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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 18 Issue 08 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Visual Word Form Area and Its Functional Role in the Neural Network of Reading
    WANG Xiao-Juan;SHU Hua;YANG Jian-Feng
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1199-1207.  
    Abstract   PDF (689KB) ( 1467 )
    The middle fusiform gyrus was regarded as visual word form areas (VWFA). This view was challenged by more and more evidence recently. An increasing number of researchers are interested in the function of VWFA and the role in visual words reading. They view it as a part of dynamic network. This issue has been investigated quite intensively in recent years, which includes three controversial points reviewed in this paper: the selective sensitivity of VWFA to orthographic stimuli and the hierarchical organization of whole fusiform gyrus; its functional role in visual words reading; the role of language experience in shaping its function. By discussing the new findings, a new approach was proposed as the direction of future cognitive neuroscience studies. It suggested a dynamic neural network as the brain mechanism of cognitive task, instead of identification of local brain region for specific cognitive processing component.
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    The Mechanism of Sense of Direction and Its Modulating Factors
    XU Qin;LUO Yu;LIU Jia
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1208-1221.  
    Abstract   PDF (754KB) ( 1773 )
    Sense of direction is the ability to locate current position, to determine the direction to destination, and to choose right route. This ability is closely related with not only people’s daily life but also the development of aeronautics. Sense of direction consists of three cognitive processes: information input, internal representation and information integration. A cognitive model is presented to illustrate the whole process of sense of direction. The neural mechanism of sense of direction is discussed by summarizing behavioral and neuroimaging studies of normal and brain-damaged patients. A neural network structure is set to incorporate those findings. Moreover, after examining the influences from environment, training and inheritance on sense of direction, candidate genes for sense of direction in human are suggested. Future researches will be benefited from the genetic neuroimaging.
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    Negative Compatibility Effect in Masked Prime Paradigm:Interaction in Stage of Perception or Inhibition in Stage of Response
    LI Qian;WANG Yong-Hui
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1222-1230.  
    Abstract   PDF (706KB) ( 1225 )
    In masked prime paradigm, negative compatibility effect, with performance benefits on incompatible trials and cost on compatible trials, occurs when mask-target SOA is 100 to 200ms. This effect can be interpreted by three theories: self-inhibition theory, object-updating theory and mask-triggered inhibition theory. All of which probe into the mechanism of negative compatibility effect, including whether it occurs in perception stage or response stage and involves self- inhibition or stimuli-triggered inhibition. The mechanism of negative compatibility effect need to be further explored.
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    Music and Individual Development: A Cognitive Neuroscientific Perspective
    CHEN Xian;NAN Yun
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1231-1235.  
    Abstract   PDF (661KB) ( 2336 )
    The perception of music starts early in human life. Research from cognitive neuroscience indicates that music has profound impact on individual development. Musical experience modulates the way brain processes information, affecting the development of language, spatial, and motor functions. The current review draws on recent research in cognitive neuroscience of music, focusing on the influence of music upon brain development.
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    The Advance Research of Emotional Contagion Theory
    WANG Xiao;LI Wen-Zhong;DU Jian-Gang
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1236-1245.  
    Abstract   PDF (699KB) ( 4201 )
    Emotions are organized, meaningful, generally adaptive systems functioning as a whole that include expressive and instrumental behaviour, patterned physiological processes, cognitions and subjective feelings. People can know other feeling by capturing their emotional expression, which is named by emotional contagion. The current mechanisms of emotional contagion researchers proposed include the mimicry-feedback, associative learning, language mediated association, direct induction, and cognitive mechnaism, in which mimicry-feedback has been accepted by most researchers. In the interactive process of emotional contagion, individual differences, gender, and cultural difference are the most important moderating variables, affecting individual emotional change. In recent years, many researchers begin to concern the intra-personal emotional change in a group, instead of inter-personal emotional change in the traditional studies. Meanwhile, the cycling mechanism is taken as the most important theory to explain the emotional interaction among group members. In the future research, the following topics should be considered, including: the influence of individual difference in the emotional contagion, the mechanisms of group emotional contagion, and the implication of emotional contagion in the service management.
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    Affective Forecasting Biases and Related Studies
    LIU Cong-Hui;ZHANG Yao-Hua;YU Guo-Liang
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1246-1255.  
    Abstract   PDF (701KB) ( 4390 )
    Affective forecasting refers to the prediction of one’s emotional state in the future. This kind of prediction is affected by various kinds of cognitive biases, i.e. immune neglect, focalism and empathy gap. This article integrated the causes of these cognitive biases from the point of view of cognitive-experiential self theory and mental simulation, introduced individual differences and interventions of affective forecasting biases. In the end, the possible trends for the future research focus on psychology-behavior mechanism, evolutionary and brain mechanism of affective forecasting.
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    Association Between Aggressive Behavior and A Functional Polymorphism in the COMT Gene
    WANG Mei-Ping;ZHANG Wen-Xin
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1256-1262.  
    Abstract   PDF (711KB) ( 1124 )
    The development of aggressive behavior has important genetic underpinning. With the advancement of molecular genetics, research on the mechanism underlying aggressive behavior has extended to the molecular level in recent years. A number of studies have identified the COMT (Catechol-O-methyltransferase) gene as one of the candidate genes related to aggressive behavior. However, research findings on human subjects have not been always consistent and even contradictory in some cases. This paper reviewed the recent literature about the effect of the COMT gene on aggressive behavior and analyzed causes of the inconsistencies of research findings. Finally, directions of future research were discussed.
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    Self-with-other Representation: Shared Representation or Special Representation?
    KONG Fan-Chang;ZHANG Yan;CHEN Hong
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1263-1268.  
    Abstract   PDF (697KB) ( 1536 )
    self-with-other representation refers to the self-concept when one interacts with the others, which provides a new perspective in exploring the relationship between the self and the others. There are two main viewpoints, shared representation and special representation. The former proposes that the subjects integrate the representations of other-related information into their self-concept, becoming a component of the self-concept. The process of self-related information and the process of other-related information shared some activation cortexes. And the later proposes that the presentations of self-related information and the representations of other-related information are relatively independent process, and both are based on specialized representation styles and structures. The activation cortexes are specialized for both the representation of self-related information and other-related information. Additionally, future research issues will focus on the relationship between the shared representation and the special representation, the rule of the emotion and affect in the self-with-other representation, and the influences of relationship types and degree in the self-with-other representation, and so on.
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    Overview of Current Work-Family Balance Research in the West
    WANG Jing;WU Ming-Xia;LIAO Li-Hui;WU Mei-Bao
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1269-1276.  
    Abstract   PDF (701KB) ( 2132 )
    Work-family balance research has a history of more than ten years in the Western countries, but China doesn’t focus on this issue until recently. The overview concludes the work-family balance research in the west, discuss the origin of the theory, clarify the conceptions, ways of measurement and related variables. Besides, it compares balance with conflict and facilitation in the research of work-family interface. Finally, the article suggests that the definition of the concept should be based on the differentiation of other related conceptions and should focus on the subjective and objective view and the national conditions of China. What’s more, it points out that the need to develop an objective measurement tools to improve its measurement method and the need for cross-cultural research of the future development.
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    The Status and Problems of Counseling Process-Outcome Research in China
    JIANG Guang-Rong;HU Shu-Jing
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1277-1282.  
    Abstract   PDF (645KB) ( 1843 )
    Counseling process-outcome research is used to investigate the effects of process variables. This research has been conducted in western countries for more than 5 decades, developed from exploring main process variables, verifying them, to probing into operation mechanisms of these variables. The research methods have developed from quantity, to quality, and the combination of these two, whereas each of them has been improved. Process-outcome research has just been launched in China. Various problems exist such as, narrow research scope, deficient local research, primitive methods usage, and etc. The purpose, the subject, as well as the reliability and validity should be considered while initiating such research.
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    A Review of Theory About Money Analgesia
    LI Qi;LIU Ai-Ping;LUO Jing
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1283-1289.  
    Abstract   PDF (696KB) ( 1583 )
    There are currently two views on money analgesia theory. One is that monetary plays a secondary and complementary role in alleviating pain, the other is that the information in a specific situation determines weigh of monetary in alleviating pain. Author will review both literatures to find out the disadvantages and advantages in them. Based on the previous study, future researches on money analgesia will focus on the following aspects, scope, status, extent, research methods.
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    Review of the Studies on Positive Illusions
    REN Jun;CAI Xiao-Hui
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1290-1297.  
    Abstract   PDF (682KB) ( 2446 )
    As an important research topic of contemporary positive psychology, positive illusions refer to kinds of positive psychological adaptations that individuals take when they face threatening situations or stressful events. Positive illusions have abundant connotations, including three main manifestations: unrealistically positive views of the self, exaggerated perceptions of personal control, and unrealistic optimism. Questionnaire and experimentation are regarded as two main research methods. Mental health, psychological resource, romantic relationship and cross—culture are chiefly involved in present studies on positive illusions.
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    Objective Measurement in Psychological Science: An Overview of Rasch Model
    YAN Zi
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1298-1305.  
    Abstract   PDF (719KB) ( 4540 )
    Rasch model is a latent trait model which has drawn international interest among researchers. It provides a promising solution to ensure the objective measurement in psychological science. However, the research and applicatoin of Rasch model are not as popular as expected among domestic scholars. Unlike general IRTs that adopt a “the model fits data” position and use different parameters to accommodate the idiosyncrasies of the data set, the Rasch model requires that “data fit the model”. Its unique features including the same metric shared by persons and items, data linearity, and parameter separation ensure the achievement of objective measurement. The foci of future development of Rasch model include multidimensional Rasch model, test equating and linking, computer adaptive testing, and Rasch-based measurement system such as Lexile framework
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    Evolution and Simplification of the Approaches to Estimating Structural Equation Models with Latent Interaction
    WEN Zhong-Lin;WU Yan
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1306-1313.  
    Abstract   PDF (757KB) ( 2342 )
    Recent researches on structural equation modeling with latent interaction were reviewed. The processes of simplification of the modeling were discussed from the three aspects: the strategies of creating product indicators, the approaches of constraining parameters, and the requirement of the mean structure and its relation to indicator-centering. The unconstrained model without using the mean structure was recommended, and the steps for the modeling were summarized.
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    Different Types of Data and Statistical Methods in Psychology:Introduction of Functional Data Analysis
    JIAO Can;XIONG Min-Ping;ZHANG Min-Qiang
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1314-1320.  
    Abstract   PDF (707KB) ( 2417 )
    Data from psychological research can be roughly divided into three different types, they are cross-sectional data, time-series data and panel data. Methods for analyzing such data should be based on this research and the differentiation among them are briefly discussed. Methods for cross-sectional data in psychology are over depended on the linear structure and certain assumptions. Consequently, it ’s difficult to obtain benefits from those statistical methods when working with panel data in psychology. The lately developed functional data analysis method , which is mainly applied to panel data, has been mainly discussed in this research. According to the literature review, this method has been judged as a powerful new tool for psychological research, especially for time-series panel data from ERP、fMRI and developmental psychology experiments.
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    Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM): A Model for Dyadic Data Analysis
    LI Yu-Hui;HUANG Fei
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1321-1328.  
    Abstract   PDF (694KB) ( 1885 )
    The dyad is the fundamental unit of interpersonal interaction and interpersonal relations, and the phenomenon laying the dyad is an important topic in social science. The data collected from the dyad is characterized with the interdependence feature of interpersonal relationship, which manifests in the target effect and attracts researches’ interests. The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) is a simple yet compelling model of dyadic data, which takes the interdependence into consideration and estimates actor effect and target effect simultaneously. There are three kinds of variables according to the sources of variance, between-dyads variables, within-dyads variables and mix variables, and data can be distinct into exchangeable and non-exchangeable one depending on distinguishing variable existing or not. Dyadic data analysis always begins with an analysis of the degree of nonindependence. Then three methods can be used to estimate the effects, pooled regression, multilevel modeling, and structural equation modeling. Next, we illustrate the analysis with LISREL computer program for APIM path analysis without or with latent variables. Finally, the applications of APIM are brief reviewed and future development and implications for relationship research in China are presented.
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    Multilevel Mediation Based on Hierarchical Linear Model
    FANG Jie;ZHANG Min-Qiang;CHIOU Hao-Jeng
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1329-1338.  
    Abstract   PDF (729KB) ( 2578 )
    This article described three common multilevel mediation models. According to hierarchical linear model and causal steps approach, inspection procedures of multilevel mediation effect and method of estimating mediation effect size were elaborated. Group mean centering with the means reintroduced into the level-2 intercept model would provide an appropriate test of 2-1-1 and 1-1-1 mediation model, because this centering method could decompose multilevel mediation effects into within-group and between-group effects. This article also discussed the future direction of multilevel mediation model, which is multilevel moderated mediation and Multilevel Structural Equations Modeling, and the extension of testing methods, namely, Sobel test and confidence interval testing method.
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    Test Security Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing
    LI Ming-Yong;ZHANG Min-Qiang;JIAN Xiao-Zhu
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1339-1348.  
    Abstract   PDF (704KB) ( 1125 )
    Computerized adaptive testing has been subject to security problem in practice. To solve the problem, the researchers at home and abroad have done a lot mainly in two ways. One is to impose a maximum exposure rate of items in the bank that no item could exceed, which includes SH method, item eligibility method, multiple maximum exposure rate method and so on. The other is to improve item selection strategy, which involves -stratification method and its alternations. Furthermore, the two solutions have been integrated in recent years. In this article, the author will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these methods focusing on MSE and bias, test overlap rate, utilization rate of item bank and so on. Finally, development history and research ways of the test security method are summarized, and future research trends are forecast as well.
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    On the Compatibility Between Item Response Mechanism and Assumptions in Psychometric Models
    YANG Xiang-Dong
    . 2010, 18 (08): 1349-1358.  
    Abstract   PDF (739KB) ( 859 )
    Cast from the perspective of cognitive processing in test item solution, the assumptions underlying psychometric models within various testing theories were analyzed. Although item response mechanism is neglected as definition in CTT and GT, it is included as an integrated component in IRT. Unlike early IRT models where the relevant assumptions are made statistically and lack substantive psychological justifications, assumptions in cognitive psychometric models are explicitly tuned to specific situations of test item solution, which provide a foundation for cognitive approach to psychological measurement. A variety of cognitive psychometric models are synthesized and discussed according to a categorization of item response mechanism.
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