During the process of marketization in China, we have to face a clear fact that interpersonal trust has been declining year after year. Although previous literature has repeatedly revealed the positive effect of trust on economic development, it seldom concerned the role of market economy development in trust changing. By integrating recent micro and macro evidence, it is found that marketization process has served as a role of inhibiting trust in China. Concretely, with the establishment of market economy in China, the impetus attribute of market has been fully developed by encouraging people to seek self-interest maximization and compete with each other, which activates their strong motivation to accumulate wealth on the one hand, whereas which also leads the popularity of homo economicus belief in people, and destructs those trustees’ optimistic expectation of human nature on the other hand. However, the corresponding market rules and social rules are too underdeveloped to protect trustees. As a result, the process of marketization has been eroding the basis of economic development: trust, and leads to the trust decline. Therefore, building rule-based and credit-based market economy is a necessary pathway to prevent trust from declining and rebuild a high-trust society.
Aiming at the cognition processing defects of individuals with insecure attachment, present study aims to explore the plasticity of insecure attachment and it’s neural mechanism by virtue of attachment security priming. The plasticity of insecure attachment is achieved through the cognitive priming techniques which put insecure individuals in a sensitive and supportive environment. Attachment security priming awakens people’s positive attachment experiences, builds new cognitive schema about attachment relationships, finally, realizes the reconstruction of the internal working model of insecure individuals. Using the behavior-physiology-neural techniques, present study systematically investigates the occurrence mechanism and neural basis of the plasticity of insecure attachment through three aspects. First, examining the effect of conscious and unconscious attachment security priming on cognition processing defects of insecure individuals. Second, exploring the effect of repeated attachment security priming on cognition processing defects of insecure individuals. Third, conducting a longitudinal study to track the effect of the repeated attachment security priming. Present study provides a new perspective for the research of insecure attachment. The attachment schema reconstruction theory developed by present study is the verification and development of the secure-base schema theory. In addition, the examination of repeated attachment security priming effect attempts to build an evaluation standard for the plasticity study of insecure attachment. The present study contributes to the intervention training, the promotion of attachment safety, and the maintenance of mental health for insecure attachment.
Due to the high power distance culture, most Chinese employees have a wait-and-see attitude towards voice behavior. Managerial voice solicitation may be the key to solve this problem. Based on the communication element model, we analyze the structure of voice solicitation, and propose that there are different forms and contents of voice solicitation. Based on the theory of planned behavior, we further propose that managerial power distance, the perception of change climate and managerial self-efficacy will affect voice solicitation through the intention of voice solicitation. In addition, the perception of change climate and managerial self-efficacy will moderate the form and content of voice solicitation. In a word, we change our focus from employee voice behavior to managerial voice solicitation, which provides a new perspective for exploring the voice behavior in the context of Chinese culture.
Behavioral and neuroscientific methods have uniquely contributed to our understanding of human mind and behavior. The advance in neuroscience and its potential implications (e.g., in legal systems) have attracted attention from both academia and society. However, researchers found that, when providing statements supported by either neuroscientific or behavioral/psychophysiological results, even if these neuroscientific results were logically irrelevant to the statements, participants still considered statements with neuroscientific results as more trustworthy. This phenomenon was termed as neuroscience bias. By systematically reviewing empirical studies on neuroscience bias, we revealed that: (1) the reproducibility of neuroscience bias was debated, but the effect exists; (2) neuroscience bias could be attributed to people’s preference for the reductionism and psychological essentialism. Neuroscience bias is one of many biases people may have when interpreting scientific results; future studies should further explore the psychological mechanisms of these biases and thereby provide guidelines for correctly interpreting and using scientific results.
Predictive coding is arguably one of the most important mechanisms to explain the interactions between the brain and the complex environment. Indeed, one of the main functions of sensory system is to predict upcoming events, which is vital for survival. Take auditory modality for instance. The neural responses to sound repetition and auditory change, such as mismatch negativity (MMN) and stimulus- specific adaptation (SSA), can be explained under a predictive coding view. As a theoretical framework, predictive coding is now facing some unresolved questions and challenges. However, combining human and animal studies under this framework will provide an excellent chance to investigate the neural mechanisms of auditory processing.
Researchers have used the Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) task to study how people distribute visual attention in when they view dynamic scenes. Studies have used event-related potential (ERP) to investigate neural electrophysiological activity and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure functional localization in the human brain while people process dynamic visual information. Studies found that ERP amplitudes changed with tracking load. The difference between ERP amplitudes elicited by the probes on the targets versus distractors reflected how people were distributing attention between the targets and distractors. In other words, the ERP amplitudes reflected people's increased attention to the targets and inhibited attention to the distractors during tracking. The fMRI studies consistently found strong activation in the dorsolateral frontal cortex (DLFC) and the parietal lobe, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (AIPS), posterior intraparietal sulcus (PostIPS), and superior parietal lobule (SPL). The IPS had a particularly strong relationship with attentional load. The level of activation in the IPS was directly related to observers’ attentional tracking performance. The evidence also suggests that the SPL might be responsible for attentional shifts and that the DLFC might be related to the sensorimotor prediction during tracking.
Spatial navigation is an essential high-level cognitive function in daily life. However, the involved brain regions such as hippocampus and entorhinal cortex are vulnerable to aging and result in structural atrophy and functional alterations. Using the experimental paradigms like animal experiments, pencil-paper tests, and real-world navigation, early studies explored the behavioral performance of spatial navigation in older adults. By virtue of having similar scenes with realistic environment, compatible with magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and navigator could have interactions with scenes, virtual reality is increasingly applied in the age-related spatial navigation research, revealing the important role of medial temporal cortex such as hippocampus in age-related spatial navigation studies.
The promoting effect of insight on memory refers to the phenomenon that processing insightful problems facilitate memory retention, compared with processing non-insightful problems, which is a robust effect regardless of operational definitions of insight and experimental paradigms. Based on the stage view of insight, two theories were proposed to explain the cognitive mechanisms underlying the promoting effect of insight. The theories of cognitive generation and representation-change propose that cognitive effort, transfer-appropriate processing and representational-change processing function together during processing insightful problems to enhance the memory retention, while the emotional "aha" experience theory proposes that emotional reaction after processing insightful problems promotes the subsequent retrieval of information. Future studies should focus on the following aspects: selecting appropriate markers of insight, consolidating the promoting effect of insight on memory, evaluating the sustainability of the promoting effect of insight, and systematically exploring the cognitive mechanisms underlying the promoting effect of insight on memory.
In language and music development, smaller elements combine into larger units, which eventually form hierarchical structures. Previous studies have found that listeners can segment continuous stream of speech and music into hierarchies and represent them in a hierarchical way. On the basis of perception, listeners can also integrate incoming language and music events into hierarchical structures to form a coherent understanding and ultimately complete the communication smoothly. Future studies should analyze the role of boundary clues in hierarchical structure perception, examine the influencing factors of integration processes at different time scales, and further explore the relationship between language and music hierarchical structure processing.
Two research perspectives exist concerning tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) in the field of spoken production, either cognition or metacognition. The perspective of cognition focuses mainly on the process of lexical access, assuming that TOT is the failure to activate or retrieve the information sufficiently. However, the perspective of metacognition focuses mainly on the metacognitive process in spoken production, assuming that it is speakers’ monitoring of the retrievable state of the target words that leads to the occurrence of TOT. The metacognitive process involved in TOT can not only monitor the retrievable state of the target words and the retrieval of relevant information during lexical access, but also exert control over the process of lexical access to make sure that the target words could be successfully retrieved after TOT occurrence. The evidence so far has suggested that cognitive and metacognitive perspectives are dissociative in respects of cognitive mechanism, influencing factors and neural basis. Further studies should investigate the mechanism and neural networks underlying how TOT monitors and controls the cognitive system in retrieving the target words, and address the properties of TOT occurring in Mandarin spoken production and the positive effect of TOT on aging of spoken production.
In the 20th century, many psychologists who held the “doom and suffering” perspective studied the physical, cognitive, and emotional losses experienced by people in their later years. However, recent theoretical and empirical researches have challenged this generally acknowledged truth from the perspective of the “aging paradox” which recognized the positivity effect of aging on emotional processing. The positivity effect has been observed in cases where older adults preferred positive materials rather than negative materials compared to younger adults in cognitive processing. The second-generation socioemotional selectivity theories incooperated the positivity effect theory, cognitive control hypothesis, and strength and vulnerability integration three theoretical models, which describe the effects of age differences on cognitive and emotional functions and emphasize the potential role of cognitive control in the positive emotional process of older adults. However, the distinction between automatic and controlled cognitive processes depends on the allocation of attentional resources. Therefore, the cognitive control may play an important role in attention processes of positive emotional information among the elderly. In addition, the time course of attention bias may be another key factor associated with positivity effects. Finally, based on these factors accounted for, the attention stage model of cognitive control which would influence the positivity effects of aging was constructed. Future studies could explore Chinese elderly’s emotional attention processing mode, the functional mechanisms of different cognitive control subcomponents, and the treatment quality of attention, to improve the ecological validity of the studies.
Altruistic behavior refers to a form of prosocial behavior, of which one’s ultimate goal is to increase other’s welfare. It is not only an important research topic in the field of social psychology but also a necessary element for promoting social harmony and stability. Meanwhile, empathy is the intrinsic motivation for altruistic behavior. Empathy occurs when an observer perceives or imagines someone else’s affect, which triggers the observer to partially feel their emotions. Previous studies indicated that secure attachment style and security priming positively impact individual’s empathy skills and altruistic behavior. According to the attachment theory, emotion regulation and cognitive schema might be the underlying mechanisms to explain how secure attachment influences individual’s empathy and altruistic behavior. Future research is suggested to examine such pathways by further exploring moderators of the relationship between the proximity of givers and receivers in altruistic behavior and the similarity of their attachment styles. Future research is also suggested to investigate the effect of altruistic behavior on secure attachment. It will help to inform intervention development that targets at improving empathy skills and altruistic behavior through secure attachment.
Ingroup favoritism and ingroup derogation are very common our social lives, but the researchers still don’t know why these two kinds of intergroup biases can exist and whether these two kinds of biases have evolutionary functions. By systematically reviewing the research reports about the evidence that these two kinds of intergroup biases follow the principles of smoke detection and functional flexibility to deal with the threats of violence and disease incurred by ingroups and outgroups, the literature review showed that although the directions of ingroup favoritism and ingroup derogation are completely opposite to each other, both of these two biases are adaptive responses of the same threat management mechanism which is designed to deal with specific ingroup and outgroup threats. In conclusion, the current evidence suggests that the intergroup bias has adaptive functions and thus it supports the evolutionary hypothesis of intergroup bias.
Hostile interpretation bias, a kind of cognitive processing bias, refers to the tendency to interpret ambiguous information as hostile, which can affect individual's aggressive behavior. Oppositely, aggression can affect individuals’ hostile interpretation bias. As a personality trait, high aggression makes individuals more prone to possess hostile interpretation bias. As a behavioral response, aggressive behavior develops and strengthens hostile interpretation bias. Thus there may be a cyclical relationship between hostile interpretation bias and aggression. In addition, the relationship is influenced by gender, age, personality characteristics and other factors. In future, measurement tools of hostile interpretation bias and aggression should be improved for more directive and objective measurement. The interaction research between different subtypes of hostile interpretation bias and aggression should be expanded to lead us understand their relationship comprehensively and systematically. The role of emotion in the relationship between hostile interpretation bias and aggressive behavior should be explored deeply. And the process of information should be integrated and the impact of their interaction on aggressive behavior should be explored.
As a significant social ability, political skill is important for organizational core competitiveness. In recent years, political skill has received extensive attention from researchers. By using content analysis, we summarize the consequences and theoretical explanation of political skill, including social exchange theory, social influence theory, conservation of resources theory, social cognitive theory, and social capital theory. Future research should develop the concept and measurement of political skill in the Chinese organizational context, explorethe antecedents of political skill, examine the consequences of political skill from the team level, and focus on the effects of political skill based on conservation of resources theory.
Thriving at work is a psychological state in which individuals experience both the sense of vitality and learning at work. The contextual enablers, such as leadership, organizational support and fairness, job characteristics, and peers, can facilitate thriving at work. Drawing from the Trait Activation Theory and Self-Determination Theory, the model of “psychological mechanism of organizational context affecting thriving at work” is built: “omnibus” and “discrete” contextual factors can either directly affect the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, or activate traits, then affect the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and subsequently influence thriving at work. Future studies are suggested to pay more attention to the “omnibus” context and its intermediary mechanism; to conduct the multi-level research that simultaneously examines individual and contextual variables, or articulates the social and task levels; and to utilized the dynamic research method to study the relationship between organizational context and thriving at work, and hence to predict thriving at work.
Some studies demonstrate that there is no significant relationship between purchase and well-being. Other studies, however, demonstrate that purchases can increase well-being depending on ‘how to buy’. For example, several studies have found that consumers derive more happiness from experiential purchase rather than material purchase and that there are boundary conditions. The present review study aims to (1) explore the underlying mechanisms of the ‘purchase type-well-being’-relationship from the perspectives of hedonic adaptation, social benefit, anticipative benefit, and unsymmetrical regret; (2) identify boundary conditions of the main effect from three aspects, namely, personal factors, situational factors, and the types of well-being; and (3) provide an outlook of the probable future research directions of this area.