Most previous research has adopted the angle from the ostracized employees and studied the impact of workplace ostracism on them. However, at least two more parties are involved in workplace ostracism. They are the ostracizers and third parties. These parties should have significant influence on the emergence and development of workplace ostracism. Unfortunately, these two parties are seldom included in extant literature. This leads to a restricted theoretical understanding of the whole picture of workplace ostracism. Based on social balance theory, we argue that workplace ostracism is the result of interactions among the ostracized employees, the ostracizers and third parties. Thus, it is essential to explore how the characteristics of the ostracizers, moral judgments of third parties, and the specific interactions among the three parties can impact the emergence and development of workplace ostracism. By presenting such a comprehensive picture with multiple players and their interactions, we can provide a theoretical framework that reflects more accurately the reality and thus suggest better practical implications concerning how workplace ostracism in organizations can be reduced and managed.
The transformation of employee social capital to enterprise social capital is an effective way to explore employee value and obtain external resource. In order to illustrate the multi-level subject interaction, this study proposes a new construct of social capital cross-level fit, and analyzes its dynamic process and reciprocal effect using cross-level longitudinal study. We explore the dimensions of this construct and develop an inventory to access it. We further deconstruct the evolvement of social capital cross-level fit, discussing the effect of employees’ psychology and behavior, enterprise capability and situation in this dynamic process. Finally, we construct top-down and down-top theoretical model of emergence and embedded effect that integrates multilevel factors, and clarify function route and boundary conditions through empirical analysis of tracing data. On this basis, we discuss strategic choice of cross-level fit through longitudinal cross-case study, offering suggestions for enterprise to motivate extra-role behavior and utilize social capital effectively.
Abusive supervision, as a typical example of negative leadership, has significant effects on employees’ mentality, behavior, and performance. Therefore, how to address and prevent abusive supervision has become a crucial topic in both academic and business discourse. Based on self-regulation theory, the current project aims to investigate the coping effects of employees’ mindfulness on the negative influence of abusive supervision and explore the preventative effects of supervisors’ mindfulness on their abusive behavior. Specifically, the project will test the moderation of employees’ mindfulness and a mindful-based intervention on the relationship between abusive supervision and employees’ negative emotion, deviance behavior, and performance; data will be collected through a situational experiment, a questionnaire investigation, and an intervention experiment. Furthermore, a diary study will be conducted to examine whether supervisors’ mindfulness can restrain their abusive behavior in the workplace, and a supervisor mindful-based intervention will consider the upper preventative effect and will explore any follow-up effects on subordinates’ emotion, deviance behavior, and performance. The findings of this project will improve the understanding of the role of mindfulness in abusive supervision research, promote research on coping with and preventing abusive supervision, and serve as references for organizational practices.
Feedback plays a crucial role in real life. Learning from the informative feedback, human being could master general skills and knowledge for adapting to the environment. As an important factor of feedback processing, feedback interval means the duration between initiation of behavior and the appearance of feedback stimulus. However, the prior research about how the feedback interval modulated feedback processing did not reach consistent viewpoint. Introduced both the behavioral and ERP studies about how feedback interval affects feedback processing, and analyzed the reasons for the results discrepancies among these studies. Finally, we propose the necessity to standardize the definition of feedback interval and the combination of the behavioral and electrophysiological methods in further research.
A consolidated memory trace can go back to an unstable state after reactivation and become susceptible to modulation, as long as it conforms to specific conditions. Memory reactivation serves as opening a short time window for the labile trace of memory be modified before coming into a new round of consolidation which is called the reconsolidation. It provides a transient opportunity to strengthen memories or disrupt undesired and maladaptive memories, so as to open avenues for developing a revolutionary treatment for emotional memory disorders. Behavioral intervention, however, is of especial significance in human studies as well as the clinical translation practice; and has been demonstrated as an effective way to interfere with destabilized memories. However, even in simple laboratory models, the conditions for inducing memory reconsolidation are complex, which highlights difficulties and challenges for clinical translation. We reviewed the main evidence and advances in the behavioral interference of memory reconsolidation, both in the laboratory and clinical practice. Future research can find its way to set up a more ecological experimental model to simulate the actual trauma and to build an optimal procedure to trigger and intervene memory reconsolidation. Additionally, the cooperation of studies of the neurophysiological, cellular and molecular levels is needed to deepen our understanding of the internal mechanism underlying the paradigm.
Machine learning is a promising approach for mental disorders. In recent years, machine learning based on T1 weighted imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data has been used to investigate the psychopathology and underlying mechanisms of schizophrenia patients and high-risk population. The findings from the previous literature suggest that structural features of frontal lobe and temporal lobe can improve classification performance. In addition, the combination of behavioural performances and the features of brain structure is superior to the single-modality structural images on classification accuracy. However, the existing empirical studies classifying schizophrenia patients or high-risk population from controls are limited in sample size and generalization ability.
Because of the lack of disease awareness in depressed patients and the lack of early screening methods, most patients had developed to major depressive disorder when they were first diagnosed with depression. In order to improve the current situation, machine learning has been gradually used in some aspects of depression recently years, including early prediction, early recognition, auxiliary diagnosis, and treatment. In the application, the factors that affect the accuracy of machine learning model include the type and size of sample set, feature engineering, algorithm type, etc. In the future, machine learning should be further integrated into the health care system and mobile applications, continuously optimizing the machine learning model, fully mining patient health data to improve depression-related problems in terms of the prevention, identification, diagnosis, treatment and so on.
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is a preoccupation with imaginary or slight physical defects. It is characterized by a negative self-cognitive framework, affecting the individual's choice of information, organization, and evaluation. The results showed that BDD patients have special characteristics in cognitive processes, including local processing advantages, attention bias, interpretation bias, memory bias. These biases are mainly derived from abnormally cognitive information processing and the changes of the neural circuits. Besides, targeted at these abnormalities, cognitive behavioral therapies have a certain positive effect. However, BDD is a relatively common underlying psychological disorder, yet studies for BDD are still in the infancy compared to other psychiatric studies. Therefore, further analyses of the cognitive process of BDD combined with psychological experimental paradigm and neurophysiology are of great significance for the deepening of its cognitive mechanism and improving cognitive behavioral therapies.
Regulation of attention is a commonality across the many divergent meditation methods, with attention being the main mechanism of meditation. Recent research has found that meditation can improve sustained attention, executive attention and selective attentional allocation. Cognitive neuroscientific research findings showed that meditation enabled more efficient use of attentional resources, and long-term meditators showed higher mismatch negativity amplitude and lower β power. Meditation enhanced the functional connection of the central executive network and strengthened the activation in the salience network. Focused attention meditation weakened activation of the default-mode network. In addition, the positive effects of meditation on attention were applicable to clinical groups with attention-related disorders, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and formerly depressed patients, as well as health groups of varying ages, such as children and older adults. Further follow-up studies need to be conducted to determine the lasting effects of meditation, as well as studies exploring the interaction between attention and emotion in meditation. Moreover, it is important to design more targeted meditation programs according to the characteristics of the group.
Negative body image is one of the most important problems affecting adolescents’ healthy growth. Understanding the harm of negative body image to adolescents and its influencing factors is of great significance to the physical and mental health of adolescents. The negative effects of negative body image on adolescents mainly include five aspects: self-concept, emotional experience, weight control strategies, eating disorder and social life; and the main influencing factors of adolescents' negative body image formation are biological factors (BMI), sociocultural factors (parents, peers and mass media) and psychological factors (personality factor and cognitive style). Future research is needed to further (1) develop the theoretical model of adolescent body image development from the perspective of biopsychosocial model; (2) examine the role of emerging factors such as social media; (3) elucidate the cognitive processing characteristics of adolescents in processing body-related information; (4) accelerate the localization speed of negative body image amongst Chinese adolescents.
Sense of body ownership (that one’s body belongs to oneself) in bodily self-representation has always been a core topic in the research of self-consciousness. A good deal of studies indicated that the experience of bodily ownership involves integrating different sensory signals from both outside and inside environments. However, most studies put emphasis on the roles of exteroception such as vison or touch thus neglected the importance of interoception as well as the integration of exteroception and interoception. The effects of exteroception and interoception that revealed by rubber hand illusion experiments and bodily self-disorders support the plasticity hypothesis of sense of body ownership, and the free energy principle proposes a hypothesis that the basis of sense of self is that the brain constantly evaluates and updates possible representations to maintain stability. Future studies need to seek breakthroughs in improving the measurement and presentations of interoception, exploring the higher-level cognitive factors that affect interoception, and paying attention to the interoceptive aspects of patients with specific disorders.
Considering the fact that there is a ‘positive bias’ in previous intergroup contact research, negative contact has also been taken into consideration simultaneously. Currently, questionnaire, content analysis, social network analysis and experiment are the four main research methods used in research considering both positive and negative contact. It is demonstrated that positive contact and negative contact exerted positive and negative effects on intergroup relations respectively, which were mediated by intergroup emotion and intergroup trust, and moderated by authoritarianism and intimacy. On the relationship between positive and negative contact effects, two kinds of research ideas were employed, that is, asymmetry and interaction, both of which were supported by empirical evidence. In future research, it is necessary to examine the generalization effects of different valenced contact, especially negative contact, expand the effect scope of positive and negative contact, perfect the mechanism of positive and negative contact, and further explore the factors that affect the asymmetric effect of positive and negative contact.
Fairness norm enforcement refers to the willingness to incur personal costs to punish violations of fairness norms, which was thought to be a hallmark of human society and play a key role in cooperative interactions. Group identity refers to some knowledge of one’s group membership together with the value and emotional significance attached to that membership, which directly influences people’s fairness norm enforcement during inter-group context. Using a variety of asset allocation game, researchers found group bias exerted a critical effect on fairness norm enforcement, while existing in two opposite patterns. Sometimes, people were more likely to accept unfair offer from in-groups, reflecting the pattern of in-group favoritism, but sometimes people were also more likely to punish norm violations from in-group members, revealing the form of the so-called black sheep effect. Currently, norms focused theory and mere preferences theory have usually been used to explain the above contradictory phenomena. Based on this review, future research directions should explore the boundary conditions of this bias, compare the difference of this parochial altruism induced by variable group identity, emphasize the integration of different theories, and enhance the exploration of its underlying neural mechanisms.
Organizational justice refers to employees' psychological perceptions about the fairness in the workplace. Previous studies, lacking of effective explanation for the group-level phenomenon of the organization, mainly focused on the perceptions of organizational justice at the individual-level. Recently, scholars have begun to pay attention to organizational justice at the group-level, namely organizational justice climate. Since then, fruitful research about theory and demonstration are achieved. Social information processing theory, attraction-selection-attrition model, justice contagion and fairness heuristic theory were primarily used to account for the psychological mechanism of organizational justice climate. Empirical studies are mainly concerned with the types, sources, quality and strength, and the third-party perspective of organizational justice climate. On one hand, some research has analyzed how leadership and teams affect the organizational justice climate. On the other hand, other research has investigated the effects of organizational justice climate on employees and teams. Future research can place emphasis on the different influence of factors from leaders on organizational justice climate, comparative studies on the effects from different types of justice as well as studies on the development of measurements of organizational justice climate. Furthermore, research on the effects of cultural factors on organizational justice climate is also recommended.
Work-related rumination (WRR) refers to conscious, recurring work-related thoughts that occur without being asked to do so. WRR is divided into two dimensions: work-related affective rumination and work-related problem-solving pondering. The influence of WRR on individual health, work and happiness is a double-edged sword. Perseverative cognition theory, cognitive activation theory of stress and cognitive resource perspective theory provide explanations for the internal mechanism of positive and negative effects of WRR. Researchers should analyze boundary conditions affecting the double-edged sword effect, seek the route of reducing its negative effects and increasing the positive effect, in the future. Besides, researchers should also expand the analytical perspective of psychological mechanism of the double-edged sword effect, as well as the functional level of the effect.
Computational modeling applies the regulations and rules of mathematics. It can be used to assess the inconsistency of theory and empirical results, integrate and develop theories, and represent complex, nonlinear, and non-recursion organizational behavior phenomena. However, computational models have not been used much in organizational behavior research. Using complex network analysis and a literature review, this study introduced three widely used computational modeling approaches (i.e., agent-based, system dynamics, and cellular automata) and the topics and types of research questions these computational models address. Computational modeling can help researchers to explore new research fields, change the theoretical pattern of organizational behavior, and support and development the existing research achievements. This study is a tutorial manual of computational modeling in organizational behavior research.