Women seek beautification through ornamentation. Compared to men, women spend considerably more time and money on a very particular class of products, namely clothes, jewelry, and other fashion accessories, to enhance their physical appearance. Augmenting one’s attractiveness through ornamentation may provide general advantages for women in social activities. However, several recent studies have related these ornamental behaviors to their biological, presumably reproductive, roots. For example, evidence has shown that women’s ornamental behavior is dependent on the interaction of menstrual phase and mating motive. Specifically, the ornamental bias was observed on the high fertile day when the subjects were primed of intrasexual competition motivation and was observed on the low fertile day when they were primed of intersexual courtship motivation. In conclusion, the present article made a review on these researches. In the first part, the ornamental bias of women near ovulation was introduced. Next, the motivation for the ornamental bias was explained and the future research direction was suggested.
Exploring the neuroanatomical model of visual word reading is one of the essential theoretical issue in cognitive neuroscience of language. Converging findings reveal that the dorsal and ventral routes are involved in reading neural network, but how they overlap and interact remains unclear and controversial. Using the Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) approach, the current project proposes two fMRI experiments to investigate the ventral and dorsal routes and their cooperation in Chinese character reading. Experiment 1, taking advantage of fMRI rapid adaption techniques, is designed to identify brain regions for cognitive components of reading processing. Both the GLM and DCM analysis are conducted to investigate the neural network, as well as two routes (the dorsal and ventral routes) for Chinese character reading. Experiment 2 further manipulates the stimulus properties (semantic and phonological cues) and task demands (symbolic, semantic, phonological detection task), to test the brain activation and connectivity among regions of reading neural network. By further comparing the DCMs including the same brain structures across three tasks, the different connectivity patterns will reveal how our brain regions in the same reading network interact for different types of stimuli or different processing demands. The combined results will test the idea of universal brain neural basis for cross languages reading. Also, it will provide theoretical guidance for empirical studies and applications, such as language teaching, treatment of reading disorders and clinical diagnoses.
With the comprehensively advance of globalization, people have to change their traditional ways of living, their traditional ideas, and people have to construct their national identity. The characteristic of national identity in Cross-border ethnicity is complexity, fuzziness and instability. Once the national identity of Cross-border ethnic groups is low, it will affect their national emotion, then endanger social stability of frontier region, even the whole country. Clarifing the psychological mechanism of national identity in Cross-border ethnic groups, is not only a urgent realistic task, but has a long-term strategic significance. Through 4 studies, this project implements the following research objectives: ①The project divides national identity into culture identity and civic identity, then compiles the national identity questionnaire of Cross-border ethnicity. ②The project explores the mediation of ethnic identity, Muslism identity in perceived discrimination and national identity. ③The projects clarifies the effect of lay theory of ethnicity on national identity. ④Through 4 years’ tracking survey, the project explores the effect of management system and policy, economic development level and ethnical policy on national identity. Then the project try to establish the database of national identity in Cross-border ethnicity, timely grasps the dynamic construction of national identity in Cross-border ethnicity. The results of research will help governmental department to perfect the ethnic policy, guide the propaganda department to carry out the education of national identity.
Based on Reliability Generalization (RG) approach, this meta-analysis study focused on 85 English papers chosen from 782 papers (in both English and Chinese) about 44-Item Big Five Inventory (BFI-44) published in the past 24 years (1991~2014). This study analyzed the amount of variability in Cronbach's coefficient alpha of every dimension in BFI-44 and examined predictor variables, including sample size, subjects’ nationality, test language, average age and gender ratio, which were used for further investigation of their impact on the reliability of BFI-44 by using regression analysis. The study results showed that the Cronbach's coefficient alpha of each dimension reach nearly 0.8. The sample size, nationality and gender ratio variables influence BFI-44 dimensions on different levels. There are two suggestions for the use of the BFI-44. First, researchers should report the Cronbach's coefficient alpha of his/her own samples to avoid the reliability induction error; secondly, researchers should pay attention to the effect of sample size, nationality and gender ratio on Cronbach's coefficient alpha.
The article mainly discussed the top-down modulation on automatic process. Top-down modulation is setting the requirements of behaviors into a specific working pattern according to brain cortices. Priming is the facilitation or inhibition effect of primes on targets, which indicates automatic process. Nowadays, studies showed that automatic perception process, automatic semantic activation and automatic response induced by masked priming paradigm can be affected by top-down modulation factors, just as attention, task instructions, other task-related information and so on. So, the review focused on this field of researches and perspectives. Based on certain researches, automatic process elicited by masked priming can be modulated by attention, intention, task factors and so on. Thus, it is not totally automatic. And aging effect does exist in automatic process paradigms.
The scalar timing model has provided a theoretical framework and research paradigms for human time perception research. The model consists of three stages: clock, memory and decision in the information processing perspective. The temporal bisection task is an ideal paradigm to study the perception and processing of temporal information within the framework of the scalar timing model. The task requires participants to perform a number of time-dependent mental operations corresponding to the model and is perfectly suited to investigate changes in subjective duration and temporal sensitivity. Human research with the bisection task suggests that task parameters, age and disease, can affect subjective duration and/or temporal sensitivity. The results of temporal bisection studies have promoted the development of the scalar timing model. Two models proposed recently—the two-step decision model and the MD model—have modified the scalar timing model in different aspects and respectively explained the effects of parameter settings and individual differences in time perception.
There are two theories on consciousness in implicit sequence learning: dichotomy theory and graded consciousness theory. Both subjective and objective consciousness behavior measures come from the dichotomy theory, but their researches have enlightened the graded consciousness theory. With electrophysiological and brain imaging measures we can get the objective indicators, but there are much dichotomy bias in them. The influence factors of consciousness are response-stimulus intervals (RSI), openness and novelty. Investigations on the three factors respectively support dichotomous or graded theory and future studies may breed new theory. Because dichotomy theory can not explain phenomenon of intermediate consciousness, and graded consciousness theory fails to explain the separation of conscious and unconscious brain areas, we propose a new dual-system graded consciousness theory which may integrate both and may promote new researches adopting brain network technology to explore the diversity and competitiveness of consciousness generation mechanisms. In addition, the sensitivity scale of behavior measures on consciousness remains to be confirmed and interactions between the three factors are worth exploring.
False memories can be implanted. Confused with real memory, implanted false memory are a part of the individual experience, and will affect people's thought, attitude and behavior. Paradigms of implanting false memory mainly include false-feedback technique, imagination inflation, doctored photographs paradigm and treat-and-trick paradigm. Previous studies revealed that implanted false memories occurred in activities like diet, consumption and aggression. Distinguishing implanted false memory from true memory lies in four aspects of result, emotion, persistent and physiological mechanisms. There are two possible theoretical explanations for implanted false memories: associativity and multi-step model. Moreover, there are quite a lot problems existing in the research such as demand characteristics, cognitive reaction, paradigm selection, and ethics of the experiment. Further studies should examine the effectiveness on paradigms of implanting false memory, the matching of individual characteristics and implanted false memory, the measurement of behavioral consequences and applications of implanted false memory.
The relative left frontal activation (RLFA) means the activity of the left frontal is larger than the right when process positive emotion, which may due to the process of positive valence or the process of approach motivation. For clear this question, paper collected associated evidence from two area of research: one was the area of the relationship between anger (include both state and trait) and RLFA, the other was the area of whether the change of the body posture (included both whole body posture change and the contraction of unilateral muscle) can affect the RLFA. The consistent finding of the former was the left frontal involves in the process of approach motivation. However, the latter found different body posture can change the relative activation level of left frontal. The left frontal involved in the process of approach motivation can be proofed by converging these two kinds of evidence. In addition, based on these evidence, we gave some suggestion for the future research: the meaning of avoiding anger should give a more clear definition; whether anger could induce a approach motivation during the later step of process should be explored; whether different ways induced approach motivation have a difference in the brain mechanism should be cleared.
Expectation can bidirectionally regulate diseases or sensory experiences. In terms of pain field, positive expectation alleviates pain (i.e., placebo effect); while negative expectation makes it worse (i.e., nocebo effect). So far, most of researches on placebo and nocebo effect mainly come from the field of pain. Interestingly, although placebo and nocebo share similar psychological processes in modulating pain, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the placebo and nocebo are different. Placebo analgesia might be involved with endogenous opioids system. On the contrary, the nocebo effect is considered to be mediated by cholecystokinin (CCK). In addition, brain imaging researches suggested that placebo and nocebo could lead to contrary activation patterns in pain-related networks. Some areas such as the hippocampus were specifically activated in nocebo condition.
The evolutional psychology theory suggests that women’s psychology and behavior fluctuate with their menstrual cycle, due to the fluctuating reproduction motives activated by the brief chance of conception. The conception chance accompanied by ovulation boosts women’s sexual desire, causingthem to seek and attract mates. In order to make sure the offspring inherits good genes, women prefer men with characteristics of good genes; meanwhile, women would be more likely to use self-protection behavior to protect their offspring from staining by bad genes. Further, the ovulation cues can affect men’s motivation and behavior as well. Future research should explore other motivations and behaviors caused by ovulation, such as the competitive motivation among females and consumer behavior, to enhance practical implications.
Current researches of pathological mechanism of somatization focus on psychosomatic interactions based on neural biology. In a psycho-physiological functional continuum, the presentation of somatic symptoms comes from the process of cognitive learning, attention, memory, sensations monitor and so on. Through those processes, culture can shape the individual’s attribution and interpretation of the symptoms, therefore can affect the presentation and expand of somatic symptoms, and finally form cultural specific hypochondria and medically unexplained symptoms through the ethno-physiology modes of different cultures.
Decision making in elderly people can be characterized in different areas by the following features: limitation of predecisional information search in consumer decision, risk-avoiding in risky choice situations, diminished sensitivity to the framing effect in medical decision-making, and some advantage based on richer relevant experience in everyday problem-solving. In general, for some decision-making tasks, older adults perform worse than younger adults, whereas they do better or at least as well as younger adults in some other tasks. The validity of elderly decision-making is mainly influenced by the interaction of cognitive aspects, emotional factors and task characteristics, and is in agreement with the person–context fit framework. For future studies, in addition to further clarification of the characteristics of decision makers’ performance in different areas and solving current issues about decision qualities and strategies, we should also pay more attention to the influence of variables related to individual characteristics, decision-making strategies, and cross-cultural factors. Further research on cognitive and neural mechanisms should be strengthened.
Social interest is the positive attitude toward surrounding subjects and objects, the feel of identity of others and group affiliation, and the behavioral tendency of individual choices and decisions. Related researches have come to the foreground in the academia since it was proposed by Alfred Adler. The existing measuring tools involve Social Interest Index, Sulliman Social Interest Scale, and Social Interest Scale. Related researches showed that social interest as an important concept in psychological therapy, is associated with emotional experience and the levels of psychological development, useful in improving people’s life quality and reducing criminal behaviors. Future researches should focus on the following aspects: to make a through inquiry on the concept and structure of social interest, to refine the research methods, and to carry out indigenization researches.
the values had an important guiding role for human’s psychology and behavior. This paper analyzed the concept structure, methods and existing problems of previous values research. The concept of values were different in different periods and cultural backgrounds, but still can be extracted with the essence. In the early, values structure existed many types, and existed confusion and unclear definition problems, values structure research began gradually highlights the cultural characteristics in later. The methods of values from the philosophical speculation method, literature analysis method, field surveys method and interviews method of Cultural Anthropology in later, development to the measurement method and experimental method, and now is racing ahead to the brain imaging method of neuroscience. Future research can be researched in the cultural level, social level and individual level, and we can reveals the internal mechanism of the values for people based on inherit and break through the existing research.
Psychological detachment from work refers not only to employees avoiding job-related issues in action, but also to the avoidance to thinking about job-related affairs during non-work time. Theories of psychological detachment from work include Resource-Conservation Theory, Moos’s Theory and Work-Family Boundary Theory. Psychological detachment from work was influenced by both individual and situational factors, such as personality, job stressors and modern information technology. Under the current background of work and non-work boundaries permeating increasingly, further research on psychological detachment from work is needed to explore its comprehensive driving factors, effects, boundary conditions and cross-cultural differences.
Multidimensional computerized adaptive testing (MCAT) is based on the multidimensional item response theory and computerized adaptive testing. It can not only assess the examinees’ multidimensional ability, but also improve the measurement accuracy and test efficiency of cognitive diagnostic assessment. Hence, there will be a wild area for the application of MCAT. Based on the detailed introduction and evaluation of the MCAT which including the measurement model, the ability estimation method, the item selection methods and test stopping rule, some issues of MCAT which valued further research have been proposed.