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ISSN 1671-3710
CN 11-4766/R
主办:中国科学院心理研究所
出版:科学出版社

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    15 March 2004, Volume 12 Issue 02 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Emotional Disorders in Patients with Prefrontal Cortex Lesions
    Wang Yiniu,Luo Yuejia
    2004, 12 (02):  161-167. 
    Abstract ( 1651 )   PDF (764KB) ( 5050 )  
    A strong association between the prefrontal cortex in the brain and human emotion has been recognized. The effect of prefrontal cortex damage on emotional behavior has been abbreviated reviewed with pertinent clinical and neuroimaging observations in the past. Three clinical syndromes characterized by mood disorders, those are schizophrenia, major depression and anxiety disorders etc. They are dependent upon frontal system, especially prefrontal cortex dysfunction. There is convincing evidence that different facets of affective functioning, the experience of emotion, the expression of emotion, and the processing of emotionally laden information have distinct neural representation of prefrontal cortex.
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    ERP Study on Human Visual Categorization of Natural Objects
    Mai Xiaoqin,Luo Yuejia
    2004, 12 (02):  168-175. 
    Abstract ( 1388 )   PDF (789KB) ( 1570 )  
    he ability to classify stimuli into meaningful categories is a fundamental cognitive function of the human being. The present review focused on the event-related brain potentials (ERP) studies on human visual categorization of natural objects. Early and late components of the ERP accompanying the visual categorization of natural objects were discussed on the basis of an extensive review of the relevant literature. Then, the paper described the mechanisms of the Rapid Visual Categorization of natural objects, and supports the view that feed-forward mechanism plays critical role in the visual processing of such complex categorization task. Finally, two separate mechanisms of visual processing were discussed in details, and it was concluded that visual categorization of a natural object involves different mechanisms with different time courses: a perceptual, task-independent mechanism, followed by a task-related, category-independent process which is correlated with the subject’s decision. Specific neural structures of these two separate processes were also discussed in this section.
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    Judgment of Learning and Its Accuracy
    Chen Gongxiang,Fu Xiaolan
    2004, 12 (02):  176-184. 
    Abstract ( 1971 )   PDF (809KB) ( 1723 )  
    As an important metacognitive judgment, Judgment of learning (JOL) is the prediction about the future performance of learned materials. Its mechanism and accuracy are the key issues in the study of judgment of learning. Researchers have advanced many theories to illuminate these two issues from different perspectives. Koriat’ cue-utilization framework summarized the previous findings and provided a significant advance in understanding how people make judgment of learning. However, Koriat’ framework also faces new challenges. The limitations of the previous studies and the suggestions for future research are also put forward.
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    Analysis of Relationship between Implicit Learning and Explicit Learning
    Guo Xiuyan
    2004, 12 (02):  185-192. 
    Abstract ( 1854 )   PDF (790KB) ( 2669 )  
    The present article explored three facets of the relationship, which are the differences, connections and interactions between implicit learning and explicit learning. Implicit learning is originally regarded as a kind of learning from explicit learning because there are some differences between them in phenomenology, experimental operation, neurophysiology and learning mechanism. However, in recent years, though the independent status of implicit learning has been sufficiently proved, researches have obtained more and more evidences to support the relativity of the differences between implicit and explicit learning. In fact, they are of close connection and often interacted with each other. That is, a real learning task is a combination of implicit and explicit learning. In the end, the present author stated a new viewpoint, the trade-off phenomenon between implicit and explicit learning.
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    Some Behavioral and Functional Neuroimaging Studies on Analogical Reasoning
    Tang Huilin,Liu Chang
    2004, 12 (02):  193-200. 
    Abstract ( 2158 )   PDF (818KB) ( 1918 )  
    As one of central abilities in human cognitive development, analogical reasoning, which is different from deductive and inductive reasoning, has become an active field to study in current researching on human cognition. It was Indicated that analogical reasoning is not only affected by some characteristics of items, such as order, causal structure, contextual coherence et al, but also associated with other cognitive abilities, such as processing speed and working memory. The relationship between analogical reasoning and working memory is also revealed by functional neuroimaging, which indicated that the anterior and posterior regions of left hemisphere of human brain is involved in analogical reasoning.
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    Presence and Measuring Presencein Virtual Environment
    Zhou Ronggang,Zhang Kan
    2004, 12 (02):  201-208. 
    Abstract ( 1368 )   PDF (799KB) ( 1962 )  
    Generally, virtual environment presence may be described as the subjective perception of experiencing oneself as being in a computer-generated environment rather than in one’s actual physical location. Presence was thought of as attention resource allocation to stimulus in VE, and the degree of presence was influenced by VE systems, individual difference and man-machine interaction factors. Based on these describing, this article reviewed of methods commonly used for measuring presence as five categories: subjective measures(WS-PQ, SUS-PQ, ITC-SOPI and Direct Subjective Ratings of Presence), physiological measures(Change In Heart Rate and Change In Skin Resistance/Conductance), psychophysics measure(Method of Paired Comparisons and Cross-Modality Matching), behavioral measures (Postural Responses and Responses to Virtual Cues with Conflicting Cues)and performance measures (secondary task measures)
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    Discussing the Relations Between Emotional Intelligence and Affective Computing in Artificial Intelligence Simply
    Xu Yuanli,Guo Dejun
    2004, 12 (02):  209-214. 
    Abstract ( 2507 )   PDF (777KB) ( 2909 )  
    Emotional intelligence is the ability which processes emotion and emotional information, and affective computing in artificial intelligence is to make the computer possess the ability of processing affective information between man-machine interacting, it can draw an analogy between the computer and the brain in processing emotional information. In the last few years, artificial intelligence experts have already been cognizant of the important function and meaning of emotional intelligence in affective computing, the computer has been possessed to identify and express affective ability, and the computer have been developed with inferior affective ability. The development and application of senior affective computer will depend on the close collaboration between artificial intelligence experts and psychologists, both their achievements can be used for reference and complementary each other.
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    Adult Attachment Representation and Romantic Attachment
    Zhou Chunyan,Huang Xiting
    2004, 12 (02):  215-222. 
    Abstract ( 1997 )   PDF (790KB) ( 3379 )  
    Recently, research on attachment had been extended to attachment representation and romantic attachment. Attachment representation is adult’s cognitive organization and reconstruction of childhood attachment experiences, while romantic attachment is adult’s emotional bond with partner. The article reviewed the theoretical backgrounds, measurements and latest advances of researches on attachment representation and romantic attachment - intergenerational transmission of attachment, possible application of attachment in therapeutic and clinical field, and effects of romantic attachment on adult’s marriage and work. Finally, several issues needed further clarification had been discussed, e.g. the relations between adult attachment representation and romantic attachment, stability and change in adult attachment security, and the question whether adult attachment security is individual difference or relationship variable, in addition, according to literatures, the article predicts possible directions of future researches.
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    Implicit Association Test : Reliability, Validity and Mechanisms
    Hou Ke,Zou Hong,Zhang Qiuling
    2004, 12 (02):  223-230. 
    Abstract ( 1529 )   PDF (814KB) ( 2459 )  
    The Implicit Association Test (IAT), a reaction time measure of automatic memory-based associations without requiring conscious introspection, has been widely used to assess implicit social cognition in recent years. Although many research results show that the IAT provided meaningful insights into implicit social cognition while the explicit measures did not, it still needs more evidence for the IAT’s reliability and validity. Moreover, the theoretical interpretation of mechanism underlying the IAT is still a controversial issue. This article strongly suggests that researchers should use the IAT more appropriately and scrupulously. A new algorithm and some alternative methods derived from the IAT are also described.
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    MEASUREMENT EQUIVALENCE: CONCEPTIOIN AND TEST CONDITIONS
    Bai Xinwen,Chen Yiwen
    2004, 12 (02):  231-239. 
    Abstract ( 2016 )   PDF (815KB) ( 2036 )  
    Equivalent measurement is obtained when the relations between observed test scores and the latent attribute measured by the test are identical across subpopulations. In particular, individuals with equal standings on the latent trait, but sampled from different subpopulations, should have the same expected observed score. Measurement equivalence serves as the precondition to conducting substantive cross-group difference comparisons. This article introduces the conception of measurement equivalence, the brief history of the research, and the necessity of measurement equivalence; then lists the conditions of measurement equivalence within the framework of structural equation modeling (SEM); also presents the goodness-of-fit indices which are used to justify the goodness of fit of the models.
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    Self-cognition in Social Comparison and Temporal Comparison
    Sun Jiongwen,Zheng Quanquan
    2004, 12 (02):  240-245. 
    Abstract ( 1129 )   PDF (772KB) ( 2230 )  
    People make self-evaluation by comparing themselves not only with others, but also with past selves. The previous research revealed that the motivation of self-enhancement played a crucial role on social comparison and temporal comparison. People often derogate others in social comparison and the past selves in temporal comparison, so that they can achieve self-enhancement and ultimately get good self-feelings.
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    Integrated Theory of Organizational Learning Model
    Yu Haibo,Fang Liluo,Ling Wenquan
    2004, 12 (02):  246-255. 
    Abstract ( 2265 )   PDF (827KB) ( 2518 )  
    It is necessary for Chinese companies and the whole society to improve the organizational learning capacity, to establish the learning organization and the learning society. The article reviewed the literature based on the ultimate assumptions of some definitions, organizational learning levels, organizational learning processes, and the facilitating factors. And then the article put forward a definition and an integrated organizational learning model. It contains four levels which are individual, group, organizational and inter-organizational levels, four psychological and social interactions which are gain and produce, interpretation, integrate, institutionalization, and two information or knowledge processes which are feedback and feedforward learning. At last, the article provided several future research directions.
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    RISK PERCEPTION IN CONSUMER PSYCHOLOGY
    Zhang Shuoyang,Chen Yiwen,Wang Erping
    2004, 12 (02):  256-263. 
    Abstract ( 2154 )   PDF (788KB) ( 3556 )  
    Based on reviews of the literature on risk perception in consumer psychology, this article summarized the conceptual models of consumers’ risk perception such as two-factor model, multi-dimension model, complex model and integrated model. Then it presented factors which impact consumers’ perceived risk, differences between perceived risk of products and services, and risk reduction strategies. Finally it discussed the tendency of consumers’ perceived risk research, especially the study approach of risk perception in Electronic Commerce.
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    Procedural Justice and Its Psychological Dynamics
    Lin Xiaowan,Che Hongsheng,Zhang Peng,Wang Lei
    2004, 12 (02):  264-272. 
    Abstract ( 1551 )   PDF (797KB) ( 2257 )  
    Procedural justice is the most important component of organizational justice. Since the concept was proposed by Thibaut and Walker(1975), procedural justice has been studied in a variety of settings. This literature is developing, but the integration of the content of procedural justice is needed. Voice effect and dignitary process effect indicate what affects the judgment of procedural justice, and self-interest model and group-value model are used to shed light on the underlying psychological mechanism. It is well proved that procedural justice can influence various work-related attitudes and behavior, and interacts with outcome favorability. The psychological dynamism underlying is discussed in this article as well.
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    The Trust Research in Virtual Team
    Ma Yan,Li Xiaoxuan
    2004, 12 (02):  273-281. 
    Abstract ( 1678 )   PDF (784KB) ( 3002 )  
    Trust is pivotal in virtual teams because it could reduce the high levels of uncertainty and permit a virtual team to focus on its mission.Compared with that in traditional organization, trust in virtual teams is less an interpersonal form than a cognitive and action form. It is created swiftly based on the members’ early interactions and maintained by the continuous interactions. The relationship between trust and team performance is reciprocal.
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    The Review of Performance Feedback Research
    Wang Yongli,Shi Kan
    2004, 12 (02):  282-289. 
    Abstract ( 2066 )   PDF (783KB) ( 1877 )  
    Performance feedback is an important management tool for encouraging the advanced and urging on the backward in organizations. The present review was the outline of feedback research. The trend of feedback study was analysed. We think that the feedback from the supervisor should be more and more important; the influence of negative feedback and positive feedback and the characteristics of the feedback recipients should be studied deeply.
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    Roles and Mechanism of Interleukin-1 on Sickness Behavior
    Yang Hongyu,Lin Wenjuan
    2004, 12 (02):  290-295. 
    Abstract ( 550 )   PDF (799KB) ( 2378 )  
    Interleukin-1 is a key molecular factor involved in the process of brain-immune interactions. Many stressful stimuli may increase IL-1 bioactivity, and administering IL-1 produces sickness behavior. Peripherally released IL-1 acts on the brain via a fast transmission pathway involving primary afferent nerve innervating the bodily site of inflammation and a slow transmission pathway involving slowly diffusing IL-1 from the circumventricular organs and choroids plexus to brain targets.
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    The Status Quo of Self-Actualization Research in West
    Zheng Jianhong,Huang Xiting
    2004, 12 (02):  296-303. 
    Abstract ( 1805 )   PDF (777KB) ( 2912 )  
    During 30 years after Maslow passed away, the research of self-actualization had made some progress, mainly in the empirical research of structure of self-actualization, influencing factors of self-actualization, sex differences of self-actualization and measure instruments. There was a discrepancy among the experts on the structure or the attributes of self-actualization. The lack of consensus among the experts also on the research of sex difference. But a disagreement was reached among the scholars that self-actualization is a developmental process, not an end-state. Parenting styles, school achievements, school’s educational strategies and self-concept were the main influencing factors of self-actualization.
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    The Professional Developments and Problems of British Psychological Counselling
    Shi Guoxing
    2004, 12 (02):  304-311. 
    Abstract ( 2222 )   PDF (786KB) ( 2085 )  
    Under the continuing endeavors by BACP and BAC, the professional development of counseling has been made a great progress which shows as follow: First, on the training, the courses of training have been unified and, the trainee’s development of operation has been emphasized, as well as the time and expenditure have been dealt with flexibly. Second, on the supervision, with ensuring the supervisors to function, the lifelong supervision has been carried out, the various psychological counseling approaches have been respected, and the empowering and developmental supervision have been supported. Third, on the accreditation/registration, the qualifications and standards for counselors have been strictly controlled. Fourth, on the ethics/complaint, BACP established ethics framework which are abundant and characteristic. There are some problems and bewilderments in British counseling, such as recession in school psychological counseling, inconsistent between the demands of counseling specialization and counseling practice, and so on. It is beneficial to know the psychological counseling situation of British for accelerating the healthy development of psychological counseling of China.
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    Social Constructionist Psychology: ‘Anti-realism’ or ‘Realism’?
    Yang Liping
    2004, 12 (02):  312-319. 
    Abstract ( 1981 )   PDF (776KB) ( 2032 )  
    Now ‘anti-realism and realism’ debate has been the core of contentions about social constructionism Psychology. The opponents condemned social constructionism for its anti-realism, and in the meantime many social constructionists tried to clarify their realist position. We insist that : (1) In respect that social constructionism is an inconstant system, none of the straightforward judgment can abstain from arbitrary decision, and they will only prevent us from appreciating social constructionism ultimately. (2) To realize social constructionism, we need a profound understanding of ‘reality’. Social constructionism treat ‘reality’ as ‘the reality in our beliefs’ or ‘the reality in representation’. This identification may help us to keep away from the simplification in critique. (3) As a realist, knowing the limitation of realism will make us reflect on and participate in the debate more rationally.
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