The integration of facial-vocal emotion is an important factor for successful communication that intrigue psychologists and neuroscientists in recent years. Previous studies have elaborated on the behavioral performance and the influence factors for facial-vocal emotion integration, as well as “when” and “where” information from the two modes integrated. However, it remains open questions whether the integration of facial-vocal emotion follows the principles of multisensory integration (eg.the principle of inverse effectiveness), and how the bimodal emotional information merges into a coherence emotional object. Therefore, taking “whether facial-vocal emotion integration obeys the principle of inverse effectiveness” as main line, we designed six experiments which manipulated emotional salience of the dynamic facial-vocal emotional stimuli and task demands systematically. Moreover, using multi-dimensional analysis of behavioral and EEG data, especially time-frequency and coherence analysis of EEG data, we aimed to answer the two proposed questions, to further reveal the neurophysiological mechanism of facial-vocal emotion integration.
With increasing popularity of high resolution neuroimaging techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and position emission computerized tomography (PET), a large number of neuroimaging studies have been accumulated in the last two decades.These new data brought both opportunities and challenges for cognitive neuroscientists,enabling them to generate and examine new hypotheses. Given the main goal of neuroimaging is to explore the relationship between cognitive processes and corresponding locations in brain, coordinate-based meta-analysis become the dominant method for neuroimaging data. One such method, activation likelihood estimation (ALE), is the most widely used, because of its methodological superiority and usability. The current review first introduced basic principles of ALE method. Next, the two most common approaches of conducting meta-analysis of neuroimaging data were discussed: finding consistency across studies and finding modulators of brain activations. Furthermore, the newly emerged meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM), which used the meta-analysis to explore the functional connectivity of the brain, was illustrated using recent studies. Finally, the current review discussed several directions in the field of meta-analysis of neuroimaging data.
Semantic unification is a key process of discourse comprehension, which refers to the process in which readers integrate the meaning of a new word into its prior context. Most theories of discourse comprehension agree on the significance of semantic unification in discourse comprehension. So far, numerous ERP studies have shown that readers immediately relate an upcoming word to its prior discourse context. Studies using fMRI and the analysis of oscillation have revealed specific brain areas and neural networks that are related to semantic unification in discourse comprehension. Besides, there are many factors that affect semantic unification in discourse comprehension, which can be divided into three categories: inner-discourse factors, extra-language factors, and individual differences.
Visual adaptation enables the visual system to continuously adjust to the environment, improving the perception of the world. It has been found that adaptation affects the processing of many fundamental visual qualities, such as luminance, contrast, motion, color, etc., as well as more complex stimuli, e.g. faces. Adaptation occurs at multiple stages along the visual processing stream, from retina to primary visual cortex and beyond (e.g. extrastriate cortex, fusiform face areas). The mechanical interpretation of visual adaptation has been developed from the earlier account of neural fatigue to the nowadays more popular normalization models. Recent adaptation studies demonstrate that visual adaptation is controlled by multiple distinct mechanisms that operate at differing timescales, which may endow the visual system with the ability to accommodate environmental changes over different timescales.
Previous studies have shown that retrieval practice led to greater retention than repeated studying. Recent fMRI studies provide insight by showing that several enhanced brain regions associated with retrieval practice but not with restudying, such as the inferior frontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe, middle temporal areas and parts of subcortical brain regions. Increased activity in these areas during retrieval practice can predict the final performance. It is assumed that the process of retrieval practice involved more mental resources. On the basis of working memory, the retrieval practice was regarded as a systematic representation of semantic relation, including acquisition, processing, integration and consolidation process. In fact, retrieval practice not only makes full use of the cognitive and affective, cortical and subcortical functions, but also plays the advantages of semantic and episodic memory to facilitate learning and memory.
Autobiographical reasoning is a reasoning that connecting events and self, it creates the continuity of human’s life story, it is one of the core processes of the development of self-identity. It combines self-concept and personal experience, develops and protects personal continuity and self-identity perception. This review summarizes the types of autobiographical reasoning and analyzes the components that have influence on its development. Furthermore, this review introduces the neural mechanisms of autographical reasoning and studies that inflects the relationship between autographical reasoning and mental health and well-being, etc. In the end, this article gives some main idea about the developing trends of autobiographical reasoning research.
Inter-hemispheric interaction is an objective index of reflecting brain function on the physiological basis of corpus callosum connecting the two brain hemispheres. The degree of handedness can show participants’ levels of inter-hemispheric interaction and the stimuli of eye movement can for the moment facilitate participants’ levels of inter-hemispheric interaction. So, inter-hemispheric interaction could be used as an independent variable to investigate its effect on cognitive activities. The related researches indicate that inter-hemispheric interaction has a significant impact on such cognitive activities as cognitive control, memory and decision making.
For a suicidal person, suicide seems to be the only means of escaping the torment of psychological pain. Pain avoidance, representing the wish to escape psychological pain, may be a primary predictor of subsequent suicide. Given that the Orbitofrontal cortex dysfunction may trigger overreaction to a social signal of disapproval (painful feelings) and induced high level motivation for escaping from punishment (pain avoidance), event-related functional MRI was used to measure orbitofrontal cortex and its neural circuit activity in response to stimuli representing negative/positive emotional incentives among patients with a history of suicidal attempts (vs.no suicidal history) in furture work. Our work will extend interactive modes of motivation and cognitive control circuits underying higher levels of psychological pain and ultimately may provide a empiral evidence for the neural correlates of pain avoidance which trigger suicidal behavior.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder. These patients suffer from social, language, and behavioral disturbances, which are associated with abnormal functional connectivity of the brain. Compared with typically developing participants, autistic people show an abnormal brain pattern of cortical under-connectivity and local over-connectivity. This abnormal brain function connection is influenced by many factors, such as atypical brain structures, scanning state, individual development, and analysis methods. In order to better understand the potential mechanisms under autism brain connectivity, future research should examine both the brain structures and functions, and consider participants’ age, task status and other factors.
Autism spectrum disorders are viewed as a pervasive developmental disorder with complex neural basis, displayed marked deficits in joint attention in early infancy. Joint attention (JA) is a skill in which two people share attention with respect to interesting objects or events, and it is crucial for social cognitive development. Firstly, we compared the developmental characteristics of joint attention in autistic and typical developing children from the perspective of social cognitive development. The differences are mainly embodied in behavioral deficits, such as gaze shifting, showing and sharing. Based on the parallel and distributed information processing model of JA, we focused on the neural basis of two types of joint attention in autism: responding to joint attention (RJA) involves the posterior cortical attention network (parietal and temporal cortex mostly, e.g. pSTS and IPS); Initiating joint attention (IJA) involves the anterior cortical attention network (frontal cortex mostly, e.g. cingulate cortex and MPFC). In addition, we summarized two basic approaches: discrete trail teaching (DTT) and pivotal response training (PRT), and discussed the advanced model and effectiveness evaluation of joint attention intervention. Future studies should focus on the development, brain networks and functional connections of joint attention in children with autism, as well as providing useful early interventions.
Procrastination refers to the behavior of putting off impending actions or tasks to a later time, which is a serious psychological failing. In this paper, three models of Procrastination on time orientation were introduced, such as the Temporal Motivation Model and the Conceptual Model. Furthermore, the contributing factors of procrastination from the internal factors (including the personality, the cognitive strategy etc.,) and the external factors (including family, the school education and so on) were discussed. We suggested that further studies should focus on identifying the psychological and neural, as well as the behavioral-genetic mechanisms of procrastination and developing effective methods in procrastination intervention.
Prosocial behavior is the positive behavior in interpersonal interaction that can benefit other people, groups and society. Prosocial behavior is considered as a critical way to help individuals gain happiness. However, not all kinds of prosocial behaviors can prompt people’s well-being. Only those prosocial behaviors that could satisfy individuals’ need of autonomy might increase the participants’ well-being in this prosocial interaction, and could promote interpersonal relationships. Specifically, the behavior agent can gain well-being through autonomous-motivated prosocial behavior; the recipient’s well-being not only is influenced by agent’s motivation, but also depends on the satisfaction of his own need of autonomy; and the bystander will participate in transmitting prosocial behavior forward after observing the behavioral and emotional outcomes in the interpersonal interaction as a potential agent or recipient.
Trust is a psychological state that individuals are vulnerable to be hurt voluntarily, based upon an positive expectation of others’ intention and reciprocity. Trust in behavioral economics refers to approval of positive expectation and capacity that trade partners fulfill their commitment under the specific circumstance of game, negotiation, consumption and economical trade etc, based on limited information and experience. At present, psychological mechanisms and biological foundation are two main kinds of explanations to research the formation mechanisms as to this phenomenon. Psychological mechanisms mainly consist of reflective-impulsive model and social preferences while biological foundation mainly relates to some structures, such as amygdaloidal nucleus, insula etc, and other hormones such as oxytocin, testosterone etc. Evidences show that trust in the economy is influenced by some factors, such as communication, experience, reputation and facial features etc. Further researches are expected to explore the theoretical explanation and biological foundation of trust in the economy, conduct its cross-cultural researches and investigate its ecological validity and coping strategies.
Social responsible consumption (SRC) has been considered to be a notion with a core of consumer effort that brings about positive environmental and social improvement. Research about the structure of SRC has expanded from single dimension to multidimensional constructs, reflecting the characteristics of dynamic development. The formation mechanisms of SRC mainly include three categories: the distal mechanism is psychological mechanism of evolution; attitude-behavior (intention) model is the consumer internal psychological mechanism, belonging to the proximal mechanisms; the social norms are external factors, belonging to the middle mechanism. In order to meet consumer social responsible needs, companies have to pay attention to their own social responsibility, but the effectiveness of corporate social responsibility is moderated by many factors. Finally, the paper pointed out the future research direction.
Leaders’ adherence to fairness rules refers to managerial actions that act in accordance with the standards of organizational justice dimensions. Social exchange theory and deontic model of justice were employed to explain why leaders adhered to rules of justice. Influential factors that can predict whether leaders will act fairly include leaders’ moral characteristics, fairness experience, status and employees’ communication style, trustworthiness, belongingness perceived in leaders’ interaction with employees. Future research is expected to improve the theory explanation from the perspective of complementary models, explore organizational factors, investigate indirect social exchange and conduct native research on fairness enactment.
As one of important psychological phenomena of human society, dehumanization—the reduced perception of person’s humanity—has been paid attention by psychologists in recent years. In the field of social psychology, four most representative theories of dehumanization are “the infrahumanization theory”, “the dual model of dehumanization”, “the stereotype content theory” and “the mind perception theory”, which have distinctive theoretical bases and predictions. The latest empirical researches mostly focus on four fields: race and ethnicity, perception of women, medical treatment and social justice. Further researches on dehumanization can be improved in the following aspects, including 1) self-humanization, 2) perspective of being dehumanized, 3) perceptions of animals and 4) objectification.
Sense of community (SOC) includes geographical closeness, emotional connectedness, social interactions and other components. McMilian and Chavis' (1986) four-factor model is the most widely used SOC framework and includes 1) membership, 2) influence, 3) integration/fulfillment of needs, 4) shared emotional connection as dimensions. SOC research focuses mainly on two independent variables: SOC as an indicator of psychological well-being and SOC as a motivator of prosocial behaviors based on needs-based values-based models, respectively. In addition, recent literature in this area has emphasized 1) sense of immigrant community and sense of virtual community; 2) cultivation of SOC by creating artificial environments; and 3) fostering SOC by promoting culture diversity as important current issues. Future studies should focus on local and dynamic SOC development, establishing and revising SOC indices, and interventions to increase SOC in various contexts.
Nostalgia refers to personal sentimentality caused by recalling objects, people, places, experiences or feelings from the past. Nostalgia is usually associated with positive memories and leads to positive affect. It has a positive effect on maintaining individuals’ physical and mental health, but occasionally, it may result in negative affect too. This paper reviewed the triggers of nostalgic, which included objective stimuli (e.g., visual, olfactory, and auditory) and subjective stimuli (e.g., negative emotions and perception of low temperature). Moreover, we analyzed the research paradigms of nostalgic, which included qualitative research (e.g., content analysis and grounded theory), quantitative research (e.g., survey and the experience sampling method), and experimental research (e.g., single-factorial design and multi-factorial design). Relevant scales used to measure nostalgic were also introduced. Future studies should further investigate the comparison between different triggers of nostalgic (e.g., active vs. passive) and between different content of nostalgic (positive vs. negative), and integrate various research paradigms. More attention should be drawn to longitudinal studies, as well as the distinction between state nostalgia and nature nostalgia.