Mental health literacy (MHL) is important for improving mental health. In a narrow sense, it refers to the knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders which aid their recognition, management or prevention. In a broad sense, it refers to the comprehensive use of mental health knowledge, skills and attitudes to maintain and promote mental health. MHL is often measured by Vignette case questionnaire, and unidimensional or multi-dimensional scales. Interventions including social campaigns, school education, self-service application and Mental Health First Aid training can effectively improve MHL. Elements of MHL, including psychological health knowledge, mental disorder recognition, emotional regulation, anti-stigma, and help-seeking attitude etc, are positively related to mental health. Future research can be carried out in such aspects as constructing the MHL evaluation system, exploring the mechanism of its influence, expanding the coverage of research, and strengthening empirical intervention research.
The effects of fundamental social motives in improving the system of public psychological services are examined in this work. Fundamental social motives are systems shaped by human evolutionary history to energize, organize, and select behaviors to manage recurrent social threats and opportunities for reproductive fitness. Such systems include self-protection, disease avoidance, affiliation, status seeking, mate seeking, mate retention, and kin care. Evidence on the priming of fundamental social motives and the influence of such motives on social and economic behaviors are reviewed. How and why these motives influence social and economic public order as well as well-being, feelings of security, and perceived gains are likewise explored. Moreover, the potentialities of fundamental social motives to become indicators of public order as well as those of the needs and quality of public psychological services are highlighted.
The theory of catharsis believes that venting can effectively alleviate anger and aggressive impulses. However, a large number of experimental studies about the effects of direct catharsis, indirect catharsis and target catharsis on aggression have revealed the potential harm of catharsis on aggression and its functional mechanism, the catharsis can’t reduce anger but increase aggression through factors such as cognitive processing. Even so, the public still favors this seemingly convenient way of regulating emotion, for example catharsis equipment has become the standard equipment of psychological counseling institutions. This not only suggests people's unilateral cognition of psychological catharsis, but also reflects the lack of scientific and standardized construction of our social psychological service system. Future research should focused on the potential problems and its possible solutions in the current widespread application of catharsis equipment that used as a mean of modern psychological intervention.
What kind of role does psychology play in the construction of social psychological service system? How to construct a comprehensive and systematic social psychological service system? How to promote the development of psychology itself in the construction of social psychological service system? Taking the resilience-building as an example, through summarizing the resilience-building paths in the different level, such as the individual, team and community, and combining with practical case. This paper analyzes psychological role for social psychological service system construction process. In the end, the paper discusses the relevance issues to promote the application of psychology in the social service system.
The construction of social psychological service system means applying psychological theories, methods and techniques to social governance. Social governance usually is a process of multi-subject co-governance, in which all stakeholders make a group decision based on negotiation. However, it is difficult to systematically evaluate the quality of group decision-making. Therefore, a "process-result model" of group decision-making was proposed, in which the quality of group decision-making is evaluated on the levels of “process” and “result”. Concretely, there are two types of processes of “information processing” and “interpersonal interaction”, and two types of results including “objective decision results” and “subjective feeling”. Based on the model, a video evaluation method and a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the quality of group decision-making were developed and applied among college students and urban community residents. It was found that the self-assessment questionnaire of group decision-making was a valid instrument. Moreover, the results from the video evaluation method and the self-assessment questionnaire could confirm each other, which suggests that these two methods can be generalized into more settings of social governance.
The public psychological service system’s objective, whom it should serve, and what service it should provide are systematically analyzed with the application of the decision-making approach suggested by the system. The construction of the public psychological service system should adopt a strategy, where different research perspectives, multi-disciplines, and different research focuses are fully integrated. This includes an integration of individual, situational and social perspectives, an integration of foundation and applied psychological disciplines, and an integration of academic research and societal applications. Social psychology is the core building block of the public psychological service system. To develop an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms and processes of social governance, it is essential to integrate the approaches of both psychological social psychology and sociological social psychology. The construction of the public psychological service system is to build an enabling psychological environment that promots social development. It needs to take the perspective of social development and should explore the psychological pathways for social development in undertaking the task of multidisciplinary integration and social governance.
Verb argument structure complexity is manifested in four aspects: the number of arguments, the selection mode of arguments subcategorization, the assignment mode of θ-roles and the mapping of argument structure. Most empirical studies show that more arguments, alternating arguments subcategorization, alternating assignment of θ-roles and noncanonical mapping make the cognitive neural mechanisms of verb argument structure processing become more complicated. The main functional brain regions corresponding to processing of more arguments involve left inferior frontal gyrus and posterior perisylvian regions, the main functional brain regions corresponding to processing of alternating argument subcategorizations involve left inferior frontal gyrus, middle-posterior frontal lobesuperior temporal gyrus and middle-posterior temporal lobe, the main functional brain regions corresponding to processing of alternating assignment mode of θ-roles involve posterior perisylvian regions, left middle-posterior frontal lobe and inferior frontal gyrus, the main functional brain regions corresponding to processing of noncanonical mapping involve left inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, middle temporal gyrus and posterior temporal lobe. Perhaps, left inferior frontal gyrus involves initial syntactic processing, the determination of the subcategory of verbs, syntactic movement processing and semantic processing of unaccusative verbs, left middle-posterior frontal lobe involves initial syntactic processing and the determination of the subcategory of verbs, left superior temporal gyrus and middle-posterior temporal lobe involve surface syntactic structure processing and argument syntax-semantic integration, posterior perisylvian regions involve argument semantic reprensatation. The process of verb argument structure processing and lexical properties of verbs indicate that there are interaction effects between or among some complexities. Some other issues need further exploration, including the corresponding relationship between the complexity of the verb argument structure and the difficulty of its processing, the difficulty hierarchy of verb argument structure complexities processing and the cognitive neural mechanisms of interaction effects of them, as well as the cognitive neural mechanisms of Chinese verb argument structure complexity processing.
Developmental dyslexia is a major type of learning disability that severely hinders the development of cognitive, emotional and social adaptability. Writing is closely related to reading, and individuals with dyslexia usually show writing difficulties. At the behavioral level, dyslexic individuals exhibit impairments in writing quality and speed and take longer more pauses. At the neural level, neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that dyslexic individuals show altered functional activation in visual word regions and altered functional and structural connectivity between linguistic and motor regions. Generally, convergent evidence points to the impairment of orthographic access in dyslexic individuals during writing, but it remains unknown whether they also have difficulty in orthographic-motor transformation and motor execution. Writing is more strongly related to reading in Chinese than in alphabetic languages. The study of writing deficits would have value for developing unique diagnosis and treatment strategies for Chinese dyslexia.
How does the human brain automatically process changing emotional information? Based on the theory of mismatch negativity (MMN), which is generated from our auditory system, a new concept named expression mismatch negativity (EMMN) has been developed by researchers. EMMN is regarded as the index of pre-attentive processing. EMMN is primarily responsible for detecting the variation of information that contains emotional details, and this is where it differs from the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN) that accounts for processing common visual information. Current review mainly discusses how EMMN differs in regard to different facial expression, gender, and fluid intelligence. We also focused on EMMN in aberrated populations such as autism, major depression, and schizophrenia. In addition, we sheds light on the mechanism of EMMN through a perspective based on the predictive-coding theory. In addition to further exploring the neural mechanism of EMMN, future studies should focus particularly on the application of EMMN in clinical diagnosis and therapy, as well as pay close attention to the feature of EMMN in different emotional cues.
Orienting network is an important part of attention system and it includes two major tasks: visual orienting and visual search. For these two tasks, typically developed group shows similar neural mechanisms. However, from a perspective of attention to non-social information, different behavioral patterns were observed between visual orienting and visual search in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) group. Regarding visual orienting, the consensus is that ASD individuals are intact in attentional shift but have difficulty in attentional disengagement; however, this conclusion is still controversial. Regarding visual search, ASD individuals have superior search ability, but its time sequence and reasons deserves further exploration. Future studies should identify the hemispherical symmetry of ASD individuals in visual orienting task, the underlying mechanisms of visual search advantage, and the relationships between visual orienting and visual search in ASD populations.
Depression, a complex and heterogeneous mental disorder, leads to great global burdens of disease. Although diagnosis based on nosology is broadly used in several domains, it is still unable to direct the exploration of pathological mechanism of depression. In addition, several treatments developed by this diagnosis have poor outcomes due to its low prediction validity. Computational approaches to psychiatry remedy those limitations and help to improve understanding, prediction and treatment for depression by two complementary approaches: data-driven and theory-driven. Theory-driven approaches apply models to multiple levels of analysis from the prior knowledge or hypojournal of depression. Data-driven approaches, however, adopt machine-learning methods to analyze high-dimensional data to improve the diagnostic and predictive accuracies of depression, and eventually, promote the treatment effects. With the development and combination of these two approaches as well as the integration of resources, it is promising to cure depression and prevent it from occurrence.
Transition to motherhood can be a challenging time in a woman’s life, during which she may experience numerous physiological and psychological changes. These normal adaptations, which are essential for the survival and health of the mother and offspring, may be disrupted by maternal stress. Maternal stress can impair maternal behavior, cognitive function and emotional regulation in human mothers and female animals. These disruptive effects are related to the dysregulation of endocrine systems such as glucocorticoids, oxytocin and prolactin, and changes of neurological responses to stimuli involving the maternal circuitry, limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Maternal stress could also impair maternal behavior and psychological function by altering the plasticity of neurogenesis, dendrite and synaptic remodeling.
The effect of hunger on individual cognition and social behavior was reviewed based on the psychological perspective. Hunger has been related to impaired general cognitive function, biased cognition and decision-making. Other literature has evidenced that hunger can alter social attitude, reduce moral judgment standard and induce aggressive behavior. Three hypotheses discussed in previous literature were summarized: ego-depletion hypojournal, cognitive activation hypojournal and coordination mechanism hypojournal, all of which attempt to explain the psychological mechanism driving the effects of hunger. Upon evaluating the literature, it can be pointed out that existing researches have problems such as different subjective feelings of hunger, inaccurate measurement methods. Thus, a suggestion for future research is to focus on how to improve the validity of hunger measurement and explore the internal mechanism of hunger effect on the multiple physiological, psychological and social layers.
Automated driving can largely reduce modern traffic problems and improve driving comfort. During conditional automated driving (Level 3), drivers are allowed to engage in non-driving related tasks but need to take over the vehicle timely once the system reached its limitation. In this critical process, drivers have to shift their attention and acquire situational awareness in order to take over successfully. Existing studies have shown that take-over requests, non-driving related tasks, driving situations and driver-related factors were all critical factors in the take-over process. In the future, we can investigate the cognitive mechanism of the influence of various factors on the take-over process and explore possible interactions between these factors.
Trait Activation Theory aims to elaborate how relevant situations could activate individuals’ internal traits, and how the activation processes trigger the implicit traits expressed as explicit behaviors. The current study articulates the emergence, the baseline and extended theoretical models of Trait Activation Theory, and specifically explains the situational taxonomies, various trait activation processes, and the activated outcomes. The essence of trait activation and its boundary were also shown through the comparison with “P-E” Fit Theory and Situational Strength Theory. Future studies could explore the current theoretical model in depth and breadth, particularly enrich the “to be activated” alternatives and the situational taxonomies.
Network analysis models (or Network Psychometrics) have been widely used in psychology research in recent years. Unlike latent variable models which conceive observable variables as outcomes of unobservable latent factors, network analysis models apply the graph theory to construct a network to depict the associations among observable variables. The observable variables are treated as nodes and the associations between them are treated as edges. As such, network analysis models reveal the relationships among observable variables and the dynamic system resulted from the interactions between these observable variables. With indices reflecting individual nodes’ characteristics (such as centrality) and network structural characteristics (such as small-worldness), network analysis models provide a new perspective for visualization and for studying various psychological phenomena. In the past decade, network analysis models have been applied in the fields of personality, social, and clinical psychology as well as psychiatry. Future research should continue to develop and improve the methods of network analysis models, making them applicable to more types of data and broader research fields.