. Children get experiences of movement by crawling, so as to hasten the perception. Furthermore, grabbing and gesture act as the media between young children and environment.
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    Positive Psychology:A New Trend in Psychology
    Li Jinzhen,Wang Wenzhong,Shi Jiannong
    2003, 11 (03):  321-327. 
    Abstract ( 2988 )   PDF (623KB) ( 4858 )  
    Positive psychology is a science concerning on positive features such as human virtue and strength that make life worth living. It was proposed by Martin E.P. Seligman and is widely studied in contemporary psychology. Current researches mainly focus on : 1) positive emotions and experiences; 2) positive personality; 3) positive emotions and health; and 4) creativity and talent. In this article, the history, fields, goals, as well as research advances of positive psychology were reviewed. It aimed to serve as a reference for the studies in this area in our country.
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    Research on Brain Mechanisms of Emotion
    Ma Qingxia,Guo Dejun
    2003, 11 (03):  328-333. 
    Abstract ( 1405 )   PDF (613KB) ( 3294 )  
    This article reviews the latest research on brain mechanisms of emotion. The brain circuitry underlying emotion includes the prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate, ventromedial striatum and et al. Asymmetries in the PFC have been linked to approach and withdrawal systems,with sectors of the left PFC more associated with the approach system and certain forms of positive affect and other regions in the right PFC more associated with negative affect and withdrawal. The amygdala is activated by stimulus that elicits certain forms of negative affect, particularly fear. The hippocampus plays an important role in the context-regulation of emotion. Asymmetries in the PFC and the amygdala are the physiological bases of individual difference in emotion. There is plasticity in the central circuitry of emotion.
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    History and Present Study of the Rorschach Inkblot Method in the Western World
    Guo Qingke,Meng Qingmao
    2003, 11 (03):  334-338. 
    Abstract ( 2093 )   PDF (593KB) ( 2730 )  
    In history, the Rorschach Ink-Blot Method(RIM)has always been considered as a projective test, so its interpretations were mainly based on Psychoanalytic Theory, which had deviated from its original objective direction. The Comprehensive System had retrieved to the original tradition. In The comprehensive System, the RIM is used as a hemi-structural and indirect measure, thus it can play a special role in personality study. Although there are still controversies over the RIM, its scientific value has been verified in the gross. The important work we shall do is to develop it and improve it.
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    A Review On Implicit Association Test
    Cai Huajian
    2003, 11 (03):  339-344. 
    Abstract ( 3116 )   PDF (607KB) ( 5605 )  
    Implicit Association Test, developed by A.G. Greenwald in 1998, is a new method to measure implicit attitude. It is based on a kind of computerized discriminating and classifying task. The indicator of IAT is the difference of reaction time between incompatible discrimination and compatible discrimination. IAT measures implicit attitude indirectly by measuring the automatic association between concept words and attributive words. In the paper, the principle of IAT is introduced firstly, then the relative research results of both IAT’s psychometric nature and its application are summarized. At the end of the paper, a review is proposed in the perspective of modern psychological measurement. It is suggested that IAT reflects the latest trend of modern psychological measurement: the combination of experimental method and psychometric method, the combination between trait measurement and process measurement.
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    Resource Dilemma and Its Enlightenment for Decision Making
    Feng LinMa Jianhong
    2003, 11 (03):  345-349. 
    Abstract ( 1024 )   PDF (601KB) ( 1570 )  
    Resource dilemma, one basic prototype of the social dilemmas, is a rare topic in psychology that appeals not only to psychologists, but also to scholars in many other disciplines. This paper provides a review and integration of the psychological researches on resource dilemma at the current time, highlighting the decision model proposed by Samuelson and Messick in 1994, which divided the solutions as structural and individual. This paper also introduces the research progresses on resource dilemma in psychology and other disciplines.
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    The Mechanism of the Parent Brand Effect in Brand Extension
    Lei Li,Ma Mouchao
    2003, 11 (03):  350-354. 
    Abstract ( 2041 )   PDF (598KB) ( 1982 )  
    The issue of the brand extension has been widely studied since the 1970’s. Based on the review of pilot researches, two cognitive models —affect-transfer model and association-demand model—were introduced to describe the mechanism of the parent brand effect towards brand extension. The affect-transfer model assumes that consumers will transfer the positive attitudes of the parent brand directly to its extension, but the association-demand model regards the brand-specific associations the most important factor in extension evaluation. The two models highlight the cognitive process in the formation of the extension evaluation.
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    Psychological Researches on Internet Addiction
    Chen Xia, Huang Xiting, Bai Gang
    2003, 11 (03):  355-359. 
    Abstract ( 3629 )   PDF (595KB) ( 6453 )  
    Internet addiction is a type of psychological dependence on internet use, and there are a lot of similarities and differences between it and traditional addictions. So far only a few measurements was developed so well that the reliabilities haven’t ever been criticized by many researchers. In the same time, in most of the cases, the researchers have studied the phenomenon by the only way of survey, while few of them have designed any strict experiments to study it . However some of the researchers have brought about several models to interpret the phenomenon, such as, Young with the ACE Model, Davis with the Cognitive-Behavioral Model and Grohol with the Stage Mode, who have done some good jobs in the exploration of the relationships between internet addiction and the addictive features of internet itself, the personality traits of the internet users and the surroundings around them.
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