Social class represents the amount of social resources one possesses and the social status one perceives. Its unique concept, widespread functions, profound influences on individuals and systematic conclusions as a whole contribute to its cutting-edge status in the discipline of psychology. There are mainly five different approaches in social class psychology, including labor, health psychology, socioculture, social cognitive and rank-based studies. However few studies were conducted on the relationship between social class and social fairness from these approaches. The present study focuses on social cognitive perspective, exploring difference of perceived social fairness between different social classes, influence of social fairness on different social classes and the strategies of individuals from lower class to deal with social unfairness. To advance the development of psychology of social class, future studies can focus on concept identification, theory integration and application.
Recent studies showed that antecedent anticipations of upcoming negative events effectively reduced post hoc negative emotional experiences elicited by these events. However, this anticipatory process itself has been shown to result in activations of emotion-related neural circuits and subjective anxiety. It raises a striking question that how to use healthy cognitive emotion regulation strategies to attenuate the negative effect of emotional anticipation, and consequently to fully develop the advantage of antecedent anticipation in emotion regulation. On the other hand, excessive negative expectation, which is characterized by both overestimation of the costs and the emotion-focused coping for uncertain events, is suggested to be an important determinant for the occurrence of anxiety disorders. Accordingly, it is probably an important route for anxiety disorder intervention, to train anxiety patients with adaptive cognitive regulation strategies during the emotional anticipatory process, which target at offsetting the maladaptive emotion-focused coping and reducing excessive negative expectation. Therefore, it is necessary to use behavioral, physiological and neuroimaging approaches comprehensively to unravel the interactive impacts of cognitive strategies and antecedent expectation on emotional consequences of negative events. Its important implication lies not only in reducing the costs and developing the advantage of antecedent anticipation in emotion regulation, but also in providing new insights into the clinical treatment of anxiety disorders.
Until now, the most commonly used instruments assessing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in China were based on Western populations and culture which is very different from that of Eastern populations like Chinese. This study used an indigenous Chinese PTSD self-rating scale—the Chinese PTSD Inventory (CPI), to conduct a survey among the 1057 college students from Lushan earthquake area as samples. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated that factors such as gender, severity of subjective fear and type D personality further influence the occurrence of PTSD. It demonstrated high internal consistency. The result of confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit for the five-factor model, and it could be applied in assessing the severity of PTSD symptoms in China.
Embodied emotion suggests that perceiving emotion involves not only a perceptual process, but also somatovisceral and motoric re-experience (Niedenthal, 2007). In time perception, recent studies manipulated action feature of emotional stimuli, familiarity of stimuli’s action, body physical state, awareness state of body as well as the interaction between body and environment, and revealed the key role of emotional embodiment indicated by imitation and potential action response on temporal judgment. Time distortions induced by emotional embodiment include duration expansion, duration contraction, and modality-specific bias in temporal order judgment. Internal clock model, awareness model, and coding efficiency hypothesis are mainly used to give explanations, but these views don‘t point out the direct mechanism of how embodiment modulates temporal processing. Future research might further discuss the crossmodal modulation of embodied emotion in time perception, the dynamic changes of embodied timing, the influence of time perception on embodied experience, meanwhile adopted neurophysiological technology to reveal neural mechanisms underlying the linkage of emotion, embodiment, and temporal processing, in order to improve and develop the relevant theories.
Adaption in face perception presents if people continuously process the information of gender, expression, ethnic and age et al.. That is, people become more sensitive with any changes of the face features, they even have illusion in face perception because of hypersensitivity. Researchers use adaption paradigm to study such a phenomenon. Most of the studies focused on how the adaption happen in various dimensions of face information, which revealed it was constrained by many factors. There is an increase interest in current research regarding the interaction between different features of face. Future study should pay more attention to explore the process of face perception adaption and enhancement of study ecological validity et al.
Lighting is playing a crucial role in people’s daily life. It not only provides us with the basic visual effects such as perceiving the objects’ color and size, distinguishing directions, but also has a significant impact on psycho-physiological activities. A growing number of studies have found that lighting, especially the bright light or light with high correlated color temperature, could significantly decrease sleepiness and enhance subjective alertness by suppressing melatonin secretion. Otherwise, lighting plays a positive role in regulating circadian rhythms so as to keep individuals’ normal activities. Additionally, previous findings indicated that exposure to bright light could improve cognitive performance, relieve seasonal affective disorders (SAD) and even to some extent had a beneficial influence on some social behaviors like altruistic behavior. Both these direct and indirect influences of lighting on physiological and psychological activities mentioned above were all regarded as nonvisual effect of lighting. In recent years, the nonvisual effect of lighting and its brain mechanisms has been attracting much more attention and yielded plenty of valuable results. Future research should focus on the construction of structural equation modeling and the utilization of dynamic lighting to further explore the nonvisual effect of lighting.
According to the cognitive theory of multimedia learning and the integrated theory of text and picture comprehension, text and picture are processed through distinct channels at the early stage, and then integrated into a whole. The theories are supported by empirical researches in neuroscience. Brain imaging studies have shown that the processing of text and picture is different in the semantic pre-process, but shares the same semantic neural system in information integration later. Event-related potential studies have found that only picture evokes a N300 in the early stage, while both picture and text induce the N400 effect later. Although existing studies have provided clear evidence that text and picture share the same semantic system, further research is needed to explore how the information is integrated in this system.
The developmental reversal of false memory refers to the phenomenon that under certain circumstance the false memory increases with age (e.g. DRM Paradigm).Fuzzy-trace theory believes that such phenomenon is caused by the growing ability of gist memories and the unavailability of the verbatim memories in memory tasks. However, the associative-activation theory suggests that such phenomenon should be attributed to the continually maturing automatic associative activation. Both theories are supported by a large number of empirical evidences. Yet no unanimous conclusion was achieved so far. Previous studies indicated that the development of false memory was related to a variety of cognitive functions; moreover, it is related to some high-level cognitive process based on memory and semantic. Further studies should rectify the developmental model of false memory, and extend its application.
Creative thinking is an important psychological foundation in advancing not only scientific and technological progresses, but also human society and cultural development. The present work reviewed existing investigations on gender difference in creative thinking and mainly discussed those behavioral differences on convergent thinking and divergent thinking as well as its relevant neural manifestations of gender effect. With regarding to gender difference in divergent thinking, the female exhibited relative advantages; however, the male showed significant gender dominance in convergent thinking. These differences in behavioral performance across two genders might originate from the dissimilar processing advantages of brain hemispheres and could be mediated by several factors such as gender role and personality traits. The present study reviewed the findings on these differences and recommended several directions in future studies.
Categorization is a process in which human beings learn to classify different categories. The representation of categorical information and the implication of classification strategy are hot topics in the field of categorization. Category learning includes both supervised and unsupervised category learning. Whereas previous literature has had a lot of introductions on supervised category learning, this article mainly introduced unsupervised category learning in which how human beings represent information and apply strategy by direct vs. indirect ways. In the direct unsupervised category learning (constrained categorization tasks, unconstrained categorization tasks), individuals has a tendency to classify the strategy in a "one-dimension" way. Moreover, both within-category variances and between-category distance can influence category representation. Indirect categories of unsupervised learning are more likely to form a similar representation. By contrast, the representation of direct unsupervised category learning is rule-based. The current theories of unsupervised category learning can’t completely explain category strategy and representation. The researches on category transfer and knowledge effect in different learning tasks are not yet sufficient. Further studies can test some issues such as the influence of knowledge effect on the cognitive process of unsupervised category learning and explore some factors that influence category representation formation.
With the emergence of Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, researchers began to employ neuropsychological technologies to investigate the structural and functional brain abnormalities in children with developmental disabilities, and explored the relationship between intervention and brain plasticity. These empirical findings not only revealed the pathogenesis of children with developmental disabilities but also provided significant supports for precisely diagnosing and intervening developmental defects at early age. By summarizing the studies about brain development of several common developmental disorders in childhood, it is indicated that the future studies need to distinguish the generality and specificity of brain developmental characteristics among children with different developmental disabilities, to adopt the integrative study of gene-environment- brain-behavior, and to take the abnormalities and improvements of brain function as important indices for early diagnosis and intervention.
Drug cue-related reactivity is an important mark of drug addiction. It results in stimulus-response craving and compulsive drug use. The neurobiological mechanism of this compulsive behavior is the stimula-automatized action schemata, which is the result of association learning, including classic and operant conditioned reflex. Recent research indicates that the function of the mirror neuro system which overlaps part of the sensory-motor brain regions and have been known to help with understanding actions, analysis, inferring intentions and goals of the actions, inner imitating, may facilitate the formation of automatized action schemata and result in repeated drug use and relapse. In addition, there is evidence that the action memory’s mechanism and function play an important role in the processing of automatic action.
Biological basis of social anxiety contained three correlated levels which were physiological reaction, hereditary association and evolutionary explanation. In terms of physiological reaction, social anxiety illustrated men had different characteristics in the three stages of expression. In the earlier identification stage, men had intensive alarm reaction to the expression of all types. The specific performance P1 was enlarged. The activation in bilateral occipital area was enhanced. In the mid-term awareness stage which was only sensitive to anger expression. The specific performance P2 was also enlarged. The activation of amygdala and cingulated cortex was enhanced. In the late reaction stage which had noticeable negative expression process bias. The specific performance of the later period ERPs, P3 was enlarged. The activation of frontal lobe enhanced caused the connection between central nervous system such as cingulo-opercular network and amygdale weakened. In hereditary association, social anxiety had the genetic phenomenon of parent-offspring transmission and high correlation. Besides that, it related to some genes such as 5-HTT, MAO-A, BDNF and DRD2. In evolutionary explanation, social anxiety was regarded as natural response and defense mechanism to social threat which could activate arousal levels which improved and helped the individual to mobilize the body respond to the threat. In addition, it could also impress the opposite sex to get mates which could increase the popularity of individual in groups which could help the individual get more chances of development.
Released by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 2013, the Fifth Edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) has changed in a profound way compared to DSM-IV, especially concerning the adoption of dimensional approach. This new approach had triggered hot discussions among clinical psychiatrists and related researchers. As one of those areas where most discussions focused on, the Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorder had dropped the traditional subtypes so as to adopt this dimensional approach. Those who advocated dimensional approach criticized the traditional subtypes from the perspective of reliability, validity, clinical utility, and scientific literature, and publicity. Meanwhile, they proposed some advantages of dimensional diagnoses from the angle of clinical treatment and psychopathological mechanism. Besides, other opinions were introduced and the disparity between clinical psychiatrists and psychiatric researchers were further discussed on the development of diagnostic efficiency and precision.
Suicidal behaviors include suicidal ideation, suicidal attempt and suicide. In China, suicide rate has been significantly declined during the past decade, especially that for females. But the rural elderly residents are high risk groups. The risk factors for suicidal behaviors include biological factors, mental disorders and psychological factors. The psychological factors include vulnerable factor, maladjusted cognition and psychache. Accumulation and interaction of these factors increase suicidal risk. These theoretical models try to explain suicidal behavior beyond mental disorders. Now researchers pay attention to the process of suicidal behaviors and the mechanism of suicidal behaviors. Future research should focus on the transition between ideation and action, improvement of methods and local research.
Psychosocial stress has been defined as a state of threatened homeostasis by the psychosocial threat. Acute stress can alter numerous biological functions, such as the neuroendocrine system, the immune system and the autonomic nerves system. Previous studies have indicated that personality traits, such as self-esteem, trait anxiety and the big five personality, play a key role in modulating the psychosocial stress responses, and the patterns of the modulation effect are contradictory in different cultures. However, these inconsistent results may be caused either by the different biological markers or by the different stress protocols, which hinder the direct comparisons. Future research should try to explore the impact of personality traits on the psychosocial stress response in a cross-culture view, while control these unrelated variables.
Dialogical Self theory (DST) is proposed by Hubert J. M. Hermans in the 1990s. This theory is influenced by James’ I-me distinction, a postmodern narrative approach and inspired by the polyphonic novel. In the framework of DST, the self is deconstructed into a dynamic imaginary space filled with inside and outside positions in intertwined dialogue. By taking the I-position, the other plays a significant role in the establishment and development of the self. The ways that inner dialogue shapes personality and multiple positions in self have become the new focus in empirical studies. The model of a nonlinear dynamic system is used to indicate the dynamic and complex development of the dialogical self, which is the transcendence of self-study within the scientific paradigm. Future research should pay attention to theory deficiency, giving more emphasis on the function of I and learning from Eastern psychology to address the problem of "how the subject studies itself".
Moral judgment is a kind of evaluation and judgment about certain types of behaviors which individuals make to distinguish good from evil and right from wrong. With the rise of embodied cognition theory, the studies of embodiment in moral judgment are subsequently carried out. Researchers on embodiment in moral judgment mainly focus on three aspects, namely physical cleanliness and disgust, physical temperature and body movement. Researchers explain embodied effect in moral judgment from the perspective of Psychological Development proposed by Piaget and Vygotsky respectively, Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Evolutionary Psychology. Considering the fact that physical variables can influence moral judgment through emotion and cognition, future research should integrate embodied approach of moral judgment with existed theories of moral judgment. And researchers should make clear of the relationship between embodiment in moral judgment and moral intuition. Future research should further explore the timeliness and dynamic, discuss the relevant moderator variables and individual differences, and make cross-cultural comparisons under the perspective of embodied effect.