It is critical to define the indicators when discussing “Healthy Aging”. “Quality of Life (QoL)” as a comprehensive concept, includes physical, psychological, social and environmental aspects, which surpasses traditional definitions such as “life expectancy” and “healthy life expectancy”. QoL is a widely accepted concept that emphasizes on subjectivity, plasticity and multi-dimension. Interventions based on positive psychological factors promoting elder’s QoL are explored. The recessing of physical system is unavoidable during the aging process, but active participation of individual’s psychological system could march to the rhythm of “quality of life” on elders.
The development of the Internet era has led to the three major changes: the interconnectedness of all things, the scarcity of time, and the exhaustion of emotions. A key concept that connects these three growing trends is autonomy. When employees fail to control their own time at work, they experience the scarcity of time and emotional exhaustion. Previous research has found that constant Internet connectivity increases an individual’s autonomy in general scenarios. However, when employees are in a state of unbalanced power-dependency, constant Internet connectivity might decrease autonomy. Based on the power-dependency theory, follower’s asymmetric dependence and paternalistic authoritarian leadership are required in these unbalanced relationships. This project aims at exploring from a new perspective when and why constant Internet connectivity reduces autonomy and what the corresponding consequences are. The theoretical model challenges the prevailing notion that Internet connectivity increases autonomy, and it constructs a new theoretical basis for understanding employees’ autonomy in the context of Internet connectivity.
Structural equation modeling (SEM) has been widely used in psychological researches to investigate the casual relationship among latent variables. Model estimation can be conducted under both the frequentist framework (e.g., maximum-likelihood approach) and the Bayesian framework. In recent years, with the prevalence of Bayesian statistics and its advantages in dealing with small samples, missing data and complex models in SEM, Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) has developed rapidly. However, in China its application in the field of psychology is still insufficient. Therefore, this paper mainly focuses on presenting this new research method to applied researchers. We explain the theoretical and methodological basis of BSEM, as well as its advantages and disadvantages compared with the traditional frequentist approach. We also introduce several commonly used BSEM models and their applications.
As a qualitative method, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) has been increasingly employed in psychology and other social sciences disciplines. In China, the quality of research using IPA was doubtful, and thus a systematic review of the current studies was warranted. Through a comprehensive search in Chinese and English database and screening, 49 articles were included. According to Smith’s criterion, 26 studies explicitly referred to IPA theoretical principles; 33 studies had clear and transparent data collection and analysis process. Most of the studies (n = 40) were coherent and plausible, however, only a small proportion of the studies (n = 13) provided strong evidence to support the themes. In the forty-nine included studies, only 4 articles were rated as “good”, 11 articles were “acceptable”, and the remaining 34 articles were “unacceptable”. Based on previous research and recommendations, this study attempted to present a guideline to conduct and write a good IPA study.
Language plays an important role in the exchange of emotional information. The processing of emotional language has always been the focus of emotional research. Some main views and results on emotional words processing from ERP data are analyzed and summarized: including ERP components and relationship between valence and arousal, as well as emotional effect characteristics. ERP components related to emotional word processing encompass very early P1-N1 components, early EPN components, and late LPP components. Emotional valence and arousal dimensions have shown to function as two significant factors in emotional word processing. Their relationship, however, remains undetermined. Compared with emotional pictures, emotional word processing exerts a weaker emotional effect, showing a bias towards positive valence. Future studies are required to explore relevant factors influencing emotional effect of emotional word processing, to distinguish emotional-laden words from emotional-label words, and to analyze the processing of these two types of emotional words. In addition, it is also an important topic for a future research to elucidate the emotional word processing mechanism in natural context reading by using eye-tracking technique.
According to attentional control theory, anxiety could impair the inhibitory control. Although this hypothesis has been supported by numerous behavioral and neurophysiological evidences, there is considerable controversy on whether the high anxiety individual increases or decreases the top-down attentional resources in order to accomplish the inhibitory control task. This problem may be caused by a variety of factors. The theoretical interpretation itself has obvious deficiencies. Moreover, multiple extraneous variables results in lower reliability and validity of the empirical research results. To resolve this controversy, future research should try to explore the relationship between anxiety level, attentional control level and inhibitory control.
Loss of control in substance seeking and use of addicts is closely related to response inhibition. Many studies have explored this relationship in context of substance-related cues. Substance cues can be automatically captured by attention and also induce non-automatic approach-motivated state. As a consequence, these cues may consume limited cognitive resources through a stimulus-driven and a state-dependent manner in order to influence addicts' response inhibition. And these effects also play important roles in the development and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Further research should be carried out to reveal the neural mechanisms of both manners, clarify how motivations and attitudes towards substance use modulate these effects, conduct research in real situations, and discover more effective interventions.
That sleep quality could affect individual’s risk-taking behavior has been largely confirmed and supported by a growing body of research. It has been revealed that sleep loss affects not only the functional integrity of the frontal cortex, but also the activation of the amygdala and striatum brain regions, ultimately increasing individuals’ risk-taking behavior by decreasing their perception of danger and sensitivity to loss. However, previous studies have mostly focused on adult populations and neglected the interaction effect of personality traits and social environment on the relationship between sleep quality and risk-taking behavior. Moreover, due to the prevalence of sleep deprivation and high-risk-taking behavior in adolescents, the implications of further studies to understand these dynamics—especially the neural processing involved—in this population are addressed.
Attention bias is an important factor in the maintenance of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Attentional vigilance, attentional avoidance, and difficulty in disengagement are the most widely studied and discussed ones. With the deepening of research, some researchers have suggested that the attention mode of SAD individuals is not a single and static mode, and it is more likely to switch between different attentional modes, which is a dynamic process. Based on relevant research results and theoretical assumptions, it is speculated that the attentional bias of SAD individuals will change dynamically with the increased anxiety level and impaired attention control ability, from attentional vigilance to the attention avoidance and difficulty in disengagement. This view needs further research to confirm and specify more targeted interventions based on the results of the study.
The Promoting the Emergence of Advanced Knowledge (PEAK) Relational Training System is the first verbal behavior assessment instrument and treatment protocol that integrates Skinner’s “Verbal Behavior” and Post-Skinnerism analysis of human language and cognition, “Relational Frame Theory”. It aims to address the language and cognitive deficits in children with autism. By the end of 2018, the PEAK system has published four modules: PEAK-Direct Training module (PEAK-DT), PEAK-Generalization module (PEAK-G), PEAK Equivalence module (PEAK-E) and PEAK-Transformation module (PEAK-T). Each of the modules contains a direct pre-assessment, a full 184-itemized skill assessment, and a 184 item curriculum. Based on the previous literature, PEAK-DT has broken the ceiling effect of the VB-MAPP milestone evaluation in patients with ASD, and the entirety PEAK system is prospected to provide a more advanced and comprehensive verbal behavior assessment and training system than VB-MAPP. Since the establishment of the PEAK system in 2014, many published empirical studies indicated that some properties of the PEAK system are: good reliability and validity as an assessment tool, effective treatment for the patients with ASD, and an easily-mastered operation in practice; which makes the PEAK system owning potential application value in the intervention delivered from behavioral analysists as well as autistic parents in the future.
Workplace civilized behavior is a proactive behavior that conveys courtesy and respect based on social and organizational role obligations. This behavior depends on organizational culture. In recent years, with the influence of positive psychology on organizational behavior research, the value of workplace civility has attracted the attention of scholars, and there has been discussion about its implication and nature. Because workplace civility is inwardly demanding of self-control and outward-oriented behavior of conveying respect, it has positive significance for the shaping of individuals, the promotion of interpersonal relationships in organizations, and the cultivation of an organizational atmosphere. Based on a literature search, this paper provides an operational definition and basic research framework for workplace civility.
Leader anger is one of the most common and perceived workplace negative emotions, which has a significant impact on improving work relationships, behavior and performance. Nonetheless, there is an important controversy on whether leader anger in the workplace leads to negative work outcomes or the possible positive implications across different contexts, that is, hinders or promotes leadership effectiveness. It is still unclear why and how leader anger affects leadership effectiveness. We aim at adding to this literature by addressing important issues such as concept, positive and negative effectiveness, two-path mechanisms, boundary conditions under which anger expression in the workplace will lead to specific positive or negative outcomes. We finally proposed future prospects from its concept, structure and measurement, event antecedents and outcomes, mediating mechanisms, context factors, research method and levels, leaving us much space for the follow-up.
There are differences between disgust and other negative emotions. There are also different types of disgust. This review explores the methods used to induce different types of consumer disgust. Products and services, propaganda, organizational behavior, and unfair distribution can lead to different types of consumer disgust, which can affect consumer behavior such as product evaluation, purchase intention, willingness to pay, delayed decision-making, word of mouth, and product consumption. Future research directions are also discussed.
In recent years, “nudge” has been increasingly applied to coping with climate change and environmental problems, and has become an effective strategy to promote individual’s pro-environmental behavior. However, in China there is a lack of research and practice on pro-environmental behavior intervention based on the idea of nudge. The reason why pro-environmental behavior needs to be nudged is that individual’s decision-making regarding pro-environmental behavior involves cognitive limitations and insufficient motivations. Seven nudging strategies for promoting pro-environmental behavior were summarized from the perspectives of cognition and motivation. The cognition-oriented strategies included the default options, the framing effect, and the descriptive norms; and the motivation-oriented strategies included priming national interest motivation, legacy motivation, benefit motivation, and autonomous motivation. Disputes with regard to the nudging strategies and feasible suggestions for ecological and environmental management were discussed.