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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 18 Issue 07 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Preface of Special Issue: Happiness, Dignity, Fairness, Justice, and Harmony
    ZHANG Jian-Xin
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1025-1026.  
    Abstract   PDF (588KB) ( 1166 )
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    The Differences of Well-being Between the East and the West: from the View of Self-construal
    GAO Liang;ZHENG Xue;YAN Biao-Bin
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1041-1045.  
    Abstract   PDF (831KB) ( 4048 )
    Well-being is oriented by the culture essentially. However, the researches on well-being in the past mainly focused on the commonality, rather than the differences, between Western and Chinese well-being. Cultural differences between individualism and collectivism are represented by the differences on self-construction between East and West. By comparing the differences of self-construal and well-being between East and West, we find significant differences on origin, meaning, connection and time, which are the four dimensions of well-being. Clearly, well-being of Chinese has four characteristics: harmony, worthiness, sociability and futurity. Establishment of four characteristics of the well-being of Chinese will provide a valuable perspective on locallizing the theories and applied research of well-being in China.
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    An Evolutionary Psychological Perspective of Happiness
    LI Hong-Li;CHANG Lei
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1046-1051.  
    Abstract   PDF (835KB) ( 1980 )
    The goal of human life is to purse happiness and no one would like to experience the pain. Many stimuli that afftcts happiness include food, marriage, friendship and companion, money and wealth and other factors. Both pursuing happiness and avoiding distresss can staisfy the need of happiness. Why do such simple things as eating our favorite foods when hungry, drinking cold water when hot and thirsty, bonding with our kin, having sex with our loved ones, being recognized by others, and achieving our goals after hard work make us happy? Why does failing to do any of these things make us distressed or unhappy? These experiences make us happy because, directly or indirectly, they have been linked to, and not having them has presented obstacles to, survival and reproductive success in our evolutionary past. The positive emotions collectively known as happiness are in turn selected by nature to motivate us to continue to pursue these fitness enhancing activities. So has the desire to seek happiness been selected to motivate living. An evolutionary psychological explanation of happiness focuses on the functions of the concerning experiences which are ultimately related to reproductive success including survival to reach reproductive success.
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    Reconstruction on the Connotation of Well-being Based on An Integrative Perspective
    PENG Yi;CHEN Hong
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1052-1061.  
    Abstract   PDF (956KB) ( 2127 )
    Well-being is a complex construct that concerns optimal experience and functioning. Current research at home and abroad has been derived from two general perspectives—— subjective well-being (SWB) and psychological well-being (PWB). The former focuses on individual enjoyment, and the latter focuses on potential and self-realization. Based on the studying of literature, this paper analyzes the characters of SWB and PWB to understand their relation and difference. Then at a perspective of subjective behavioral perception, an integrative model of well-being, which concerned the subjective identity, showing the path and character of integration, is proposed in this paper. Then the conception of well-being is defined, and the variation trend of it is analyzed.
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    The Concept and Model of Unhappiness

    GAN Quan;ZUO Bin;SUN Shan
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1062-1067.  
    Abstract   PDF (930KB) ( 1649 )
    In the field of psychology, the researches on happiness have got substantial achievements. However, the researches on unhappiness are quite deficient. The investigation of unhappiness helps psychologists to deeper the happiness studies from a different perspective. Uchida and Kitayama proposed the culture folk models of unhappiness, which contains two dimensions. The immediate hedonic experience on the one hand and the coping action on the other hand constitute the first dimension of unhappiness. The cognitive appraise on the one hand and affections or motivations involved constitute the second dimension of unhappiness. It was also found that there was a cross-culture consistency between the two dimensions. This paper will mainly introduce the conception of the unhappiness, the relationship between happiness and unhappiness and the culture folk models of unhappiness.
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    The Effect of Economic Status on Subjective Well-Being in China:
    An Analysis on Related Researches
    ZHANG Ai-Lian;HUANG Xi-Ting
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1068-1072.  
    Abstract   PDF (843KB) ( 1788 )
    To investigate the effect of economic status on subjective well-being in China, the literature analysis method was used and the related data was processed with frequency statistics and Chi-square test. The analysis of 46 literatures revealed that most studies found the economic status had significant effect on subjective well-being. The unhappiest group was relatively poor or very poor in most studies. A few studies found that economic conditions had no significant effect on subjective well-being and their samples came from developed provinces or their samples’ income was secure. Some researches showed that the relative economic status had greater impact than the absolute economic conditions. Therefore, improving the vulnerable groups’ quality of life, giving close attention to the non-material needs of the people and reducing the income gap between people, will help improve subjective well-being of all classes and promote social harmony.
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    The Relationship between Income and Happiness and Its Practical Implications
    LEE Jing;GUO Yong-Yu
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1073-1080.  
    Abstract   PDF (855KB) ( 2865 )
    The relationship between income and happiness has been controversial. This article analyzed the existing research results, and then summed up a curvilinear relationship between income and happiness: at low income levels, increase in income will lead to significant increase in the level of happiness, once income comes up to a certain level which can meet people’s basic needs, its positive effect on happiness will be weakened by psychological factors such as social comparison, adaptation and aspirations. Based on this relationship, both social humanistic care and fair adjustment, especially the social system design, and personal strive and psychological adjustment are needed to enhance the Chinese people’s happiness.
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    From Hedonomics to Harmonious Consumption
    CHEN Jing-Qiu;TANG Ning-Yu;WANG Fang-Hua;Hsee, C. K.
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1081-1086.  
    Abstract   PDF (820KB) ( 1379 )
    Building on hedonomics (a science that studies the relationship between external stimuli and subjective wellbeing), the present article explores the meaning and the implications of “harmonious consumption.” In particular, building on concepts such as reference point effect, range-frequency effect, and inherent evaluability, the article identifies instances of non-harmonious consumption, such as conspicuous consumption and excessive consumption, and offers recommendations for how to facilitate harmonious consumption.
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    Experienced Utility-Based Well-being and Its Measure
    LIU Teng-Fei;XU Fu-Ming;SUN Yan;ZHANG Jun-Wei;JIANG Duo
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1087-1095.  
    Abstract   PDF (867KB) ( 1848 )
    Experienced well-being is an integration of multiple emotional responses measured by moment-based assessment which is based on experienced utility. The concept of experienced well-being proposed by Kahneman and his collaborators mainly stems from their rediscovery and interpretation for utility. Experienced utility moment-based assessment and hypotheses for measuring moment utility constitute the theoretical basis of experienced well-being. The methods for measuring experienced well-being mainly include experience sampling method and day reconstruction method. Based on these two methods, national well-being accounts and national time accounts analyze more directly how people distribute their time and how they experience emotions in daily life. Furthermore, the concept of experienced well-being and its measurement offer concrete, real and referable scientific data for evaluating and making public policies.
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    Happiness in Behavioral Decision Making and Its Promotion Strategy
    ZHANG Jun-Wei;XU Fu-Ming;SUN Yan;LIU Teng-Fei;JIANG Duo
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1096-1103.  
    Abstract   PDF (841KB) ( 1589 )
    One of humanity’s ultimate goals is the pursuit of happiness. With the development of behavioral decision making, researchers in this field began the exploration of happiness in recent years. Happiness rules in behavioral decision making may involve hedonic editing, less is better, peak and end rule, myopia and loss aversion. Based on these happiness rules, happiness increasing strategies were proposed as follows: how to communicate news to others, how to give gifts, how to use loss aversion to promote happiness, how to apply the peak and end rule to promote happiness, and how to overcome myopia.
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    Positive Impact that Catastrophic Events have on Well-being
    CHEN Chang-Kai;XIAO Xin-Yue;ZHANG Bao-Jun;HUANG Hao-Ming
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1104-1109.  
    Abstract   PDF (840KB) ( 1454 )
    This article wants to create a positive effect model of well-being that bring from catastrophic events. The catastrophe itself can not lead to the sense of well-being, but it can make people reconstruct well-being from three aspects. They are cognition, need and feeling. The catastrophic events may change the conditions that lead to well-being. After the catastrophe, people may feel well-being more easily. In addition, compared with people who were experience the catastrophe, individuals are not affected, may resulting in an immediate experience of happiness.
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    Gratitude and Its Relationship with Well-Being
    YU Cheng-Fu;ZHANG Wei;LI Dong-Ping;XIAO Jie-Ting
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1110-1121.  
    Abstract   PDF (913KB) ( 4854 )
    Gratitude is a heated spot of positive psychology research currently. It refers to a generalized tendency to recognize and to respond with grateful emotions to the roles of other people’s benevolence in positive experiences and outcomes that one obtains. Gratitude plays a unique role in predicting well-being. Two theories of mediation model and moderation model explained this mechanism. Gratitude intervention can effectively increase the general level of individuals’ gratitude and thus improve their well-being. It’s strategies mainly include gratitude lists, gratitude contemplation and behavioral expressions of gratitude. Finally, further research should focus on the clarification of the conception and structure of gratitude, the improvement of the measurement tools, the broadening and deepening of the mediation and moderation mechanism, the development of effective intervention strategies, the study of children and adolescent and cross-cultural or localized research.
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    Impacts of Volunteering on Well-being
    LI Lin;SHI Wei
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1122-1127.  
    Abstract   PDF (819KB) ( 1403 )
    Volunteering involves freely chosen helping activities that extend over time and that are often performed through organizations and on behalf of receptive causes or individuals. Volunteering can promote well-being by means of maintaining physical and mental health, changing coping styles and improving the living conditions. Theories of social integration, psychological resources and perspective-taking thinking explain the mechanism that volunteering acts on well-being to some extent. Some investigates have focused on the effects which reflect on volunteers’ well-being, but not explicitly examine the influence on that of recipients’ and the reciprocal effects of personal well-being and volunteer services, so more research is needed in these areas.
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    Self-Esteem Across the Life Span
    ZHANG Yong-Xin;RE NaGuLi·AiSaiTi;WEI Hua;ZHANG Xiao-Rong; CHEN Jie;GU Chuan-Hua
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1128-1135.  
    Abstract   PDF (982KB) ( 2954 )
    Self-esteem is an important research field of psychology. This article introduces the progress of the research about the life-span development of self-esteem in the last three decades, and mainly focuses on the stability of self-esteem and the factors influencing the life-span development, including age, gender, race, culture, social-economic status, and parenting style in family. This paper proposes that future research of the life-span development of self-esteem should focuse on longitudinal studies and domestic studies, and identify the distinction between different forms of self-esteem and explore their various development.
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    Dignity: Self-Respect, Respected, Respect
    HUANG Fei
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1136-1140.  
    Abstract   PDF (821KB) ( 1910 )
    Dignity is a property of human-being. Dignity in the paper is conceptualized as a concept that has three components: self-respect, respected by others and respecting others. Self-respect is global self evaluation and related affects. Being respected and respecting others are interpersonal consequence and attitude. Individual’s freedom, autonomous, self control, and social justice are related to dignity not only in theories but also demostrated in empirical studies, as those following Skinner’s ideas. Dignity is also shown to be located near to the vertical axis of interpersonal circumplex, so that individual’s ability and status will affect one’s self-respect and being respected by others.
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    The Symptoms of Personality Disorder From the New Perspective of Fragile High Self-esteem
    WANG Man;TAO Rong;HU Shu-Jing;ZHU Xu
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1141-1146.  
    Abstract   PDF (826KB) ( 2202 )
    It is a growing concern for researchers to understand the symptoms of personality disorder from the perspective of fragile high self-esteem (fragile HSE). Excessive defensiveness is a typical characteristic of fragile HSE caused by unstable self-construal and insecure attachment. And fragile HSE is closely related to the occurrence, maintenance and level of paranoia, narcissism, borderline symptoms. Future research should pay more attention to the relationship and balance of various types of fragile HSE, the heterogeneity of concepts and so on in the field of symptoms of personality disorder.
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    Change of Life Satisfaction of Chinese in Different Years of Birth
    SUN Rui-Chen;LIU Wen-Jing;XU Yan
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1147-1154.  
    Abstract   PDF (877KB) ( 2160 )
    The study was to delineate the change of life satisfaction, perceived controllability, financial satisfaction and explore the mutual relationship between these variables of Chinese from 1990 to 2007 via the research program of ‘Survey of World Value’. The results showed that gender and time of survey had interactive effect on life satisfaction; time of survey and year of birth had interactive effect on life satisfaction and perceived controllability; moreover, both time of survey and year of birth had main effect on financial satisfaction. In addition, life satisfaction, perceived controllability and financial satisfaction had significant changes during the survey in four different time spot; meanwhile, financial satisfaction and perceived controllability significantly predicted life satisfaction.
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    The Dynamic Relationship between Family Income and Life Satisfaction: Based on a Panel Study about 21 Cities and Counties from 2004 to 2010
    ZHENG Yu;ZHAO Na;WANG Er-Ping
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1155-1160.  
    Abstract   PDF (820KB) ( 1144 )
    This panel study examined the dynamic relationship between family income and life satisfaction among 21 cities and counties from 2004 to 2010. Results of multivariate multilevel growth models indicated that average income had a positive impact on average life satisfaction at county level. A negative correlation was found between the original income and life satisfaction growth. In addition, there was negative correlation between average income rate of growth and average life satisfaction rate of growth. Findings were discussed concerning their practical implications in order to improve the general happiness of the Chinese people in economic development recent years.
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    Character Strengths: The Psychological Capital to
    Build a Good Life
    ZHANG Ning;ZHANG Yu-Qing
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1161-1167.  
    Abstract   PDF (825KB) ( 3229 )
    Character strengths are a family of positive dispositions reflected through one’s thoughts, feelings and actions. Research on character strengths is one central theme of positive psychology. Researches have shown that the Values in Action Classification of Strengths (VIA-CS) are ubiquitously recognized across different cultures and that certain character strengths are significantly correlated with peoples’ psychological health such as children’s problem behavior and desired developmental outcomes, subjective well-being and the process of posttraumatic growth. Recent research documented that hereditary, age, gender and one’s religiosity are the main factors that influence the presence and development of character strengths. Direction for future research and the application of character strengths in children and adolescents development and education are also discussed.
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    A Research on the Chinese’s Implicit Theory of Justice

    DU Jian-Zheng;LIU Ning;LI Ming;ZHU Zhen-Bing;XU Ben-Hua
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1168-1174.  
    Abstract   PDF (953KB) ( 1042 )
    The survey data with 429 participants suggest that the implicit theory of justice commonly hold by people is in such a sequence: 1)Justice is demonstrated by that everyone is equal in the eyes of the law; 2)Justice is demonstrated by that everyone is equal in the chance of access to education, getting a job, investment, and participating in the management of state affairs; 3)Justice is embodied in the fairness and reasonableness of procedure. The factor analysis indicates that the implicit theory of justice has 6 dimensions, including rights, equilibrium, redress, retribution, equality, and evenness.
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    Alarm System of the Mental Neural Circuit: A New Perspective on Social Justice’s Study
    LI Xu;HU Jin-Sheng
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1175-1181.  
    Abstract   PDF (826KB) ( 1068 )
    The mental neural circuit activity and a series of the subsequent response in mental and behavioral under an alert situation constitute a broader alarm system. In fact, under both threatening and uncertain conditions, the way people form their judgments is more complicated than that has been explained in traditional equity theories. From the perspective of the alarm system, discrepancy between actuality and desired standard can arouse alarm system, and then prompt people to handle negative emotion and eliminate the uncertainty by changing their attitudes and behaviors, which consequently influence people’s judgment and concern to the justice. Evidence from fMRI and ERP studies has indicated that the response to alarming situation is principally related to ACC activity. By conflict monitoring, emotion vocalization and integrated regulation, alarm system intrigues people’s concern to the justice, and leads to substitute process, primacy effect and extreme reaction in justice judgment.
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    The Development of Children’s Fair Behavior: Evidence from Experimental Games
    YU Jing;ZHU Li-Qi
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1182-1188.  
    Abstract   PDF (835KB) ( 2433 )
    Fairness or justice as the eternal pursuit of human beings is an important topic shared by psychology, economics and many other disciplines. Method of story is often used by developmental psychologists to explore children’s reasoning about distributive fairness. The introduction of game theoretical paradigm provides a new approach and perspective to study children’s fair behavior. The paper mainly reviewed children’s development of fair behavior in experimental games and the reasons for the contradictory age trends was analyzed. The in-group bias in fair behavior, the nature of fair behavior: outcomes versus intentions and the relationship between theory of mind and children’s fair behavior were discussed. Finally, the paper suggested that future research on children’s fair behavior must keep the social context in mind as well as children’s social cognitive abilities.
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    Organizational Justice: Review and Prospect
    ZHANG Song;DAI Chun-Lin;LI Mao-Ping
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1189-1192.  
    Abstract   PDF (799KB) ( 1547 )
    This paper reviews the studies of organizational justice in the past more than 40 years, including the conception of organizational justice, developments of the theory. It finds that we need to integrate the conception, to study opportunity justice, the third party justice and group level justice in future. We also need to conduct cross-cultural study, and should improve the means used in the researches of organizational justice.
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    Building a Psychology for the Peace Table: Maslow’s Perspectives on Peace
    LIU Bang-Chun
    . 2010, 18 (07): 1193-1198.  
    Abstract   PDF (814KB) ( 1353 )
    Maslow is a famous humanitarian psychologist who was greatly concerned with peace and human fortune. And considered promoting peace, happiness, and building a psychology for the peace table as his task. The call for a new value system, the consequence of World War II, the reflection on human nature, the formidable power of nuclear weapons which destroyed the value-free science, the peace movement completed the background of Maslow’s peaceful ideas on psychology. His Hierarchy of needs theory, the theory of human nature, the theory from-extrinsic-to intrinsic peace education, the theory on the characteristics of peaceful person, the integrative methodology are of great importance to the peace psychology.
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