The introduction of emotion into the research of decision making has come through the process from being intentionally neglected to being increasingly emphasized. Numerous studies demonstrate that accidental emotions that typically arise from factors external to the judgment about the decision being made have significant influences on the decision making. According to recent researches on the effect of incidental emotions on decision making, the present study proposed some implications for the future studies, that are, identifying moderating factors for carryover of incidental emotions, exploring the role of discrete emotions in decision making, and addressing the interaction effects between incidental emotions and the options’ emotional claims. Finally, the current study addressed some suggestions for the future study, such as, the induction technique of emotions, the measurement for manipulated emotions, and the way to apply different decision tasks.
Recently, ethical leadership has become the focus of theory research and management practice. However, there are so few researches to explore the relationship between ethical leadership and employee counterproductive work behavior (CWB), and especially the mechanism of different levels ethical leadership on CWB. Based on China culture and social reality, we discuss the influence mechanism of ethical leadership on CWB from multilevel perspective. There are three contents to explore: (1) the mechanism of executive/ top management ethical leadership on group CWB, and especially to check the mediating effect of ethical culture and the moderating effect of organizational structure. (2) the “cascading effect” of executive/ top management ethical leadership on employee CWB in China, and the moderating effect of power distance orientation. (3) the mechanism of supervisor ethical leadership on employee CWB, especially to check the mediating effect of trust in leadership and leadership identification, and the moderating effect of traditionality and moral identity. Research the mechanisms of different levels ethical leadership on CWB not only can enrich and develop the theory system of ethical leadership and CWB, but also can offer several management tactics for how to train ethical leadership and guide ethical leaders’ work.
Symbolic value is consumer’s psychological benefit endowed by brands, which is an important way for marketers to strengthen consumers’ psychological satisfaction. Customers-to-Customer Interaction is very important but ignored by existing research. Firstly, this research builds and adjusts the mechanism model of the effect of CCI on symbolic value with the methods of interviews and Critical Incident Techniques. Secondly, the authors explore the relationships between customer in-role interaction behavior and symbolic value, and the relationships between extra-role interaction behavior and symbolic value respectively, based on Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO), revealing the formation mechanism of customer symbolic consumption in service scope. Thirdly, laboratory experiments, field experiments and survey are employed to test the theoretical model so as to provide theoretical tools and recommendations for service enterprises to stimulate consumer symbolic consumption.
Categorical perception (CP) effect of facial expression is that facial expressions varying continuously are perceived in human brain as belonging to qualitatively discrete categories, with a clear categorical boundary between different emotional expressions. In this paper, the behavior and ERP experiment paradigms and the fundamental research were introduced, and the influence on CP effect of facial expression of aggression, depression, schizophrenia as well as social anxiety disorder and the developmental research of CP were summarized. The review indicates that CP research could reveal the categorical boundary and its deviation of emotional perception among different individuals, which contributes to the explanation of their corresponding social behaviors. Future research should pay more attention to the individual difference and neural mechanism underlying CP effect of facial expression.
Clear individual difference is found on performance in various spatial tasks, which can be explained by difference on Spatial Cognitive Style. The Spatial Cognitive Style includes three types: the Landmark Style, the Route Style, and the Survey Style. People with the Landmark Style can only represent perceptually salient visual features of objects, but they cannot represent the relevant spatial information of the objects. People with the Route Style can represent not only perceptually salient visual features of the objects, but also the relevant sequential spatial information of the objects. People with the Survey Style can represent perceptually salient visual features and the sequential spatial information of the objects. Besides, they can also represent the relevant simultaneous spatial information of the objects. People with the Survey Style show the best spatial abilities, whereas people with the Landmark Style show the worst. Males and people with low levels of anxiety show more the Survey Style comparing with females and people with high anxiety respectively. Thus, it will help to improve people’s spatial abilities if learners can be instructed considering their Spatial Cognitive Styles.
The conjunction fallacy in probability judgment refers to a phenomenon of probability judgment bias, which results from violating the conjunction rules of event occurrence probability and regarding that the occurrence probability of conjunction event that contains multiple independent events is greater than that of conjunct events in it. The definition standard of conjunction fallacy is incongruent. The relevant mental mechanism includes causal model theory, confirmation theory and surprise theory and so on, and many factors affect conjunction fallacy, like frequency effect, training effect, individual differences, and many others. Studies in the future should combine the mental mechanism of inverse conjunction fallacy to perfect the existing explanatory theory, meanwhile, the conjunction fallacy in application and its irrationality should be noticed.
Recent studies have found that the more positive emotion people pursue, the less likely they will feel happy. Its psychological mechanism may be：when pursuing positive emotion comes to be a major goal, people tend to (1) set a too high standard for happy emotion; (2) obtain happiness through ineffective ways; (3) monitor the process of getting happy instead of immersing in it. There are many questions should be further explored: (1) Revealing the consequences of pursuing positive emotion comprehensively; (2) The neural mechanisms of pursuing positive emotion’s negative effects; (3) The cross-culture differences of pursuing positive emotion; (4) To explore the way to gain positive results in pursuing positive emotion.
Previous research has shown developmental differences in moral emotion judgment. In general, the pattern of attribution changes from outcome-oriented to morality-oriented. Factors such as social cognitive ability, context, and personality all contribute to children’s judgment and attribution. There are also some cross-cultural differences in children’s judgment and attribution of moral emotions. The patterns of children’s moral judgment are significantly associated with their moral behavior. Future research can explore moral emotion judgment and attribution in children with cognitive or behavioral disorders for intervention purposes.
The asymmetry of resting frontal activity was examined when differential activation of the alpha frequency band of left and right frontal cortex was found, i.e., frontal EEG lateralization. It had been showed largely that resting frontal EEG asymmetry was related to depression. Based on worldwide studies, we found that there was a negative correlation between resting frontal EEG asymmetry and depression level. Compared with individuals without depressive symptoms, those with depressive symptoms showed enhancement of right frontal activity. For depressive individuals, resting frontal EEG asymmetry was stable in the short and long run. That is to say, resting frontal EEG asymmetry predicted the risk of depression, which showed that frontal EEG asymmetry could be regarded as a neural index of depressive symptoms. In addition, resting frontal EEG asymmetry reflected the activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which might play a role in developing depressive symptoms. Future studies should focus on the neural mechanism of resting frontal EEG asymmetry predicting depression, the application of frontal EEG symmetry predicting depressive symptoms, and training methods (e.g., mindfulness training) to change the resting frontal EEG asymmetry of depressive individuals, relieving the depression level.
Medication adherence is an important factor in treatment effect and relapse of patients with depression, but many studies have found that patients’ adherence to antidepressants is relatively low. Medication adherence is related to the concept of compliance, adherence and concordance. Contributing factors to antidepressants adherence include disease and treatment factors, physician-related factors, patient-related factors, and cultural and environmental factors. The main interventions address both doctors’ and patients’ sides. The assessments include both subjective and objective methods. The main research trends were introduced. Furthermore, we proposed future directions for this field of study: a) developing measures of antidepressants adherence; b) localizing research and focusing on socio-cultural factors; c) increasing research in comorbidity’ influence on antidepressants adherence; d) developing individualized interventions; and e) increasing multidiscipline research between psychology and the field of antidepressants adherence.
Sexual minorities include gay, lesbians and bisexuals. The Sexual Minority Stress Model (SMSM) holds that, the sexual minority stress has a huge impact on the mental health of sexual minority individuals as they suffer from their identities. The sexual minority stress included external stress (prejudice, discrimination and stigma) and internal stress (minority identity, concealment and coming out). There were two different research orientations in the research of relationships between sexual minority stress and mental health. The between-group studies emphasized on the differences between sexual minority individuals and heterosexuals, thus finding out that sexual minorities suffered from more negative psychological problems. The within-group studies documented the effect of sexual minority stress on mental health on the basis of the SMSM.
Recent studies have found that smoking affects individual response inhibition ability. Compared with non-smokers, smokers have higher false rates and longer reaction times in the Go/No Go task and Stop signal task. Although smokers have deficits in early response inhibition, there is no difference between smokers and non-smokers in conflict monitoring. In addition, the study also found that smokers’ left thalamus, left middle frontal gyrus, and left anterior cingulate cortex have smaller grey areas than found in non-smokers. Nicotine intake harms the prefrontal cortex and mesolimbic dopamine system, which leads to lower response inhibition ability in smokers. However, some studies have found that smoking does not affect response inhibition ability; these contradictory results may be due to experimental tasks and subject selection. Future research will feature the reaction to individual inhibition in different types of cigarette deprivations, the comparisons of response inhibition between smokers and other addicts (alcohol, drugs), the variance in smokers' response inhibition ability in the oddball, Go/No Go, and the Stop-Signal tasks, and interventions and response inhibition training for smokers.
Video game transfer phenomena refer to the effects of video games on individuals in non-game situations. As research furthers, the focus of researchers changes from game players’ own characteristics to the effects of video games on the players in non-game situations. Based on the relevant literature of video game transfer phenomena, we proposed a clear definition and classification of video game transfer phenomena, and outline several key factors that influence on video game transfer phenomena: game’characteristics, individual factors and actual environmental factors, and different manifestations in cognition, emotion, attitude and action. On this basis, we point out that future research should integrate influential factors of video game transfer phenomena, improve related research methods and broaden the applications in the research field.
People’s attempts to understand and make meaning out of negative feelings are helpful, but sometimes lead them feel worse. The reason why this paradoxical phenomenon happens is the perspective of self-reflection. Self-distanced perspective which means people view their own experience like an observer of the self is an adaptive way to reflect. The psychological mechanism of self-distanced perspective can be explained by construal level theory. Then, based on the method of manipulation of self-distancing, we discussed adaptive effects of self-distanced perspective on physical and mental health, buffering negative emotions, decreasing fundamental attribution error, and promoting wise reasoning. At last, we analyzed the culture differences and border of application of this perspective. Future research should consider the relationship between self-distanced perspective and personality, motivation and capability.
Once people became victims of others’ selfishness, they would be more likely to treat another innocent person selfishly. That is considered as paying the selfishness forward, namely the effect of selfishness transmission. Descriptive norm and psychological entitlement can account for the mechanism of selfishness transmission. Meanwhile, some personal and situational factors, such as justice sensitivity, moral identity, moral salience, as well as anonymity, may moderate this process. Previous studies have focused on how the victims would punish and retaliate against the selfish person who hurt them, but little is known about how victims would treat the third innocent person. Future researches should discuss the effect of cognitive factors (e.g. general trust, moral judgment), as well as the influence of emotions and empathy in selfishness transmission.
The inquiry of the trickle-down effect is booming and developing into a new realm in the leadership study. Trickle-down effect refers to a top-down process in which leaders’ trait, cognition, affect, attitude and behavior induce the similar responses of followers and/or groups. Based on 62 independent empirical investigations reported in 50 articles, we found: (1) Trickle-down effect can be classified into six types according to the nature (state-like, affects, cognitions, attitudes, behaviors, relationships) of the transmitted variables; (2)Trickle-down effect can further influence the attitudes, behaviors and performance of followers, teams and other stakeholders; (3)There are mainly five theories explaining the occurrence of trickle-down effect, namely emotion contagion/affective event theory, social learning theory, social exchange theory, social identity theory and social information processing theory; (4) The strength of trickle-down effect depends on some specific leader, follower/team, and contextual attributes.
Previous research has identified the positive correlation between religion and prosocial behavior. Accordingly, the “religious prosociality hypothesis” was proposed to further examine if there was a causal relation. In this paper, progress of current researches concerning the religious prosociality hypothesis would be introduced and reviewed, from the perspective of methodology, influencing factors and psychological mechanism. In its early stage, researchers mainly focused on the effect of religious identity on prosocial behavior, however, in recent years, more and more importance has been attached to the effects of religious priming. “Religious Prosociality Hypothesis” was supposed to be influenced by a variety of factors, including intensity of faith, cultural background, religious cognition and religious orientation etc. As to the future research, the impact of religious identity on prosocial measurement should be effectively controlled, the operational definition of religion should be specified and relevant measurements should be improved, the mechanism of spirituality, cross-cultural effect of religion and effect of religious belief on nonreligious individuals should be closely regarded as well.