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  • Table of Content
       , Volume 18 Issue 09 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Micro-expression and Its Applications
    WU Qi;SHENG Xun-Bing;FU Xiao-Lan
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1359-1368.  
    Abstract   PDF (701KB) ( 7912 )
    When an emotion is concealed or repressed, the true emotion may be manifest as a micro-expression, a fleeting facial expression discordant with the expressed emotion, usually suppressed within 1/25 to 1/5 of a second, and closely related to the deception. This article is a review of all the studies reported about micro-expression. Earlier researchers focused on the measurement of abilities to recognize micro-expression. Because of the development of measurement tools, a large number of micro-expression recognition studies emerged within the clinical domain. However, only one published empirical study has explored the generation of micro-expression, and many questions are left unanswered. Further research should focus on the cross-culture validity of Micro-Expression Training Tool (METT), the generation of micro-expression, and the development of automatic micro-expression recognition tools. Micro-expression studies can provide important insights into the development of an automatic deception detection system.
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    Application of Diffusion Tensor Image in the Cognitive Neuroscience of Language
    YUE Qiu-Hai;SHU Hua
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1369-1376.  
    Abstract   PDF (678KB) ( 1568 )
    The achievement of human language function is not only based on the brain regions in frontal and temporal cortex which are activated by language tasks, but also based on the anatomical connectivity of white matter fibers between these regions. With the development of technique of neural image, the diffusion tensor magnetic resonance image has been playing more and more important role in the research of the neural mechanism of language. We can apply diffusion tensor image to study the neural mechanism of language via combining diffusion tensor image with other approaches such as behavioral method, functional localization, functional connectivity and whole brain network analysis. Moreover the valid anatomical evidences for the neural substrate of language provided by diffusion tensor image will increase our understanding the relationship of brain and language.
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    The Role of Space During Reading
    LI Xin;BAI Xue-Jun;YAN Guo-Li;ZANG Chuan-Li;LIANG Fei-Fei
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1377-1385.  
    Abstract   PDF (669KB) ( 1703 )
    Studies about the role of space in reading were reviewed in this paper. Firstly, the eliminating or replacing of interword space in space-language would cause significant disruption effect. Secondly, adding interword spacing into the language which had no space would faciliate reading. Furthermore, the role of space in Chinese reading was affected by following factors, such as reading experience, reading pattern (oral reading, silent reading), space size and so on. Thirdly, the role of space during the second language reading would be differently affected by the written forms of the first language and the second language. Finally, the future studies about space should consider more details in the guide of eye movement control theories. Moreover, the factors such as landing position and the familiarity of space should be focused, too.
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    The Processing of the Non-target Language in Language Switching for Bilinguals
    WANG Rui-Ming;FAN Meng
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1386-1393.  
    Abstract   PDF (660KB) ( 1471 )
    Bilingual individuals needed effective mechanisms to switch their different languages in everyday life, which was called language switching. The present review focused on three fundamental issues in the processing of the non-target language in language switching: 1) whether the non-target language was activated when bilinguals intended to use the target language? 2) If the non-target language was activated, then at what level did this activation occur, at the conceptual level or the lexical level? and 3) If the non-target language was activated, then what influence would it exert on the processing of the target language? Based on these three questions, some studies on language switching in language production and language comprehension were reviewed. Finally, the prospects for the future studies were showed.
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    The Brain Mechanism of Figurative Expression Processing
    MA Li-Jun;ZHANG Ji-Jia
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1394-1402.  
    Abstract   PDF (682KB) ( 1109 )
    With gradually deepening studies on the figurative language processing, it has been found that left hemisphere took an active role in figurative language processing. It challenged the early hypothesis, according to which right hemisphere was the main biological mechanism in figurative language processing. Recent researches, however, proved that anterior prefrontal cortex also takes part in the processing of figurative language. Thus understanding of figurative language involves the simultaneous activation of left hemisphere, right hemisphere and anterior prefrontal cortex, even though they take different effect. More evidences are expected to prove that there is the establishment of neural network in the processing of figurative language.
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    Foresight: Future-oriented Episodic Memory and Its Reconstruction
    LIU Yan;YANG Li-Zhu;XU Guo-Qing
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1403-1412.  
    Abstract   PDF (680KB) ( 1752 )
    Foresight refers to the process of the episodic simulation to the personal future events. The concurrent evidence were collected basically from the following propositions: (a) to portray a phylogenetic map of foresight from the viewpoint of comparative psychology; (b) to track the emergence and developmental trajectory of foresight in terms of developmental psychology; (c) to explore the cognitive and neural mechanisms which could be underlying the process of foresight. Future researchers should make supplement to the current understanding of phylogenetic map in foresight, and reveal how foresight relates to other cognitive abilities in the process of human developments. Furthermore, it is also indispensable to clarify the neural connections between various brain areas that are possibly involved, and therefore advance the application value in society.
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    Review of Research on the Visual Attention Model of Driver
    LI Hong-Ting;XU Wei-Dan;GE Lie-Zhong;LI Wen-Shu
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1413-1419.  
    Abstract   PDF (653KB) ( 1999 )
    Visual attention model of drivers plays an important role to the safety of driving. Empirical research recently have revealed some typical models from the aspects of scanning of road scene or in-out vehicle which include the effect of visual model on safe driving, the visual attention distribution model and the training of visual attention model for the drivers. Furthermore, we should pay more attention to the influence factor of visual attention model and the localization theory in China.
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    Neural Basis of Creativity: Evidence From Structural and Functional Imaging
    SHEN Wang-Bing;LIU Chang;CHEN Jing–Jing
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1420-1429.  
    Abstract   PDF (679KB) ( 2913 )
    The study mainly focused on the neural basis of creativity, which based on brain structural and functional imaging studies. Evidence from brain anatomy indicated that creativity may be related to parietal and angular gyrus. However, vivo brain structural imaging researches showed that creativity mainly relative to frontal gyrus and cingulate cortex and the subcutaneous concentration of white or gray matter. Task-oriented studies found that the frontal and parietal cortex, even combining with some other areas play an important role in creativity, whereas the right frontal lobe as well as some brain regions in cerebral cortex and cerebellum activated in individual difference approach. In order to get more consistent conclusions, studies in the future should investigate creativity systematically and integrally, and also design more comparable experiments and creativity tasks to detect creativity by our high temporal and high spatial solutions technologies.
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    Anhedonia in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
    SHI Yan-Fang;CHAN Raymond C. K.
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1430-1439.  
    Abstract   PDF (693KB) ( 1658 )
    Anhedonia is defined as the diminished capacity to experience pleasure, and it plays a very important role in the aetiology of schizophrenia. However, previous studies focusing on positive emotional experience in schizophrenia often have inconsistent findings. New perspective on reward system indicates that schizophrenia impairs in anticipatory pleasure rather than consummatory pleasure. This kind of deficit may occur in individuals along the spectrum disorders such as schizotypal personality disorders. This review highlights the relationship between reward systems and anhedonia in individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
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    Effect of Genetic Polymorphisms on Neural Circuits of Emotion Regulation
    CHEN Tao-Lin;LUO Yue-Jia
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1440-1448.  
    Abstract   PDF (728KB) ( 1256 )
    As multiple utilization of the brain imaging and genetic analysis, it has greatly advanced the discoveries on neurobiology of emotional regulation in recent ten years. The growing converging evidences showed neural circuits of emotion regulation primarily involved in the connection and interaction of dorsal-ventral prefrontal circuits, prefrontal-amygdala circuits and cortical-limbic circuits, which might be affected by variant of genes such as 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT), Catechol-O- methyltransferase (COMT), tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), and the interaction of different genes aslo had important effect on the neural circuits of emotion regulation.
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    The Neural Basis of Disgust Processing
    HUANG Hao;LUO Yu;FENG Ting-Yong;LI Hong
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1449-1457.  
    Abstract   PDF (676KB) ( 1619 )
    Disgust is an emotion which elicited by offensive or repulsive object. Disgust can be divided into different types according to stimulus types. Insula and basal ganglia are the main brain structures of disgust processing. Moreover, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus, and medial prefrontal cortex are also involved in disgust processing. By summarizing the existed researches, we found that different types of disgust, and different sense modalities of disgust may have different neural basises. Future research should focus on the cognitive mechanism and neural basis of disgust processing, and the neurotransmitter related to disgust.
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    The Neurotrophic Hypothesis of Antidepressant Actions of Exercise
    WANG Ze-Jun;JI Liu;CHU Xin-Yu
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1458-1470.  
    Abstract   PDF (871KB) ( 1394 )
    Physical exercise has beneficial effects on mental health. In particular, exercise was shown to reduce depressive symptomatology and clinical depression. The neurotrophic hypothesis of depression believed that decreased neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus and expression of neurotrophic factors contributes to depression, but up-regulation of both neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus and expression of neurotrophic factors plays a key role in the actions of antidepressant treatment. Like antidepressants, chronic wheel-running exercise also increases neurotrophic factors expression and adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. This review provides that exercise results in antidepressant-like behavioral changes that may involve a neurotrophic mechanism similar to that hypothesized for antidepressant treatments.
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    Cognitive and Neural Plasticity of Executive Functions
    among Older Adults
    DU Xin;CHEN Tian-Yong
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1471-1480.  
    Abstract   PDF (680KB) ( 1997 )
    Executive decline hypothesis suggests that the unique loss of executive function is the main cause of cognitive aging. However, a growing body of literature had demonstrated a remarkable plasticity in executive functions and its related brain areas (mainly prefrontal cortex) among older adults. Age-related decline in executive function could be reduced through cognitive training, and the activation, structure (volume) and neurotransmitters of related brain areas could be altered. Some studies also suggested the benefits of executive function training could be transferred to other cognitive functions. All these findings have great significance for the deeper exploration of cognitive aging theories and the practical applications of cognitive intervention.
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    The Impact of the Confucian Culture to Present Mental Health Services of Chinese
    LUO Ming-Chun;HUANG Xi-Ting;SU Dan
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1481-1488.  
    Abstract   PDF (660KB) ( 2263 )
    The mental health services (MHS) refers to activities for the maintenance and promotion of one’s mental health dominated by psychological theories and methods. It has a fatal connection among individual psychological factors and social-cultural factors. Chinese MHS is rooted in Chinese culture, and is itself the product of it. Confucian culture is the main stream in Chinese culture; it has representational, constructive, directive, and evoked emotions functions in the process of the MHS. And has direct or indirect impacts on personality, coping styles, and seeking-help toward attitudes and behaviors of Chinese MHS’ counselors and clients. The relationship between Chinese MHS models and the Confucian culture tradition are in fact related to etic and emic problems of Chinese culture and MHS. To construct a fitful public Chinese MHS system must consider the role and impact of Confucian culture to MHS’ idea, theories and practices.
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    Definition of “Insight” in Psychotherapy
    HU Shu-Jing;JIANG Guang-Rong
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1489-1495.  
    Abstract   PDF (654KB) ( 1340 )
    The importance of insight in counseling has been confirmed by counseling theories and research of important events in counseling sessions. Understandings of insight are not consistent among mainstream theoretical orientations. Although diversities exist in the concept of, the content of, and the way to get insight, the establishment of new connection is recognized as the insight per se. Classification and operational definition of insight in empirical research helps to realize more clear and accurate concept of it. There hasn’t been an accurate definition of insight in counseling till now. The current study tentatively defines insight as: formations of new perception of the clients themselves and their world, with assistances of counselors, which are represented as establishment of new connections in their personal meaning systems.
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    An Evaluation of Theoretical and Empirical Research on Health Motivation
    XU Xiao-Yan;ZHAO Li-Yan
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1496-1502.  
    Abstract   PDF (656KB) ( 2043 )
    Health motivation is the desire to be healthy, and is one of the determinants of healthy behaviors. The purpose of this article was to review current and previous theoretical and empirical studies on health motivation. One promising health motivation theory argues that health motivation is an inner dynamic process, and that it consists of four stages: forming health motivational tendency, making plans, initiating action, and persisting in action. Measures of health motivation can be classified into two categories – general measures and specific measures. Generally, empirical studies have shown that health motivation can enhance individuals’ health behaviors, and hence improve their health.
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    Review and Commentary on Foreign Studies of Career Adaptability
    ZHAO Xiao-Yun;GUO Cheng
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1503-1510.  
    Abstract   PDF (668KB) ( 3110 )
    Career adaptability refers to individuals’ abilities to keep balance with the changes of career roles, and is viewed as a key ability for one’s career success in the rapidly changing modern society. It has become a new theoretic growing point in the foreign field of career psychology in recent years. Based on the related summary of the foreign studies on career adaptability, this article reviews the studies of the origins, conceptual connotation, theoretical construction and empirical studies of career adaptability so that its abundant theoretical connotation and practical value can be realized and understood. Finally, the article gives some suggestions for future research, that is, the studies on career adaptability should keep focusing on the enrichment and perfection of its theoretical construction, the cultural compatibility of the concept and its application in the practice of career counseling; besides, further research on those who have career difficulties is needed.
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    Serial Reproduction as A New Method for Studying Stereotype
    GUAN Jian;CHENG Jie-Ting
    . 2010, 18 (09): 1511-1518.  
    Abstract   PDF (691KB) ( 1489 )
    Serial reproduction was first used by Bartlett (1932). Rooted in the early research of memory, serial reproduction method is passed through a chain of participants to effectively simulate chains of communication and has found information to become more stereotypical. Recent research has suggested that these changes that occur to the material as it is transmitted along the chain. Results of these studies showed that interpersonal communication may be an important source of stereotype maintenance. And then, we point out the fundamental principles and methods of operation. The future directions of serial reproduction method and limitations of current literature in the field were discussed.
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