With further economic globalization and fast development of global companies, more firms have teams with diversified cultural backgrounds. Managers expect employees with different cultural backgrounds to contribute their experience, ideas and perspectives to team innovation. Thus, both the academia and the industry are paying great attention on how team cultural diversity would impact team innovation. In this research, based on the “categorization-elaboration” theory perspective, we further clarify the theoretical framework of team cultural diversity, examine the impact of team cultural diversity on team innovation, its underlying mechanism and the boundary conditions from the teams’ internal and external factors respectively. In practice, this study provides companies with guidelines to effectively manage teams with diversified cultures and promote innovation.
The meta-analysis was designed to explore the embodied metaphors of moral concepts and its influential factors. Through literature retrieval, 65 cases and 153 independent effect sizes which met the inclusion criteria of meta-analysis were selected ( N = 8659). Overall, the results showed that there existed a moderate positive correlation between source domain of embodied metaphors of moral concepts with the target domain (r = 0.34). Embodied metaphors of moral concepts were moderated by cultural background and metaphorical dimension, but not by metaphorical mapping direction, research paradigm and sensory channel. The above results indicate that the embodied metaphors of moral concepts reflect psychological reality, and the following studies should focus on the different roles of cultural background and metaphorical dimension, specifically, the individual moral concept metaphor is stronger under the background of oriental culture, and the metaphorical connection between moral concepts and spatial dimension and dimension is higher.
Cognitive automaticity is an inevitable road for human learning and progress. The traditional dichotomy view classifies cognitive processes into controlled or automatic processes according to certain features of cognitive processes (e.g., unconsciousness). However, these features are not universal but up to the experimental paradigms used by researchers. New viewpoints based on the attentional resources theory have been developed recently, taking the controlled-automatic process as a continuous dimension and the decreases of attentional resources as the central feature of the development of automaticity. Compared with dichotomy, the gradual view accords better with empirical findings. Further, the gradual view can be appliaed in both cognitive information processing and the stages model of skill acquisition theory, which confirmed the universality of gradual view.
Event segmentation is the parsing of the continuous ?ow of information into meaningful events. The Event Segmentation Task is frequently used to examine this phenomenon in the laboratory. Event segmentation involves both bottom-up processing and top-down processing. The processing of event segmentation greatly affects the encoding and updating of episodic memory. The quality of everyday life depends largely on how well individuals can perceive and memorize events. The situation model, event segmentation theory and event horizon model are the main theories that explain the process and the features of event segmentation. One of the future directions is to explore how event memory performance would be different on recognition test and recall test. Future studies may also need to concern about the allocation of attentional resources during event segmentation.
The contextual learning was the main approach in adults’ native language learning. Researchers have accumulated extensive experimental evidence. Researchers divided lexical meaning learning into two stages: the first stage was the acquisition of corresponding concept for the novel word and the second one was integrating the meaning of novel words into the existed semantic network. According to relevant studies in terms of the two processing stages, this paper sorted out the role of context, vocabulary and subject factors on adult vocabulary meaning learning. Future research needs to pay more attention to new concept learning and metaphorical meaning learning, and so on.
Multiple Object Tracking (MOT) is mainly used to explore visual attention and memory for multiple objects in dynamic contexts. Earlier studies focused on the influencing factors and processing mechanisms of the tracking process. An increasing number of recent studies have used MOT to evaluate and train different populations, including children, the elderly, patients with neurodevelopmental conditions, drivers, athletes, video game players, and other occupational groups. In general, a trend has emerged whereby the better the performance of MOT, the better the professional performance in complex and fast dynamic contexts. Conversely, poorer performance of MOT indicates that cognitive functioning may be immature or declining. In addition, MOT can also be used as a means of cognitive training to improve the cognitive function of the elderly and patients with neurodevelopmental conditions and improve the professional performance of various occupational groups. MOT should be considered for future use as it has enormous potential as a method of evaluation and training. This can be further improved in various ways, including strengthening the simulated training of special occupational groups, expanding the target populations, combining MOT with stereoscopic vision and real scenes, taking physical activities during MOT, exploring MOT with multi-person cooperation, and using MOT for the evaluation and training of emotional and social functions.
In recent years, with the development of musical neuroscience and neuroaesthetics, neuroaesthetics of music has become a new research area. This research area focuses on psychological processes and neural mechanisms of musical aesthetic. Especially, it focuses on the perception, cognition, and emotional interpretation of musical aesthetic. Musical aesthetic elicited aesthetic responses and three of them have been received much attention from researchers: emotion, judgment, and preference of musical aesthetic. Regarding these three aesthetic responses, researchers have investigated the perception, cognition, emotional processing, influencing factors, and neural mechanisms of musical aesthetic responses. These studies provided empirical evidence for understanding the behavioral and neural mechanisms of music and aesthetics.
Testosterone is one of the steroid hormones (i.e. androgen). Early research has shown that testosterone played a large role in the human aggressive and impulsive behavior. There is increasing interest in the effects of testosterone on human decision-making, including social (i.e. trust, cooperation, altruism, and competition) and economic decision-making (i.e. risk taking). In general, there is a positive association between testosterone level and risk-seeking behavior in economic decision-making. In the social domain, high testosterone levels are associated with more aggressive, dominant, and fairness behavior. Testosterone administration also reduced interpersonal trust. Note that some findings are hard to replicate, and more research is needed to investigate potential moderators. Future research could fruitfully explore the role of testosterone in consumer decision-making, adolescent’s social behavior and clinical application.
The effect of emotions on intertemporal choice has gradually become a new research trend in recent years. On the basis of the time of occurrence in the decision-making process, emotions can be classified into three categories: emotions before decision-making, emotions in decision-making, and emotions after decision-making. Currently, most of the studies on emotion and intertemporal choice, especially those on emotions before decision-making, mainly focus on revealing the phenomenon other than the underlying mechanism. Moreover, revealing the underlying mechanism of emotions on intertemporal choice from the cognitive and decision-making processes through the behavioral experiments and neuroimaging technical would help people in understanding the mechanism of intertemporal choice and in making good decisions by taking advantage of emotions. Ultimately, future research must further improve the depth and ecological validity, e.g., exploring the effect of dynamic emotions, daily emotions, or mixed emotions on intertemporal choice, and pay considerable attention to emotional interventions.
As an effective management tool, in recent years, leader humor has received extensive attention from organizational scholars and practitioners. After reviewing leader humor’s conception, consequences, and mechanisms, we summarize several theoretical mechanisms: the relational process, social exchange theory, social information processing theory, relational identification, positive emotion, stress relief, and leadership styles. Future research should explore the consequences of leader humor from the perspective of interaction and structure, and focus on the mechanism of leader humor based on social information processing theory.
As the world’s population is increasingly aging, the proportion of older workers in the labor force continues to increase. The successful aging at work adopts a positive perspective to understand the aging process at work. It points out that older employees not only can adapt well to the changes of themselves and work, but also can continuously contributes to the organization, which can help ease the challenges posed by the aging workforce and the shortage of young labor force. Job crafting involves proactive behaviors at work. By interacting with individual and environmental factors, it can effectively help older employees secure sustainable person-environment fit, manage resources effectively, and adapt to aging and work-related changes. Job crafting can lead to many positive work outcomes in the late career stage, and thus ultimately help older workers age successfully at work. It is recommended that future research should pay attention to the conceptualization and measurement of successful aging at work and job crafting, based on which researchers could further investigate the effect of job crafting on employees’ successful aging at work and the underlying mechanisms. Intervention studies on job crafting and successful aging at work are also recommended.
Social exclusion impairs our basic needs of belongingness and has serious psychological and physiological effect on cognitive processes, emotional well-beings, physiological responses and behaviors. Under the framework of the temporal need-threat model, psychology and behavioral response to social exclusion can be divided into three stages. With the development of social media, new psychological and behavioral characteristics of social exclusion are presented. From the perspective of brain network, some key brain areas of default mode network, salience network and some other brain networks are involved in emotional and cognitive processes at each stage of social exclusion. Future studies should focus on the basis of temporal need-threat model to investigate the brain network of social exclusion and predict the psychological and physiological response patterns after social exclusion.