The task-switching training is one of the approaches used to improve executive functions. Different paradigms are used to study the effects of training. While, few studies have investigated that the task-switching training could reduce switch cost and improve the performance of other cognitive tasks. On the other hand, the effects could be maintained for a certain period of time. However, some studies did not find significant transfer effect. Therefore, training efficiency is also affected by age, participation’s other executive function components, cognitive flexibility, and strategy. Moreover, task-switching training may improve the ability of set-shifting through three ways: improve the ability to resolve task-setting conflicts, increase the participation of the frontal-parietal network, and establish bottom-up automatic control. Future research should standardize the existing research methods and procedures, consider the task switching training from the unity and diverse perspective. Research also needs to look for more flexible training methods, such as tDCS.
Associative memory is generally impaired with age in older adults. It continues to be controversial about the mechanism of age-related associative memory deficit, whether the age-related associative memory deficit is a specific deficit caused by impaired binding function or a global deficit of information representation caused by impaired global cognitive function. The specific deficit view represented by the Associative Deficit Hypothesis (ADH) proposed by Naveh-Benjamin (2000) believed that the age-related associative memory deficit was associated with a deficit of specific processing processes for encoding and retrieving the binding of items in older adults. However, the global deficit view represented by the DRYAD model proposed by Benjamin (2010) suggested that the age-related associative memory deficit was linked to the global deficit in memory fidelity in the elderly. Both the ADH and the DRYAD model predict that associative memory will be impaired in older adults, but these two theories have their own different assumptions, corresponding empirical evidence, and some potential limitations. In addition, the factors affecting the age-related associative deficit were discussed from two aspects: the characteristics of the stimuli and participants. Future studies should not only focus on the cognitive mechanism and influencing factors of the age-related associative deficit, but also pay more attention to its practical application and clinical guiding value.
Since the discovery of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), an increasing number of studies on Non-image forming effects (NIF) of light revealed evidence for acute changes in the level of alertness, mood and cognitive performance during the biological night and day. Regarding the influence of ambient light on cognitive performance in healthy day-active people, however, studies have revealed even more equivocal findings. Light’s effect on cognition is moderated by many factors, chief among them are the parameters of light (intensity and spectrum), lighting pattern, timing (time of day and year), personality characteristics and the nature of the task. For future research should pay more attention to investigating the relationship between light level and performance with multiple manipulations of light, exploring dynamic lighting system, developing customized personalized luminaire and testing molecular biological mechanism of NIF effect of light.
The body contains rich social information. Studying the body representation’s development in the early stage is significant for revealing body representation’s specific mechanism and further understanding the infants’ social development. Through looking at the theories about the body shape and the body movement, we summarize the representation patterns of the infant’s body structure information and movement information. At the same time, the article describes two theories on the infant's body representation development. Future researches should pay more attention to explain the specific development process and the controversial critical period of body representation in fancy. Moreover, the mechanism of biological motion preference on body representation should be explored through using the brain imaging technology.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by deficits in social communication and restrictive and repetitive behaviors. Anxiety or anxiety disorders are commonly believed to be one of the most common comorbidities in individuals with autism. The relationship between anxiety and autism is unclear. Anxiety in individuals with autism is associated with intolerance of uncertainty, the function and volume of amygdale, emotional regulation strategies and negative thoughts. Assessment instruments have been developed specifically for anxiety in autistic individuals; modified cognitive behavior therapy for the treatment of anxiety in individuals with autism has achieved good results. Future research should focus on exploring the cognition and neuro-mechanism of anxiety in individuals with autism, verifying the effectiveness of the specialized assessment measures, as well as studying the treatment effect of modern technologies, such as virtual reality, on the anxiety of individuals with autism.
Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD) is a personality disorder with pervasive disregard for and violation of the rights of others accompanied with high crime propensity. The formation of ASPD is affected by genetic and environmental factors, manifested in abnormalities in neurotransmitter and hormonal system, autonomic nervous system and brain structure and function. To a certain degree, these neurobiological characteristics may cause ASPD to exhibit poor inhibitory control, emotional dysfunction, disregard of punishment and reward dominance. Neurobiological evidence provides judicial implications, such as treatment, risk assessment, conviction and sentencing of ASPD offenders. More research is needed on the diagnostic classification criteria, evidence based practice and influencing factors of ASPD from the perspective of neurobiology.
Physical attractiveness plays an important role in the formation and development of intimate relationships. Since individuals with higher ratings of physical attractiveness are perceived as having more socially desirable traits and better genes, they are regarded as having a higher mate value that can facilitate the establishment of intimate relationships. However, because of the dissimilarity in physical attractiveness, the less attractive partner tends to employ a range of mate retention, jealous, insulting, and sexual coercion behaviors. These behaviors contribute to an acceleration of the breakup of intimate relationships. Other studies have suggested that attractive men have a higher probability of not possessing good genes, which would be favorable to intimate relationships and women do not show a stronger preference for attractive men when in the hormonal states associated with high fertility. The viewpoint of “what is beautiful is good” is currently being questioned, the findings of which have been controversial and divergent. As a result, the relevant direct evidence needs to be further consolidated.
Information overload occurs when the current information processing requirements exceed information processing capacities. Information overload can impair the quality of decisions, prolong decision-making time, reduce decision satisfaction, and cause chronic stress. The attentional resources theory and limited working memory capacity can be used to explain why information overload damages decisions. Attention resources for filtering and managing information are consumed quickly under information overload and the allocation and utilization of attention resources can be disrupted by irrelevant information, which causes the efficiency of information processing to be reduced. Moreover, the available working memory for information processing can't process massive amounts of information in a limited time. As a result, decision performance is damaged by information overload. Future research should further explore the information processing model under information overload, the eye movement empowerment method allows us to examine attention resource usage under information overload. A dynamic coupling model of conscious and unconscious thought is required to provide a method to guide individuals to alleviate information overload. Additionally, intelligent agents and interactive memory systems should be investigated to find their potential roles in alleviating information overload within larger organizations.
Individual risk preferences are one of the main concerns in the psychology of decision-making, and its difference is influenced both by individual factors and culture. Existing research mainly focuses on the cultural classification of collectivism-individualism to study the differences in individual risk preferences, ignoring the influence of material culture. Ecological decision-making and social ecology researchers believe that the ecological environment affects individuals’ economic preferences by shaping material culture (such as subsistence patterns). The analysis of previous literature finds that the two major cultures dominated by different subsistence patterns—sedentary farming and nomadic herding have different effects on individual risk preferences. Individuals from farming cultures may be more risk-averse while individuals belonging to nomadic cultures may be more risk-seeking. Due to the limitations and shortcomings of existing research, this inference is worthy of further causal studies.
Envying others is a common phenomenon in the life and workplace contexts. Although there are many records about envy in the religion, philosophy, and history books a long time ago, it is until recently that envy has been paid more and more attention by researchers of organizational science. Previous research has deepened researchers’ understanding of envy from multiple perspectives and disciplines, however, there are still some challenges that need to be resolved in organizational envy research. In order to advance research on envy in organizations, in this paper, we begin with an in-depth review about envy from three perspectives (i.e., proper perspective, subtype perspective, and unitary construct perspective), analyze the divergences between these perspectives related to nature of envy, envier’s response, and explain contradictory results. Based on the above analysis, we propose that future research should clarify the nature and measurement of envy, study the dyadic relationship between the envier and being envied, and integrate different perspectives of research on envy in organizations.